The Black Stone, the Black Tribe of Koreysh, the Black Prophet
The Kaaba – the Black Stone
The Kaaba was a pagan shrine of great antiquity which housed the black stone, a meteorite that was probably brought by the Kushitic Black Arabs from Kushitic Ethiopia where such worship was routine. Pagan rites were routinely performed at the Kaaba in Mecca.
Richard King stated in his book, “Melanin: A Key to freedom” on the issue of the Kaaba stone:
“… for many followers of Islam the experience of viewing the Black Stone Meteorite El Ka’aba in Mecca evokes the inner vision image and experience of God. This inner vision event was likely to have been experienced by the same Africans who brought the Black Stone from Ethiopia to Arabia long before the birth of the Prophet Mohamet. It is equally important to note that in Kemet, the genetic child of Ethiopia, Black Stones were given Divine Value. Black stones were often placed as the all Black pyramiadon cap stones upon the top of pyramids, an all black stone room (rose granite being a black granite with flecks of red as the King’s chamber is the highest room in the interior of the Great Pyramid of Giza), and a special system of linear measurement being used by Kamites when working in Black Stone, the Black Cubit or nilometric cubit.”
Although some Muslim hadiths assert that Abraham the ancestor of the Adnaniyun tribe of the Arabs, had built up the Kaaba with the help of his son Ismail/Ishmael upon the instruction of Allah, more academically inclined historians generally accepted that at the time Mohammed began his preaching, there was no recollection of any Abraham nor Adnaniyun, nor Ismail who had purportedly built the Kaaba. There was instead a living tradition of a matriarchal goddess worship and rites dating back to ancestral Ethiopia Kush where matriarchal goddesses have been worship in its most developed form since the beginning of time.
The city of Mecca was considered a holy place and the destination of pilgrims long before the prophet Muhammad. Kushitic Black Arabs and other Arabized tribes would bring yearly offerings to the Kaaba, or, make pilgrimages as part of a pattern of Kushitic religious rites which venerated the matriarchal deity of Mecca – Alaat.
Mohammed’s new religion which had emphasized the mythological masculine ancestor Abraham together with his Hebrew male proto-God was antithetical to all the known traditions of Mecca. The basic issue between Mohammed and his Koreysh persecutors who drove him out of Mecca was that he had preached an alien and foreign philosophy which they could not understand nor tolerate. Most of Mohammed’s own tribe-the Koreysh- the keepers of the Kaaba- officiated over the worship of the Kushitic originated Godess Alaat.
The tribe of Koreysh (Prophet Mohammed’s tribe) claimed to have descended from Ishmael through his black Egyptian wife called Hagar. This tribe stressed its Black African lineage with much pride and throughout time they remained intimately connected with the southern Cushitic tribes who had originated the worship of the Kaaba – the black stone – at Mecca.
One of the Hadiths claim that Abraham accompanied Hagar and Ismail to Mecca, in the desert after he left, they settled near the Kushitic black Arab tribe of Djurhum of Arabia Felix (Yemen), among whom Ismail found a wife. Others contend that Ismail actually married a Black Egyptian Matron woman named Fatima Ar-Riâ€™lah. They begat Twelve Princes the second whose name was Qeydaar(Kedar) this Arabic /Hebrew name means Powerfully Dark Skinned man. Qeydaar(Kedar) married Fakhira a Matron Woman from The Qahtaanites(Joktan son of Kush)another African person.
It is probable that the Djurhum were keepers or devotees of the ancient shrine at Mecca and that Ismail or his descendants later adopted their religion and became devotees of the Kushitic practices of the Kaaba.
The Hadith claims that Abraham had laid the foundations of the Kaaba with Ismail and on subsequent visits had completed the construction of the shrine with Ismail’s help. This claim is somewhat quetionable since the Kaaba is so ancient in Arabia that it was existing even at the time of Abraham’s purported first-time visit to Arabia.
Another tradition holds that the Mohammed’s predecessors arose from the strong-hold of the Black Arabians of Yemen. Tradition has it that they moved from Yemen when the Marib Dam was tragically breached (450 AD) and not repaired again – which resulted in drought, hunger, political unrest and population movement – to the region around Mecca. See Historians’ History of the World, 1907., p. 106ff of Volume 8.
