The Original Black African Arabs of Arabia (Part 2) — Ogu Eji-Ofo Annu

Spread the love
  • 84
    Shares

The Original Black Arabs of Arabia – Part 2

By

Ogu Eji-Ofo Annu

Arabia the Daughter of Kush

The classical Greek and Roman writers commonly accepted the division of Arabia into Deserta (desert), Felix (happy), and Petraea (stony). Not much is known today about the exact configuration of those divisions. Later day Islamic Arabic geographers know nothing of this division, and this is not surprising since many of those later day Arabs are actually immigrants that later acculturated and assimilated into the culture of the original Black Arabs.

Arab geographers of the Islamic period divided Arabia generally into five provinces: The first is Yemen, embracing the whole south of the peninsula and including Hadramaut, Mahra, Oman, Shehr, and Nejran. The second is Hijaz, on the west coast and including Mecca and Medina, the two famous centres of Islam. The third is Tehama, along the same coast between Yemen and Hijaz. The fourth is Nejd, which includes most of the central table-land, and the fifth is Yamama, extending all the wide way between Yemen and Nejd. This division is also inadequate, for it omits the greater part of North and East Arabia.

A more recent division of Arabia, according to politico-geographical principles, is into seven provinces: Hijaz, Yemen, Hadramaut, Oman, Hasa, Irak, and Nejd. It has always been the assertion of experts that certain tribes that lived on the coast of Yemen and on the coast of Ethiopia and Eriteria were almost identical. The linkages between Ethiopia Kush and Arabia must be considered in the context of any discourse on Arab people, or more precisely stated the Black Africans of Arabia.

Ethiopia-Kush

As stated in the preceding paragraph, the key to understanding the origin and culture of the Arabs is through African Kushitic Ethiopia.

Contacts between eastern Africa and Arabia have existed since the time immemorial. Archeological evidence has demonstrated that Africans of the Caspian culture probably moved across the Strait of Bab El Mandel and implanted the same Caspian culture in Arabia on the other side of the strait. See Leaky, L.S.B., Stone Age Africa pp 38-78.

The Strait of Bab-El-Mandel, which separates Africa from Arabia, is quite narrow at some points averaging a couple of days journey on a sea raft or small canoe. Communication and travel have consequently been possible since pre-historic times.

It will thus not be a surprising claim to the well informed that East African people (being the first aboriginals of the earth) have long settled in Arabia as the original inhabitants. For instance, besides the Caspian culture, African people also founded the so-called Afro-Arabian Tihama cultural complex in the mid-2nd millennium.

In addition to the coastal site of Adulis in Eritrea and sites farther inland in Eritrea, Ethiopia, and Sudan, vestiges of the Tihama cultural complex are represented on the Saudi coastal plains and the western and southern coasts of Yemen. (Fattovich 1997).

Moreover, African settlements were further stimulated by the growth of the Egyptian state from the 4th millennium onward, with more extensive migration of African population in Arabia around the 3rd and 2nd millennia B.C. Semitic speaking settlers from Ethiopia-Kush settled in Arabia built complex cultures and civilizations of which the later Assyrians, Greeks, Romans and Jews would document for coming generations. See Josephus Book 1.

Long before Yemen had become a politically articulated entity, the Ethiopian-Axumites had built many powerful states along the coast of Red Sea and the hilly countries of Ethiopia such as ancient Adulis, Coloe, Yeha Tokanda, and the so called Ethio-Sabean state of Daamat (circa 800-600 B.C.) etc. Ethiopia-Axum, the ancient dominant power in the region, gradually incorporated the African-Yemenites into its political sway.

By 12th century B.C. Southern Arabia fell under the complete control of the Ethiopian-Axumites through their long domination of the Red Sea trade routes. The first kingdom built by the Ethiopian-Axumites in Arabia was Saba just across the straits in Yemen in 800 B.C. See Ephraim Isaac and Cain Felder, “Reflections on the Origins of the Ethiopian Civilization”, Eight International Conference of Ethiopian Studies, November 1984. Successive civilisations of Mineans, Sabaeans and Himyarites interacted closely with their counterparts in Ethiopia.

For a while the Ethiopian-Kushitic Arabs focussed their energies on the Yemeni side of the coast in states like Saba and Daamat. Products were shipped into Yemen from Ethiopia and exported all over the world through the Red Sea.

Following the decline of Saba and Daamat, the international trade hub moved to the kingdom of Axum on the opposite side of the Red Sea coast. From its seaports such as Adulis, Ethiopian-Kushites, Axum’s trade network extended from Egypt as far as India.

Axum survived for more than 2500 years as a great state dominating the Red Sea regions although western historians would grudgingly concede 800 years. It occupied and ruled southern Arabia for part of this period. Utilitarian Aksumite pottery has been found in large quantities in deposits from the 5th and 6th centuries in the Yemen Hadramawt, suggesting that there may have been substantial immigration during that period. Axumites descended groups such as the Habashahs, still live in southern Yemen today fully cognizant of their African origins and connections.

Indeed, interaction between Yemen and Ethiopia in ancient times is sometimes compared with the historical relationship between Europe and America, with the Red Sea as substitute for the Atlantic Ocean.

THE BEJA PEOPLE: HABITAT AND HISTORY

Another important group of Black African groups who contributed genetically, and culturally to the formation of the Arabs are the Bejas otherwise called the Blemmyes. It appears that the Blemmyes as encountered in classical literature provided the foundation for the ethnic group known today as Bedouins.

