An uninhabited island off the coast of Arnhem Land may seem worlds apart from medieval Africa, but believe it or not, they’re more connected than you’d think.
In 1944, a RAAF serviceman found several coins on a deserted beach on one of the Wessel Islands, off the Northern Territory coast, but the exact location of the discovery remained a mystery.
Now, almost eight decades later, amateur historians believe they’ve found another coin — this time on Elcho Island, which is also in the Wessel Island group.
The 1944 coins were linked to the east African city of Kilwa, off modern-day Tanzania.
If confirmed to be the same Kilwa coin — thought to have been produced post-1400 — the new coin would be among the oldest foreign artefacts ever found in Australia. …
M de Pradt, Mémoires historiques sur la révolution d’Espagne (1816), contains a sturdy exposition of the substance behind the slogan: – “AFRICA EMPIEZA EN LOS PIRINEOS”
Cheddar Man is a human male fossil found in Gough’s Cave in Cheddar Gorge, Somerset, England. The skeletal remains date to the Mesolithic (ca. 9100 BP) and it appears that he died a violent death. A large crater-like lesion just above the skull’s right orbit suggests that the man may have also been suffering from a bone infection.
Excavated in 1903 in Gough’s Cave in Somerset, Cheddar Man is Britain’s oldest complete human skeleton. The remains are kept by the Natural History Museum in London in the new Human Evolution gallery.
Intense speculation has built up around Cheddar Man’s origins and appearance because he lived shortly after the first settlers crossed from continental Europe to Britain at the end of the last ice age.
It was initially assumed that Cheddar Man had pale skin and fair hair, but his DNA paints a different picture, strongly suggesting he had blue eyes, a very dark brown to black complexion and dark curly hair.
The discovery shows that the genes for lighter skin became widespread in European populations far later than originally thought – and that skin colour was not always a proxy for geographic origin in the way it is often seen to be
Analysis of his nuclear DNA indicates that he was a typical member of the western European population at the time, probably with lactose intolerance, dark skin, blue eyes, and dark curly or wavy hair.
Nuclear DNA sequence data
Nuclear DNA was extracted from the petrous part of the temporal bone by a team from the Natural History Museum in 2018. The genetic markers suggested (based on their associations in modern populations whose phenotypes are known) that he probably had blue eyes, lactose intolerance, dark curly or wavy hair, and, less certainly, dark to very dark skin. These features are typical of the European population of the time, now known as West European Hunter-Gatherers. This population forms about 10%, on average, of the ancestry of Britons without a recent family history of immigration.
The mitochondrial DNA of Cheddar Man was of haplogroup U5b1. Some 65% of western European Mesolithic hunter-gatherers had haplogroup U5; today it is widely distributed, at lower frequencies, across western Eurasia and northern Africa. In 1996, Bryan Sykes of the University of Oxford first sequenced the mitochondrial DNA from one of Cheddar Man’s molars.
There was no genetic link with the other skeletons from Gough’s Cave, which are 5,000 years older than Cheddar Man. For much of this intervening period, the last glaciation of Europe had made the area unsuitable for human life.
Genetic change in Britain since the Mesolithic:
Britain was periodically settled and then cleared during ice ages until the end of the last glacial period about 11,700 years ago, since when it has been continuously inhabited.
Until now, though, it hasn’t been clear whether each wave of migrants was seeded from the same population in mainland Europe; the latest results suggest this was not the case.
The team homed in on genes known to be linked to skin colour, hair colour and texture, and eye colour. For skin tone, there are a handful of genetic variants linked to reduced pigmentation, including some that are very widespread in European populations today. However, Cheddar Man had “ancestral” versions of all these genes, strongly suggesting he would have had “dark to black” skin tone, but combined with blue eyes.
“We didn’t kill Haile Selassie, that’s not true. I have heard that I myself have killed him personally. […] I have heard that I killed him and I buried him in my office, which is entirely untrue and a very sad story.”
Pictures of the Teotihuacán culture from the National Museum of Anthropology.
Site– Teotihuacán, Nahuatl for the city where one becomes god,or city of the gods.
So what happened to those original swarthy black Britons?
In 449 AD the Northern Germanic invasion of Briton pushed the surviving British population West to Cornwall, Wales and Ireland and North to Scotland.
In 1688 AD the Stuart king James II was replaced by parliament with William III and Mary II. They produced no children and succession to the throne got complicated. The Irish and Scottish were later recruited by another Stuart cousin born in France known as “Bonnie Prince Charlie” to help him capture the British throne.
This war was called the Jacobite rebellion. When they lost that battle many Scots and Irish were rounded up by the English and imprisoned and later deported to the Caribbean. A close inspection of these ships logs describe these prisoners.
For example on the 5th of May 1747 a ship called the “VETERAN” captained by John Ricky, left Liverpool with Irish and Scottish prisoners. The ships log describes a percentage of these prisoners as being Brown skinned, swarthy or Black.
The prisoner numbered 132 on the “veteran list” was said to be George Hume a writer in the legal profession. He was aged 30 from Edinburgh and described as a “black man”. From what I can tell he was the most educated prisoner on the ship.
Prisoner 1519 Andrew Langer numbered 86 on the veteran list was described as a 40 year old, dark complexioned 5 foot 6 inch tall weaver from Dublin.
Prisoner 3314 James Urquhart, numbered 78 on the veteran list was described as an 18 year old with a brown complexion and said to be a 5 foot 5 inch Labourer from Aberdeen.
Prisoner 2602 James Neilson from Aberdeen was entered in as swarthy complexioned. Whereas Prisoner 1138 Charles Grant from Abernethy was listed as brown skinned, Prisoner Dunbar James from Moray was described as black.
Prisoner with Veteran List Number 96 Donald McDonald from Edinburgh was described as swarthy. James Reed with Veteran List Number 122 was described as prisoner with dark visage, so also was Prisoner 2797 George Reed from Banff who was described as dark. There were several more dark skin and swarthy Scottish and Irish prisoners on that ship; and a quick look through this list will quickly provide any researcher the correct perspective.
These prisoners were originally captured on the 30th December 1745 and imprisoned in York castle, Lincoln castle among other locations.
The ship sailed near Antigua on the 28th of June 1747. However for reasons unspecified the prisoners were taken by the Diamond privateer Paul Marsale and released in Martinique on the 30th June 1747.
See link below for more information: Black Scots