About the Fifth Christian Century a Mustareb tribal leader named Kolaib, from the tribe of Rabiah in Yemen started a movement that agitated for political and social change. He led a general revolt against “tax gatherers” in Nejd which resulted in the Battle of Hazat in 500AD, afterwhich he broke Yemen from control of Northern Arabia. Kolaib inspired a general confederacy, but was eventually assassinated. The Mustareb tribe after many years of warfare eventually gained control of the kingdom of Kindeh, and then Yemen, Irak and Ghassan.
Between 529 AD until 603 AD we had one of those recurrent episodes in the history of the red sea coastal principalities where Ethiopia (the regional dominant power) imposed a form of direct rule on Yemen which was sliding into political anarchy. Aryat, an agent of the King of Ethiopia, landed at Aden in 529 AD with an army of 70,000 men to avenge Christians, co-religionists, who had been persecuted by the king of Yemen, Dhu-Nowas, who was practising the Jewish religion, and to restore political order in the wake of endless wars and misrule. Dhu-Nowas perished in the struggle that followed. The Ethiopian conquering army remained in power with authority over the entire Arabia Felix or Yemen including the city of Mecca until 603.
In the meantime, there then arose a potent element, the Fihr or Koreish, of Mustareb descent, who had established themselves in Hedjaz, near Mecca, which already was a religious and commercial centre. About 500 A.D. the Koreish had contrived to become guardians of the Kaaba, a square stone shrine of unknown antiquity, at Mecca.
The keys of this consecrated building were in the hands of the Koreish, and they fended off their competitors and managed to keep at bay the invading Christian Abyssinians of 570AD. Mohammed was burn in 570 A.D. By about 600+AD, the Koreish and their Mustareb allies were the most powerful confederacy in Arabia. (Historians’ History of the World. London, 1907., Vol. 8, pp. 32ff.)
Abdul-Muttalib, son of Hashim, born in 497, exercised supreme authority in Mecca, from 520-579, initially with the consent and approval of the Ethiopian colonial army though it appears that he later revolted against this imposition. He fathered 18 children. He was described as black as the night.
According to tradition, Muttalib believed he needed to sacrifice one of his sons, in 569, before one of the idols of the Kaaba. He chose his son Abdallah. As the sacrifice was to be made, some Koreish chiefs rose in protest, and the boy was replaced by 100 camels as a price of blood. A few days later Abdallah married Amina, daughter of Wahb, chief of the Zohri family, and so was born Mohammed,about August,570. (Historian’s History of the World, Vol. 8, p. 113)
Prophet Mohammed the Black Arab
Mohammed himself, who was to unite the whole of Arabia, thus appears to have had a prominent African-Kushitic lineage. According to al-Jahiz a renowned Black Arab writer and philosopher of Ethiopian origin who had lived in Baghdad, “…the guardian of the sacred Kaaba–Abd al-Muttalib, “fathered ten Lords, Black as the night and magnificent.” One of these men was Abdallah, the father of Muhammad.
JA Rogers, one of the most pre-eminent of Black African historians had the following to say of Muhammad(pbuh):
“Mohamet, himself, was to all accounts a Negro. A contemporary of his describes him as “large mouthed,” and “bluish-colored, with hair that was neither straight nor curly…Mohamet’s mother was also African. His grandfather, Abd el Motalib, is spoken of as being “very dark.”…A Negroid strain, more or less predominant, ran through the whole. As Keane says, “All who accepted the Koran became merged with the conquerors in a common Negroid population.”
Diop in “Orgin of Civillization” stated forthrightly that:
“….the entire arab people, including the Prophet [Muhammad(pbuh)] is mixed with Negro blood. All educated Arabs are conscious of that fact.”
Ethiopia and the Black Muslim Arabs
In the 5th and 6th century, the pre-eminece of Ethiopia was still putative in the Arabia and surrounding regions. As such, Mecca was teeming with millions of Black Cushitic Arabian and Ethiopian scientists, engineers, soilders, philosophers, writers, social revolutionaries. Besides the probable Ethiopian origins of Muhammed, Islam was deeply associated with Ethiopia, and was overwhelmingly influenced by Ethiopia in terms of the formation of its basic tenets, the elaboration of its doctrine and the development of its philosophy. According to tradition, the first Muslim killed in battle was Mihdja–a Kushitic Black Arab. Another Black Arab that greatly influenced Islam was Bilal, probably of Ethiopian-Yemenite extraction, who was such a pivotal figure in the development of Islam that he has been referred to as “a third of the faith.