The indigenous Beja people are nomads who have inhabited the semi-desert area in the Red Sea coast of Sudan and the hilly country behind it for thousands of years. The ancient Egyptians referred to them as the people of Buka or Medju (Medjay), the Romans dubbed them Blemmyes and in the Odessa they were described as Erembes. They are a Kushitic-Khemitic people who spoke a mixed dialect of semitic and Cushitic language. They identify themselves today as the most original and ancient of the Arab tribes.

Kemitic Pharaohs called them Absha, meaning the desert dwellers that is, the Bedouins in Arabic language – and Ramses II called them Beja, purporting fighters. Thus one can reasonably see the Bejas as fulfilling the Arab Bedouin archetype of the fearsome, nomadic owners of the Sahara, highly temperamental but compassionate. Throughout history, they have been regarded as very efficient fighting machines. It is important to note that besides the Nubians, it is well documented that the Beja were employed in the Egyptian army and were credited for their courage and fortitude during the expulsion of the Hyksos from Egypt.

The Roman Historian Ammianus Marcellinus inspite of his odious ethno-centrism provides us more clues on the racial and ethnic identity of the earliest Arabs. In his book The Roman History, Book XIV.iv.1-7. (380 A.D.)) the Saracens a named that was used to describe the Arabs in both ancient and modern times (stems most likely from the Arabic Sarqiyyun, meaning ‘easterners’) were described as the Blemmys tribes who lived along the banks of the Nile beyond the cataracts. According to Ammianus Marcellinus:

“Book XIV.4:
At this time also the Saracens, a race whom it is never desirable to have either for friends or enemies, ranging up and down the country, if ever they found anything, plundered it in a moment, like rapacious hawks who, if from on high they behold any prey, carry it off with a rapid swoop, or, if they fail in their attempt, do not tarry. And although, in recounting the career of the Prince Marcus, and once or twice subsequently, I remember having discussed the manners of this people, nevertheless I will now briefly enumerate a few more particulars concerning them.

Among these tribes, whose primary origin is derived from the cataracts of the Nile and the borders of the Blemmyae, all the men are warriors of equal rank; half naked, clad in colored cloaks down to the waist, overrunning different countries, with the aid of swift and active horses and speedy camels, alike in times of peace and war. Nor does any member of their tribe ever take plow in hand or cultivate a tree, or seek food by the tillage of the land; but they are perpetually wandering over various and extensive districts, having no home, no fixed abode or laws; nor can they endure to remain long in the same climate, no one district or country pleasing them for a continuance.

Their life is one continued wandering; their wives are hired, on special covenant, for a fixed time; and that there may be some appearance of marriage in the business, the intended wife, under the name of a dowry, offers a spear and a tent to her husband, with a right to quit him after a fixed day, if she should choose to do so. And it is inconceivable with what eagerness the individuals of both sexes give themselves up to matrimonial pleasures.

But as long as they live they wander about with such extensive and perpetual migrations, that the woman is married in one place, brings forth her children in another, and rears them at a distance from either place, no opportunity of remaining quiet being ever granted to her. They all live on venison, and are further supported on a great abundance of milk, and on many kinds of herbs, and on whatever birds they can catch by fowling. And we have seen a great many of them wholly ignorant of the use of either corn or wine.”

The Black African Bejas/Saracens also called the Blemmys gave to the Arabs of today (blacks and pales) the knowledge to live in the Sahara as well as the most basic cultural elements that define the Bedouin culture including nomadic identity, marital culture and martial arts. For instance, the war-like Blemmyes (Beja) had normally fought with curiously shaped bows, and it was from them that the tribes of Hijaz and Yemen (in Arabia) and the other Arab tribes adopted the use of the bow. Historically, the Beja ruled the vast territory of theirs (laying between Northern Nigeria and Sudan) in five kingdoms namely, the Naqis, Baqlin (Taflin), Bazin, Jarin and Qata (Qita, also perhaps Qasa).

Arabia Petra

Arabia Petra spread between African Kushitic Egypt and Mesopotamia (another African kushitic area in the ancient times) (Josephus). It was originally settled by an early branch of the Cushitic Ethiopian people who spoke a proto-type semitic dialect.

The Beja’s known as the ancient Blemmyes one of the earliest known nomadic tribes to dwell in the deserts of Africa and Arabia probably provided the founding population of Arabia Petra.

Other sections of the African population from the early Caspian culture and other culture complex centered on Ethiopia Axum and Ethiopia Kush may have equally contributed to the early settlement of Arabia Petra.

Some of these early African Black Arabs crossed the Red Sea whilst others migrated overland through the Nile valley into Arabia. Arabia Petrea thus became an early blending pot of African cultures. Due to this cultural ferment many nomads soon abandoned their wandering lives to establish sophisticated towns and cities together with the more sedentary population. These melange later became known as the Nabateans and their capital was Petra. (Drussilla Houstons) See also http://nabataea.net/arabia.html.

