The Black (First) Europeans: African Slavs, African Celts
Compiled and Edited by Ogu Eji Ofo Annu
April 14, 2008
Reconstructing the phylogeny of African
mitochondrial DNA lineages in Slavs
To elucidate the origin of African-specific mtDNA lineages, revealed previously in Slavonic populations (at frequency of about 0.4%), we completely sequenced eight African genomes belonging to haplogroups L1b, L2a, L3b, L3d and M1 gathered from Russians, Czechs, Slovaks and Poles. Results of phylogeographic analysis suggest that at least part of the African mtDNA lineages found in Slavs (such as L1b, L3b1, L3d) appears to be of West African origin, testifying to an opportunity of their occurrence as a result of migrations to Eastern Europe through Iberia. However, a prehistoric introgression of African mtDNA lineages into Eastern Europe (approximately 10 000 years ago) seems to be probable only for Europeanspecific subclade L2a1a, defined by coding region mutations at positions 6722 and 12903 and detected in Czechs and Slovaks. Further studies of the nature of African admixture in gene pools of Europeans require the essential enlargement of databases of African complete mitochondrial genomes. See: Boris A Malyarchuk et. al “Reconstructing the phylogeny of African mitochondrial DNA lineages in Slavs,” European Journal of Human Genetics 9 April 2008;
However of all the non-African populations, Europeans are most closely related to Africans. As the genetic distance from Africa to Europe (16.6) is shorter than the genetic distance from Africa to East Asia (20.6) and even much shorter than the Genetic distance from Africa to Australia. Cavalli-Sforza proposes that the simplest explanation for this short genetic distance is that substantial gene exchange has taken place between the nearby continents. Cavalli-Sforza also proposes that both Asian and African populations contributed to the settlement of Europe which began 40 000 years ago. The overall contributions from Asia and Africa were estimated to be around two-thirds and one-third, respectively. Europe has a genetic variation in general of about a third of that of other continents. See: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_Europe
It is a further surprise that the Epipalaeolithic Natufian of Israel from whom the Neolithic realm was assumed to arise has a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa. … The data treated here support the idea that the Neolithic moved out of the Near East into the circum-Mediterranean areas and Europe by a process of demic diffusion but that subsequently the in situ residents of those areas, derived from the Late Pleistocene inhabitants, absorbed both the agricultural life way and the people who had brought it. See: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/1/242
“In its former name, Csechkoslovakia, is preserved the racial roots, Slav. Two countries were formed from the breakup of that country: Slovakia, and the Csech Republic; it’s identity now lost in the new appelation.
But, both hide the more ancient and more original name of Csechkoslovakia which was Bohemia. Bohemia the name given the land by the incursive Germanic tribes who found African (by phenotype) Celts calling themselves the Boii. And, from that tribal name the land they lived on was called by the Germans, Bohemia.
In its original, earliest, and longest phase (Africans were there from paleolithic times), it was African. See Marc Washington: @ http://www.beforebc.de/all_europe/02-16-800-00-18.html; http://www.beforebc.de/all_europe/05-09-100-00-01.html