” Many of the earliest Muslim converts were original descendants of the ancient Black Arabs,or they were African soliders, administrators, scientist that stayed over from the 70,000 man Ethiopian army that ruled Yemen in these times. In fact, the very survival of the Islamic faith in its most susceptible periodwas due tothe intervention of the Ethiopian King of Axum, who saved the earliest followers of Muhammed seeking refuge in Ethiopia from persecution in Arabia. They were given safety, succor and further education and instruction by the Priests of Ethiopia.
These early teachings underlaid the elaboration and further development of Islamic thought and they remain fundamental in Islamic teachings of today. It is therefore no wonder that Muhammed had instructed his followers to always be kind and considerate to the Ethiopians because they are a kindred nation of great righteousness.
John G Jackson, another pillar of Black History stated in his book “The Story of The Moors In Spain” that:
“At the present time Arabia is inhabited by two distinct races, namely the descendents of the old Adite,Kushite, or Ethiopian race, known under various appellations, and dwelling cheify at the south, the east, and the central parts of the country, but formerly supreme throughout the whole peninsula; and the semitic Arabians—Mohamet’s(pbuh) race—found cheifly in the Hejaz and at the north. In some districts of the country, these races more or less mixed and since the rise of Mohametanism, the language of the Semites, known to us as Arabic, has almost wholly superceded the old Ethiopian or Kushite tongue….”
Various studies have confirmed that the inter-relatedness of Arab populations, including Palestinians, Jordanians, Syrians, Iraqis, and Bedouin, and their African neighbours. Well known genetic markers connect Arabs especially those of Yemen and Oman very closely with African population living near in East and Equatorial Africa.
Haplogroup E is present in both Arab and Jewish populations throughout the Near East, as well as at high frequencies throughout most of Africa (Scozzari et al. 1999, 2001; Underhill et al. 2000; Cruciani et al. 2002).
The Y haplogroup J which occurs at high frequency in the middle eastern â€œArabsâ€ populations and some Jews have been shown with increasing data to be heavily concentrated in Africa especially around East and North East Africa where it is widely distributed. Black African Ethiopians, Kenyans, Tanzanians, Ugandans, show ~68% haplogroup E, ~12% haplogroup J.
A recent study confirm that Yemenite Arabs have 35% or more African genetic material in their mtDNA (which passes through the mother).
According to the study, other so-called Arabs, especially those far away from the Arabian peninsula, have as little as 10% African blood in their mtDNA. As such, it is possible that the African gene was merely diluted by the introduction of non-Arab (and non-African) genes to the pool when Arabs began to conquer other Middle East people after the rise of Islam. The “real” Arabs — those who have Arab ancestors stretching beyond the last 1,400 years â€“ are actually 35% Black in their mtDNA. These Arabs are from the Arabian peninsula.
Other populations that are now called â€˜Arabsâ€™ became Arabized through intermarriage and adoption of the Arabic language and culture. These people are partially Arab and partially descendants of the nations that lived in their region prior to the rise of the Muslim faith. In a similar fashion as their Y Haplogroup “Arab gene” (African E, and J haplogroup) was diluted by mixing with non-African genes, so too the 35% of the mtDNA that is Black African was diluted and reduced to around 10%.
The reduction of the Black genes from 35% to around 10% also suggests that the large majority (around 70%) of genes belonging to the Arabs outside the Arabian peninsula come from the local nations. The claim is supported by the historical fact that the original Arab population was relatively small and could not have populated a region stretching from Iraq to Morocco with such density, no matter the birthrate.
Sickle cell gene is also highly expressive among the middle eastern populations. Sickle cell Haplogroups of African origin are routinely sequenced amongst the populations of Saudi Arabia, Oman, Iraq and Turkey. Given that sickle cell gene is a rare genetic mutation even with reference to Equatorial Africa where it originated, its prevalence in the so called middle east suggests the great density of population settlement from Africa in pre-historic and historic times.