During the Roman period, the word Arab was a synonymy for Nabatean and vice versa. When the Romans incorporated Nabatea into their Empire, it was officially designated as the Province of Arabia. Numerous sculptures found in Arabia Petra clearly depict its population as African through their physical features. One classical example is that of Emperor Philip of Arabia one of the later Emperors of Rome, who was indigenous to Arabia Petra. His sculptures demonstrate that physically speaking, Emperor Philip of Arabia was a Black man of African descent. Here is a picture of a statue of the Black African Roman Emperor Philip “the Arab”.
Black Roman Emperor Philip "the Arab"
Emperor Philip the Arab

Arabia Felix

Arabia Felix laid further south of Petra. Arabia Felix was bounded by the Shiraz region of the Persian Gulf, the Eritrean or Red sea (Africa) as well as the Indian Ocean. This country was rich in spices and in it was situated the famous cities of Mecca and Medina.

Here was the country of the Yemenis, the Habashas, the Sabas, the Hadramautians and the Mineans. All these were sections of the Ethiopian-Axumite tribes similar to the Amharas, the Oromos and the Tigriyeans, who had expanded the ancient lucrative spice trade to Arabia.

It should be noted that in addition to coffee, Ethiopia is the original homeland of incenses such as frankincense, myrrh, and spices like cinnamon. The traditional African planters of these cash crops and the African maritime operators of this most lucrative of ancient trades extended their operations from Ethiopia across the straits of Bab-el-Mandel to take advantage of the fertile land and the natural habours of Arabia Felix, which subsequently became export hubs of the ancient trade. (See Strabo,geography Book XVI.iv.19). Produce was shipped routinely from the highlands of Ethiopia into Ethiopian owned- Arabia Felix for exports to the rest of the world.

Given the historical, genetic, physical and geographical proximity between Ethiopia and Arabia Felix and the similarity of the cultural expression of both land, it is not a wonder why the ancient Greek writers swore that the Ethiopians ruled the whole of Arabia. It was clear to the sophisticated Greeks and the worldly Romans that Black Africans settled and developed this portion of Arabia!

Arabia Deserta

Arabia Deserta was originally people by the Bejas and kindred groups from Africa. These are the original owners of the Sahara and its extension known as the Arabia Desert. The Bejas as we have seen from preceeding paragraphs were the first to be called Bedouins due to their nomadic culture and their preference for Desert habitats.

In the beginning of Holocene period, a group of landless, barbarian, starving, pale-skinned Central Asian refugees now known as the pale-skin Arabs (i.e. the so-called Semites) began living side by side with the nomadic African Cushitic Bejas who owned the entire Sahara desert between the Nile and the Arabian peninsula. Over the course of time these two peoples have intermingled culturally and genetically that there is barely any pale skin (Arabized) Arabs alive today that does not carry extensive Africa genes in his blood. The descendants of this intermingling are the so-called modern Semitic Arabs (more precisely known as the Arabized Arabs) who trace their roots through Abraham.

The Central Asian barbarians did not develop any states, high culture or language in Arabia. They were destitues, mostly ignorant, unread and illiterate. The Koran takes great pain to dissociate this group from the high cultural attainment of ancient Arabia. It is clearly stated that until the advent of the Islamic Prophet Muhammed, these so-called Semites lived in a state of perpetual brutality, savagery, warfare and robbery. The Koran also takes pain to identify the original Black Arabs who had lived in Ad, Thamud, Imru etc, as the originators and builders of Arab civilization and culture.

These Arabized Arabs have sublimated stories of their origin in the legend of Abraham, which narrates of his journey from somewhere proximate to central Asia into the Black African territory of Arabia. He was said to have married a Black Egyptian-born wife, Hagar/Hajir, and their son was named, Ishmael/Ismail. In this legend one immediately becomes aware of the central Asian origin of its heros and the resultant miscegenation which gave rise to the Arabised Arabs.

These so-called descendants of Abraham (actually mix breed from Black African Bejas and pale central Asian-stanis like the Turkmenistanis) settled in Mecca which was then under the overlordship of the Kushitic-Ethiopic owners of Arabia-Felix. This category of Arabs normally called themselves Adnaniyun that is, after one of their great tribal ancestors Adnan.

Despite the mythical origin of this peculiar historical source, it is clear that conscious effort has been made by Arabized Arabs to associate their tribes to African Royal pedigree.

Since it is generally known that Kushitic citizenship was matrilineal, and only children born by Kemitic Kushite mothers could aspire to be Kings in Egypt and Ethiopia, it does not take a lot of imagination to understand the role of the black Egyptian (Kemitic Kushite) Hagar in the Abraham story. The Arabized Arabs actually claim a Black African historical and archetypal mother!

No wonder “Aswad” (Black) is such an attractive concept in Arabic language.

December 9,2006

To be continued


Spread the love
  • 84
    Shares

60 thoughts on “The Original Black African Arabs of Arabia (Part 2) — Ogu Eji-Ofo Annu”

  1. I have enough bibliographical sources to start a web-site which I will be doing this summer devoted exclusively to descriptions of Afro-Asiatic by which I mean the original Arabian, Egyptian, Eritraean/Ethiopian, Dravidian and Sabara Kol populations and culture. I have been wowed by all of the information that is out there, especially on google books. Here are a few examples for now:

    Sir Richard Burton in his Personal Narrative of a Pilgrimage to El Madinah and Mecca published 1879 p. 172 describes the Harb as “small chocolate-colored beings stunted, and thin” having “bushy hair…straggling beards, vicious eyes frowning brows”. This statement to me is reminiscent of the “fierce faced” Shasu mentioned by the ancient Egptian texts. Before this on the same page he mentions the Harb as “the great Hejazi tribe that has kept his blood pure for the last 13th centuries”.
    An example of a living relatively unmixed tribe are the Kara (Qarra or Qara-Seva of Oman) who according to Bertram Thomas in 1929 were men of “brown skin” who “resemble the Bisharin tribe of the Nubian desert. The Bisharin are one of the main tribes of the Bedja people. This qutoe is from the year 1929 in the article “Among Some Unknown Tribes of South Arabia” in the Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute Vol. 59, p. 100 It is one of several descriptions I’ve found of the Kara. They like other darker skinned Arabian tribes have a remote origin in Africa.
    For a fairly recent description of the Cha’ab or Ka’b Arabs (of Iraq)and their sub-tribe al Muntafiq ibn Uqayl see George Rawlinson’s, The Seven Great Monarchies of the Ancient World, Vol. 1. (07) Chaldea, Chapter III where he describes the Galla Ethiopians and “Abyssinans”, the Cha’b of Iraq and Montefik (Khuzestan, Iran) as “dark red brown”. however, there are quotes where the Ka’ab Arabs have been described as flat out “black”. They were also usually described as tall and muscular. Originally the Ka’b like other tribes of the Rabi’a groups had come from Central Arabia.
    I will mention one last quote by A.T. Wilson, from his book, The Persian Gulf, published in Oxford, 1928 about the Shihu tribe of the Persian Gulf, another small-sized people who are probably descendants of the Kasshites (of ancient Iran, Iraq and the Sealand) who also called their leaders Shihu.
    It runs as follows: “The Hamitic group is still represented along the coast of Oman, and the Shihu tribe, a small negrito race…survives in the Cape Musandam.
    All of the small or short statured Arabian groups remnants are not true “Negritos” or “pygmies” but very likely descendants of the small “gracile Mediterranean” types that were predominant in the ancient Near East and described by Sergi and others, ( although modern Western scholars liked to hide the fact that they looked like Africans).
    Hope this suffices for now. More is to come.

  2. Dear Mohamet

    Why have you adopted such an aggressive tone in your responses? Could it be that you yourself habour racist attitudes?….looking at some of the thins you have said I have no doubt you are?

    You said that there are no descriptions of mohammed anywhere from muslims or non-muslims but the following link proves otherwise

    http://www.turntoislam.com/forum/showthread.php?t=15806

    Here you have the Prophet being described as ‘white’ according to your IDOL scholarse scholars who write Sharia Law edits which you all claim are divine!….. …..now if that is not a load of BS I don’t know what is…….The Prophet Prophet Muhammad, like Jesus and the other Biblical Prophets have been racialised by pale skinned scholars who have distofor their own gains

    in most Arabic lexicons, we read that black is simply the opposite of white.[13] Associated meanings include: Sawad, literally Blackness, meaning a group of palm, or other trees, so-called because of their lushness; the settled areas around a village or town; a great multitude of people (as-Sawad al’Adham); and great wealth.[14] The two staples of the desert Arab’s diet, dates and water, are referred to as the two black things (al-Aswadan).[15] It is interesting to note that whiteness (Bayad), in some of the contexts mentioned above has negative connotations. For example, as opposed to developed, settled areas referred to by blackness (Sawad), whiteness (Bayad) means deserted, void of life, a wasteland.[16]

    The word sayyid is from the same root as black or blackness S-W-D. That word means, depending on the context, Lord, master, honorable, virtuous, generous, forbearing, one who bears the abuse of his people, leader.[17] In this context, for a person to be called, literally, blacker (Aswadu) than someone else, would mean he is more majestic.[18] An exhaustive examination of this issue would be quite lengthy.

  3. Mohamet

    You also said that the Quran does not mention the word ‘arab’ at all but again you are either a liar, ignorant or a hypocrite

    [9:101] “Among the Aarabs around you, there are hypocrites. Also, among the city dwellers, there are those who are accustomed to hypocrisy. You do not know them, but we know them. We will double the retribution for them, then they end up committed to a terrible retribution.”

    [9:97] “The Aarabs are the worst in disbelief and hypocrisy, and the most likely to ignore the laws that GOD has revealed to His messenger. GOD is Omniscient, Most Wise. ”

    [48:11] “The sedentary Aarabs who stay behind will say, “We have been preoccupied with our money and our families, so ask forgiveness for us!” They utter with their tongues what
    is not in their hearts. Say, “Who can protect you from GOD, if He willed any adversity for you, or if He willed any blessing for you?” GOD is fully Cognizant of everything you do. “

  4. Here is one example of Mohamets
    otry…he said

    ”…Search for “zenj revolt” in google. Youll read real sources of blacks being used as slaves in Arabia during islam’s conquest. then afterwards, the blacks tried to revolt against the aggression. But their so-called “physical strength” was overcome by the strength of Allah, and they and their leader were destroyed……”

    now if this same bigot Mohamet would have did a liitle background research he would have realised that the Zinj were revolting because of the dispicable treatment they were recieving from the pale skinned ones….it was a revolution against oppression…but this bigot Mohamet claims that Allah was on the side of those who crushed the rebellion…which means inside his facist mind Allah supports tyranny and oppression!….what a HYPOCRITE YOU ARE!

  5. This bigot Mohamet refers to al Jahiz as an Idol, deranged, Racist and when it suits him he then says that jahiz wrote a book ‘Kitab al Haywan’ ( the book of animals ) which was 100% true????….you see how these white supremacist swicth the goalposts whenever it suits them…..the same way the white Christians and the ignorant negroes who follow them will find it difficult to accept a black Jesus….the same for the pale skinned muhammadan and the ignorant negroes who follow them will find it difficult to accept that the Prophet Muhammad was a dark skinned arab of African descent…..bearing in mind that the so-called middle east today does not reflect the ancient population….neither does Egypt or South Africa

  6. There is no need to make them all into slaves, in fact, the earliest and most numerous slaves and concubines were fair-skinned people.

    Well said Dana……another thing Black Arabs enslaved or kept other black arabs and other black people as slaves too….very much the same way the Ashanti or the Yuroba of West Africa kept slaves from other tribes as well as their own and even traded them to Europeans…..black arabs intermarried, traded, exchanged cultures, went to war and lived at peace with other Black peoples of Africa nad Arabia…these black arabs also kept pale skinned slaves….there was a lot of interbreeding which is why you see various shades of Brown in Arabia today….infact we Black people are really brown skinned people of various shades….from the darkest of the the dark Choclate to vanilla /caramel complexion…..however the muslim Historians who were for the most part pale skinned Persians….distorted the facts and presented it as though the blacks were the only slaves and whites were the ones who enslved them…….if you read any information about blacks in Islam…especially Bilal he is constantly referred to as Bilal the ex-slave…we are constantly reminded that he was an ex-slave…they try to give the impression that Bilal was the only negro around by consistently referring to his colour

  7. To Shakazulu, I am surprised that you even knew that many of the so called Arab commentators of the ancient world were in fact not Arabs at all at all but people from Iran, Central Asia, Turkey, Greece or other areas of the Near east that spoke Arabic. I have found that even some of the most important commentators of the Hadeeth that spoke of early arabian figures as dark brown and black in fact were in fact not Arabians, at all. Even the “Arab historians” that were born in the peninsula such as Wah ibn Munabbih who wrote derogatory things about blacks were supposedly descended from Iranian mercenaries. This is why he could write of the Qaran a tribe of the Mur’ad or Maddhij (Biblical Cheran brother of (Biblical Hamden Eshban Shaiban Shai or Ishban children of Dishon son of Zibeon (Zubyan who now live in Sudan) as black through a curse while other sons of Noah were said to have been white. The true Arabs like al Hamdani refer to many of the occupants of the Sudan as a whole as descendants of Japhet and Canaan. Their tradition linked together other Japhet, Ham and Shem together as one people who emerged from Yemen and the land of Aden (Eden)supposedly meaning the land of Ad or Ait. The Banu Hamdan tribe were mentioned in inscriptions of ancient Saba and were thus a tribe of the Sabaeans who by according to ancient pre-Islamic European historians lived both in what is called Yemen and in along the Nile spread to Meroe Strabo, Herodotus considered the tall people of Meroe Ethiopians Strabo calls them Arabians. In ancient times the people of Arabia the horn of Africa Nubia India and the Sahara were considered indistinguishable and thus Indians were often called Ethiopians and vice versa. Arabia for the most part was termed India Minor. The Indi of course as Herodotus said had a color that approached that of the Ethiopians. Later Iranians also referred to black Africans as “Indi”.
    The Ka’ab ibn’ Rabi’a Arabs who included the Ja’dah (Gad), Uqayl, Muntafik, Kilab are described by Rawlinson and others as “near black” in color and tall with a copper caste like the Galla but had left central Arabia (Al Yemama) several centuries before and founded several dynasties in Iraq. They include many dozens of tribes and the Rabi’a or Rabayu can not be other than the Rabayu or Rabbean Amorites mentioned by the Assyrian texts invading the fertile cresent thousands of years previous. Others link the name of these Amurru to that of the Rapiqu or (Biblical Rephaim) of Jordan who were in turn wee said to be related to the Anakim, Ammim, Zamzumim, Nephilim, and Amalekites of Canaan which according to Arabian tradition was originally in the area of Mecca. See the findings by Kamal Salibi and Bernard Leeman’s new book the Queen of Sheba on the true origins of early Canaan and Israel in Arabia adn the Yemen. The first can only be found on ebay in English. These are indispensible for those of us interested in retrieving the forgotten Afro-Semitic and Afro-Asiatic heritage.