ARABIA AND THE OLD TESTAMENT
Besides the accounts of the classical writers who trace the origins and daily lives of the original Black Arabs of antiquity, the Islamic Ishmaelite Arabized people claim to derive all their early history from the Bible or Koranic text. The major founding legends of the Ishmaelite Abrahamic Arabs are all based uniformly on exegesis and interpretations of Old Testament stories.
Yet, the Old Testament references to Arabia are scanty. The term Arab itself, as the name of a particular country and nation, is found only in later Old Testament writings, i.e. not earlier than Jeremias (sixth century B.C.). In older writings the term Arab is used only as an appellative, meaning “desert,” or “people of the desert,” or “nomad” in general. (Catholic Encyclopedia).
The name for Arabia in the earliest Old Testament writings is either Ismael, or Madian (A.V., Ishmael, or Midian e.g. Genesis Chapter 25). The meaning of the term Arab can be either that of “Nomad,” or “the Land of the Setting Sun,” i.e. the West, it being situated to the west of Babylonia, which was considered to be where the Biblical record of Genesis was complied. By the ancient Hebrews, however, the land of Arabia was called “the Country of the East,” and the Arabs were termed “Children of the East,” as the Arabian peninsula lay to the east of Palestine. (Catholic Encyclopedia)
It appears that the Old Testament concurs with the report that the original Arabs were Black Africans. According to the genealogical table of the tenth chapter of Genesis, Ham’s first-born was Kush. Kush is another word for Black (and according to bible scholars the archetypal father figure of Black African people). the word was also used to indicate the Black Africans who then lived in the Nile Valley region of Kush which encompasses from Egypt to Ethiopia, on to Kenya, Uganda and Mozambique.
According to the Old Testament, Chush (A.V., Cush) had five sons whose names are identical with several regions in Arabia. Thus the name of Sebha â€” probably the same as Sheba, or Saba â€” situated on the west coast of the Red Sea, occurs only three times in the Old Testament. Sheba was a Black African built state which existed in the southwest portion of the Arabian Peninsula.
The second is Hevila in northern Arabia, or as Glaser prefers in the district of Yemen and al-Kasim. Yemen as we have seen was and remains a predominantly Black African based area of the Arabian Peninsula.
The third is Regma (A.V., Raamah) in south-western Arabia, mentioned in the Sabean inscriptions. The fourth is Sabatacha, in southern Arabia, and as far east as Oman. Incidentally, the name Oman is the Arabic form of Ammon the high God of the Black Kushites and Kemites who established themselves in that region very early in history. Even today, Oman is predominantly Black in phenotype, even though the people are described as Arabs. Thus, one begins to see the deep reaching roots of Africa in the Arabic world.
The fifth is Sabatha (Sabtah, or Sabata) the ancient capital of Hadramaut, in South Arabia. Hadramaut was also an ancient power base of the kushitic Ethiopian Black Arabs of Arabia.
Regma’s two sons, Saba and Dadan (A.V., Sheba and Dedan), or Daidan, are also two Arabian geographical names, the first being the famous Saba (A.V., Sheba) of the Book of Kings, whose Queen visited Solomon. The second location is near Edom, north of Medina.
In v. 28 of the same Genesis chapter, Saba is said to be a son of Jectan (A.V., Joktan), and so, also, Elmodad, Asarmoth, Hevila, Ophir (A.V., Almodad, Hazarmaveth, Havilah, etc., which are equally Arabian geographical names), We have seen how Saba refers to the Queendom of the Queen of Sheba a famous African princess of Ethiopian origin. Yet, later redactors and interpolated in Genesis chapter xxv, 3, the inconsistent fable of how both Saba and Dadan are grandson of Abraham.
Given that Saba was a famous state whose ruins are identifiable today, and that it is inextricably linked with Ethiopia and Cush in culture, literature and ethnicity, the brazenness of this attempted falsification and misappropriation of Black African history becomes clear once again. Based on this flimsy and highly tenuous connections between Abraham and Joktan, the entire fallacy of the pale semitic Arab race (so loving promoted by the western media) was constructed.
The Old Testament identifies a second category of Arabs linked with the famous episode of Sarai’s so called handmaid, Agar (A.V., Hagar) also known as Abraham’s lover, and her son, Ismael (A.V., Ishmael).