  8. To Shakazulu, I am surprised that you even knew that many of the so called Arab commentators of the ancient world were in fact not Arabs at all at all but people from Iran, Central Asia, Turkey, Greece or other areas of the Near east that spoke Arabic. I have found that even some of the most important commentators of the Hadeeth that spoke of early arabian figures as dark brown and black in fact were in fact not Arabians, at all. Even the “Arab historians” that were born in the peninsula such as Wah ibn Munabbih who wrote derogatory things about blacks were supposedly descended from Iranian mercenaries. This is why he could write of the Qaran a tribe of the Mur’ad or Maddhij (Biblical Cheran brother of (Biblical Hamden, Eshban, the Shayban or Banu Shai or Ishban were children of Dishon son of Zibeon (Zubyan who now live in Sudan)the Khorite or Kareti of Negeb and Sei’ar in Yemen as black through a curse – while other sons of Noah were said to have been white. The true Arabs like al Hamdani refer to many of the occupants of the Sudan as descendants of Japhet and Idris (Daris) and Canaan (Kenana tribes). Their tradition linked together Japhet, Ham and Shem together as one people who emerged from two groups in Yemen and the land of Aden (Eden)supposedly meaning the land of Ad or Ait). The Banu Hamdan tribe were mentioned in inscriptions of ancient Saba and were thus a tribe of the Sabaeans who according to ancient pre-Islamic European historians lived both in what is called Yemen in along the Nile spread to Meroe. Herodotus considered the tall people of Meroe Ethiopians. Strabo calls them Arabians. In ancient times the people of Arabia, the horn of Africa, Nubia, India and the Sahara were considered indistinguishable in apparance and culture and thus Indians were often called Ethiopians and vice versa. Arabia for the most part was termed ‘India Minor”. The Indi of course as Herodotus said had a color that “approached that of the Ethiopians”. Later Iranians also referred to black Africans as “Indi”.
    The Ka’ab ibn’ Rabi’a Arabs still living in Khuzestan in the 1900s whose sub-tribes included the Ja’dah (Gad), Uqayl, Muntafik, Kilab and Kulaib are described by Rawlinson and others as “near black” in color and tall with a copper caste like the Galla, but had left central Arabia (Al Yemama) several centuries before and founded several dynasties in Iraq. Many dozens of tribes were related to the Rabia Qays and Mudar group. These Rabi’a or Rabayu can not be other than the Rabayu or Rabbean Amorites mentioned by the Assyrian texts invading the fertile cresent thousands of years previously. Others link the name of these Amurru to that of the Rapiqu or (Biblical Rephaim) of Jordan who were in turn said in the Bible to be related to the Anakim, Ammim, Zamzumim, Nephilim, and Amalekites of Canaan and Yemen which according to Arabian tradition was originally in the area of Mecca Medina and southward. See the findings by Kamal Salibi and Bernard Leeman’s new book the Queen of Sheba on the true origins of early Canaan and Israel in Arabia adn the Yemen. The first text can only be found on ebay in English. These books are indispensible for those of us interested in retrieving the forgotten Afro-Semitic and Afro-Asiatic heritage.

  9. Thanks Dana. You should write an article for Rastalivewire. If you have a website, we will be glad to link up with you.

    Thanks and continue blazing the fire of wisdom!

    Yours in the struggle

    Don Jaide

  10. In the Quran Muslims have the pure and unadulterated Word of God “because Allah took its safe custody upon Himself” ……It was finalized at the time of Muhammad in book form and in the memories of thousands of people.

    Thus the Quran has come to Muslims in its original and unaltered form for the past fourteen centuries, and so it shall continue…..

    On the other hand…..Prophet Muhammad was not interested in preserving the Hadith …… He left only one book the Qur’an—a fact to which the leading traditionist, Bukhari, attests …… Nor were the first four caliphs interested in the Hadith…….

    The earliest collection available today is by Imam Malik (d. 179 A.H.); yet even the contents of this collection are subject to doubts……

    The Ahadis literature, which is being considered by many if not most Muslims as authentic as the Quran, was collected about 250 years after the death of the Rasool.

    These collections of Ahadis even contain material which goes against the teachings of the Quran, so much so that it even reflects badly upon Allah and the Prophet Muhammad……

    None of these innovations can be found in the Quran, the only book delivered by Muhammad; they were imported from other cultures and sanctified or they were innovated centuries after the revelation of the Quran. Not only they do not exist in the Quran, they contradict it.

    Hadith (hearsay narrations falsely attributed to Muhammad and his companions) and their collections have been the prime tool in distorting the progressive message of Islam.

    The reactionary forces, misogynistic ideas and practices, racism, tribalism, superstitions, despotism, and many other vices of the “days of ignorance” were resurrected and sneaked back into the minds and lives of Muslim communities after they were rejected by the early Muslims at great cost.

    Soon after Muhammad’s death, thousands of hadiths (words attributed to Muhammad) were fabricated and two centuries later collected, and centuries later compiled and written in the so-called “authentic” hadith books:

    * to support the teaching of a particular sect against another (such as, what nullifies ablution; which sea food is prohibited);

    * to flatter or justify the authority and practice of a particular king against dissidents (such as, Mahdism and Dajjal);

    * to promote the interest of a particular tribe or family (such as, favoring the Quraysh tribe or Muhammad’s family);

    * to justify sexual abuse and misogyny (such as, Aisha’s age; barring women from leading Sala prayers);

    * to justify violence, oppression and tyranny (such as, torturing members of Urayna and Uqayla tribes; massacring the Jewish population in Medina; assassinating a female poet for her critical poems);

    * to exhort more rituals and righteousness (such as, nawafil prayers);

    * to validate superstitions (such as, magic; worshiping the black stone near the Kaba);

    * to prohibit certain things and actions (such as, prohibiting drawing animal and human figures; playing musical instruments; chess);

    * to import Jewish and Christian beliefs and practices (such as, death by stoning; circumcision; head scarf; hermitism; rosary);

    * to resurrect pre-Islamic beliefs and practices common among Meccans (such as, intercession; slavery; tribalism; misogyny);

    * to please crowds with stories (such as the story of Miraj (ascension to heaven) and bargaining for prayers);

    * to idolize Muhammad and claim his superiority to other messengers (such as, numerous miracles, including splitting the moon);

    * to defend hadith fabrications against monotheists (such as, condemning those who find the Quran alone sufficient); and even

    * to advertise products of a particular farm (such as, the benefits of dates grown in a town called Ajwa).

    In addition to the above mentioned reasons, many hadith were fabricated to explain the meaning of the “difficult” Quranic words or phrases, or to distort the meaning of verses that contradicted the fabricated hadith, or to provide trivial information not mentioned in the Quran (such as, Saqar, 2:187; 8:35…).

    In terms of discrimination against women:……Verse 49:13 unequivocally rejects sexism and racism, and reminds us that neither man nor female, neither this race nor that race is superior over the other.

    The only measure of superiority is righteousness; being a humble, moral and socially conscientious person who strives to help others.

    49:13 – O people, We created you from a male and female, and We made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Surely, the most honorable among you in the sight of God is the most righteous. God is Knowledgeable, Ever-aware.

  11. And the Wikiperdia page on Muslim Conquests has a fair summary:
    The Islamic conquest of Persia (633–656) led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. However, the achievements of the previous Persian civilizations were not lost, but were to a great extent absorbed by the new Islamic polity.

    Most Muslim historians have long offered the idea that Persia, on the verge of the Arab invasion, was a society in decline and decay and thus it embraced the invading Arab armies with open arms. This view is not widely accepted however. Some authors have for example used mostly Arab sources to illustrate that “contrary to the claims , Iranians in fact fought long and hard against the invading Arabs.”[1] This view further more holds that once politically conquered, the Persians began engaging in a culture war of resistance and succeeded in forcing their own ways on the victorious Arabs.[2][3]

    As Bernard Lewis has quoted[4]

    “These events have been variously seen in Iran: by some as a blessing, the advent of the true faith, the end of the age of ignorance and heathenism; by others as a humiliating national defeat, the conquest and subjugation of the country by foreign invaders. Both perceptions are of course valid, depending on one’s angle of vision.”

    [edit] Rise of the Islamic Empire
    By the time of Muhammad’s death in 632, most of what is now considered Arabia was united under the new religion of Islam. However, as Fred Donner argues in his 1981 book, The Early Islamic Conquests, Arabic-speaking nomads or villagers roamed over or settled on the edge of the Syrian steppe as well. Any regime that aimed to unite all Arabs would have to conquer the Syrian steppe. Under Muhammad’s successor Abu Bakr, the first caliph to Sunni Muslims, (The Shia interpretation of Islam states that Ali was the first caliph) the Muslims first re-established their control over Arabia (the Ridda Wars) and then launched campaigns against the remaining Arabs of Syria and Palestine.

    However, this put the nascent Islamic empire on a collision course with the Byzantine and Sassanid empires, which had been disputing these territories for centuries. The wars soon became a matter of conquest, rather than mere consolidation of the Arab tribes.

    The main military commander of the Muslims, Khalid ibn al-Walid, was able to conquer most of Mesopotamia (Iraq) from the Persians in a span of nine months, from April 633 until January 634, after a series of battles. The following are some of the most significant battles fought between the Muslim Arabs and the Persians in Mesopotamia.

  12. I am trying to complete the bibliography for my website which will be filled with dozens of quotes like the following on the “Companions” of the prophets by Al Tabari who lived in the 9th century born in Tabaristan south of the Caspian.
    on Ali bin Abi Talib or Abd Manaf “Commander of the faithful” he says he was “a man of dark brown complexion and heavy eyes.. . and rather short. of Sa’id bin Zayd a close companion of the Prophet he was “a man exceptionally tall and of brown complexion. His father Umar ibn khattab ibn Nufayl born in Mecca of the Banu Adi clan of the Qureish and was similarly described as “brown”.

    Of Abu Dharr or Jundab ibn junabah “a tall dark- brown toned man with white hair and beard” of Zayd bin haritha who was “like a son to Mohammed “a short, flat nosed man of very dark brown skin” . Abu Dharr al Ghifari he says was described by Ibn Sa’d (of Baghdad) a man “a tall dark brown toned man”. He was of the Ghifar tribe.
    Al Miqdad one of the 4 companions known as Al Miqdad bin al Aswad al Kindi (the Kindite) was according to by Al Tabari described by his daughter to Ibn Sa’d of Baghdad as “tall, brown and big-bellied”. Al Aswad his adopted father was Al Aswad bin Yaghuth of the clan of Zuhra and a maternal cousin to the Prophet.
    These historical documentations just show what the arabians of Mohammed’s time looked like. They were dark brown or dark complexioned peole probably referred to themselves as “red” long before other Northern peoples got involved in their genealogical reckonings.
    Other tribes like the Murad, Ishban, Qaran of Yemen, Kenaniyya, and Sulaym whose subtribes included Dibab, Maimouna, Khuzam and Khuzaima and dozens of others in al Harra (which included Medina) are described by Ibn Athir the 11th century Kurd and Wah ibn Munabihh (who lived in Yemen but was descended from Iranian mercenaries) and other Non-Arabian originated muslims as “black”.

  13. And to Don Jaide – I am trying to complete the bibliography for my website which will be filled with dozens of quotes like the following on the “Companions” of the prophets by various early historians including Al Tabari who lived in the 9th century born in Tabaristan south of the Caspian.
    on Ali bin Abi Talib or Abd Manaf “Commander of the faithful” he says he was “a man of dark brown complexion and heavy eyes.. . and rather short. of Sa’id bin Zayd a close companion of the Prophet he was “a man exceptionally tall and of brown complexion. His father Umar ibn khattab ibn Nufayl born in Mecca of the Banu Adi clan of the Qureish and was similarly described as “brown”.