According to this account Ismael is the real ancestor of the majority of Desert Arabian tribes, such as: Nabajoth, Cedar, Abdeel, Mabsam, Masma, Duma, Massa, Hadar, Thema, Jethur, and Cedma (A.V., Nebaijoth, Kedar, Abdeel, Mibsam, Mishma, Dumah, Massa, Hadar, Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah, respectively). These tribes bore the closest affinity to the pale Arabised people of modern times. These tribes were uncultured, illiterate pagan barbarians who did not see any enlightenment until the dawn of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. These were notorious bands of wild desert nomads who raided caravans, traded slaves and made wars without end. Their hands were against everyman and everyman’s hands were against them.
A third category of Arabs are identified as the Madianite, or Ismaelite, merchants who bought Joseph from his brethren, that of the forty years’ wandering of the Hebrew tribes over the desert of Arabia, of the Queen of Saba, etc.
In later Old Testament times one reads of Nehemias (A.V., Nehemiah), who was persecuted by an Arab sheikh, Gossem (A.V., Geshem), or Gashmu or Gushamu [Nehemiah (in Douay Version, II Esdras), ii, 19; vi, 6].
In the book of II Chronicles we are told (xvii, 11) that the Arabians brought tribute to King Josaphat (A.V., Jehoshaphat).
The same chronicler further narrates, how God afflicted the wicked Joram by means of the Philistines and “the Arabians, who were beside the Ethiopians” (2 Chronicles 21:16), and how he helped the pious Ozias (A.V., Uzziah) in the war against the “Arabians that dwelt in Gurbaal” (xxvi, 7) see (The Black Biblical Presence in the Bible and the Table of Nations” by Rev. Walter McCray).
See: Catholic Encylopedia http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01663a.htm
The Civilization of the Original Black Cushitic Ethiopian Arabs
As we have seen already, the ancient Black Arabs were a highly sophisticated and literate people. They were given to a life of leisure, culture and pleasure. They lived a settled live in the many fabulous cities they had built, and were not given to wandering like the landless Arabized tribes from central Asia.
According to Drussila Houston, they were fond of village life, society, the dance and music. They were good cultivators of the soil, traders, artisans, engineers and administrators. Like the Cushites of the Nile valley, they were wont to monumental constructions such as the Marib dam of the Himyaritic kingdom.
The Black Arabs kept close to their African Ethiopian roots. Trade and cultural exchanges were routine and marriage was contracted and conducted with the easiest of facility between Africans and Yemenites since there were no caste feelings between them.
For a number of causes, the authentic Arabs from southern Arabia migrated within the Arab Peninsula and without. These reasons can be summarized as follows:
â€¢ the disruption of their trade to the utmost degree as a result of the domination of the Anbat Kingdom in northern Hijaz, severing their trade route between Yemen in the south of Arabia and Sham in the north;
â€¢ the Roman control of maritime routes in the wake of their colonization of Egypt, Syria and northern Hijaz;
â€¢ the inter-tribal disputes within the Yemen itself â€“ namely, the clashes between the Hamdan and the Himyar tribesmen; and finally
â€¢ the collapse of Maâ€™arab Dam in 450/451 AD.
Today, one hears the delibrate or ignorant misuse and abuse of the word Arab for political purposes unconnected with the real history of the people and culture. Arab now represents a diversity of which the pale-skin type lays claim to predominance. Yet, it can not be forgotten that the original authentic Arabs were Black men and women from Africa. The children of Kush and Nimrod; the Ethiopians who emigrated to the lands of Yemen and Hadramut and Mesopotamia.
Even in these days of rank misinformation, the black skin Arabs still maintain a numerical edge over the Arabized pale skin types of today (mixed blood descendants of the Kurds, the Persians and the Turks with African Arabs). When the African Arabs (most of who claim a legitimate link to Black Yemen) are factored in with the remnants of the Black skinned Arabs of Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Oman, Yemen, and Kuwait, the Black Arabs of today still predominate in number and in importance, in the Arab world. That predominance is not accidental. It is a historical thread which remains valid even in these inauspicious post-modern times. Yes, but times come and times go, and yet the Black Arabs will remain.
Ogu Eji Ofo Anu
May 08, 2007
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Many of ancient texts quoted in this paper come from the Internet Ancient History Sourcebook. The Sourcebook is a collection of public domain and copy-permitted texts related to medieval and Byzantine history. Permission is granted to use their texts for educational purposes.
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