    Of Abu Dharr or Jundab ibn junabah “a tall dark- brown toned man with white hair and beard” of Zayd bin haritha who was “like a son to Mohammed “a short, flat nosed man of very dark brown skin” . Abu Dharr al Ghifari he says was described by Ibn Sa’d (of Baghdad) a man “a tall dark brown toned man”. He was of the Ghifar tribe.
    Al Miqdad one of the 4 companions known as Al Miqdad bin al Aswad al Kindi (the Kindite) was according to by Al Tabari described by his daughter to Ibn Sa’d of Baghdad as “tall, brown and big-bellied”. Al Aswad his adopted father was Al Aswad bin Yaghuth of the clan of Zuhra and a maternal cousin to the Prophet.
    These historical documentations just show what the arabians of Mohammed’s time looked like. They were dark brown or dark complexioned peole probably referred to themselves as “red” long before other Northern peoples got involved in their genealogical reckonings.
    Other tribes like the Murad, Ishban, Qaran of Yemen, Kenaniyya, and Sulaym whose subtribes included Dibab, Maimouna, Khuzam and Khuzaima and dozens of others in al Harra (which included Medina) are described by Ibn Athir the 11th century Kurd and Wah ibn Munabihh (who lived in Yemen but was descended from Iranian mercenaries) and other Non-Arabian originated muslims as “black”.

  14. Sorry somehow I keep putting up my comments double because it doesn’t seem to want to go through.
    But, wanted to make mention that we need to stop putting up pictures of yelowish, tanned Eurasian individuals and suggesting that they are somehow representative of black Arabs. There are enough truly African looking people in Iran for us not to have to do this. And I’m not talking about people descended from slaves.

  15. Sorry somehow I keep putting up my comments double because it doesn’t seem to want to go through.
    But, wanted to make mention that we need to stop putting up pictures of yelowish, tanned Eurasian individuals and suggesting that they are somehow representative of black Arabs. There are enough truly African looking people in Iran for us not to have to do this. And I’m not talking about people descended from slaves.

  16. Mohammed stated that arabs are descended from hagar and ibrahim,
    and he actually proved jahdey’s point..Cause,a black married a pale semite and produced a brown baby ishmael who married other blacks (egyptians) and its those children who became the arabs.
    So arabs really are 3/4 black.

  17. and we all know the ancient egyptians were indigenous blacks
    and not from mesopotamia,so that
    asia origins stuff has been discredited.

  18. Sonnyman Arabs were in existence long before Hajar and Ishmael….overall arabs do not trace their lineage through hajar and Ishmael only the Quraish which was the tribe of the Prophet Muhammad….by the way Abraham, Sarah, Hajar and Ishmael were all black…there was nothing 1/4 about them at all

  19. Salam, Peace to all the brothers and sisters

    Dana

    I hope you’ll give the name of your website.

    You have a lof of knowledge to share.

    Best regards

    Adham, Paris, France

  20. Can we get beyond the ‘Crayola Crayon’ mentality?

    All this fixation on skin hue and how light or how black someone looks.

    The Brotha’s work is impeccable!

    I realize the AfroCentrists have been taught to hate all things Arab, Muslim and Islam…but relax people..breathe…its a new day….

    Allah in Nubia Video Download here:

    http://www.zshare.net/video/1195853f71a1d3/

    *thats Runoko Rashidi on the video, who when asked denied that he saw ‘Allah’ and stated the Brotha was ‘biased…because he is Muslim’. Then is shown ‘praising’ the Brotha on the video!

    Runoko’s denial recorded: Go To the 48 min – 52 min mark

    http://www.blogtalkradio.com/Illuminations/2008/09/05/Yes-we-were-Kings-Queens-but-who-are-we-now-as-Black-people

  21. If the fair skinned among the Arab and berber speakers were not so comtemptuous of the black and darker skinned berbers and Arabs amongst them we would n’t be having this conversation. Until these people who have in fact more Eurasian and European blood then Arabian or Berber stop treating the indigenous and other dark-skinned people like dogs people like myself will continue to be compelled to state who the true Arabs and Berbers were and what they looked like. I should add that most people like the dark skinned Mahra, Shihu, Qara and other tribes of Qahtan and ancient northern Arabs are known to have had strong matrifocal and matrilineal traits as did the Berbers. And yet women today are also treated as sub-humans. This is not a coincidence, as Diop stated Africans were matrifocal while non Africans, like Eurasians and Europeans had strong patriarchal and patrifocal emphasis. There has been a change of the guard.

  22. AS A YOUNG MAN ABOUT 1960S SAW A NATIONAL GEOGRAPICS MAGAZINE SHOWED THE ORIGINAL PEOPLE OF ARABIA CALLED MOUNTAIN ARABS / PEOPLE JET BLACK WITH WOLLY HAIR LOOKED LIKE SOMALIS ARTICAL SAID THEY WERE THE ORIGINAL BECAUSE ALL RIVERS, MOUNTAINS ECT WERE IN THERE DIALECT IF YOU CAN GET THIS IT BLOWS ALL LIES AWAY.

  23. To Nehesy, Shakazulu, Bryant and all who have asked –

    Very sorry I have not been on the site and didn’t see your question about my site. I will definitely be in touch about it, but am shooting for the end of March this year at the latest! Sorry again for the delay in response.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *