The Greater Igbo Nation – By – Ishaq D. Al-Sulaimani

THE GREATER IGBO NATION
(Identifying Igbo Variants During the Era of the Slave Trade)

By
Ishaq D. Al-Sulaimani
Vernon (Alufiel) Grier, Ed.D

THE GREATER IGBO NATION(IDENTIFYING IGBO VARIANTS
DURING THE ERA OF THE SLAVE TRADE)
INTRODUCTION

It is universally recognized that Igbo is the correct spelling of the tribe that currently comprises the majority of the inhabitants of south-eastern Nigeria and of whom are readily associated with the Biafran revolution, however during the time of the Trans Atlantic Slave Trade the”Igbo Nation “ was divided into a number of sub-tribe variant
identities which were most commonly expressed in the Egbo,Egba Ebo and Ibo forms.

The purpose of this writing is to promote the understanding that the majority of the captives taken from Africa for enslavement in the Americas were of Igbo origins by identifying the role of the sub-tribe variants during the slave trade and their recognized status as being part of a once greater and more inclusive Igbo identity.

The majority of Igbo intellectuals continue to teach that the Igbo
variants such as the Ibo,Ebo,and Egbo are European corruptions of
the exclusively indigenous and proper Igbo.

In defense of their claim they often site the words of James Africanus Beale Horton who states that the Igbo spelling is the original of the nation,while avoiding his more detailed description concerning the indigenous usages of Ibo,Ebo and Egbo as it relates to the inhabitants of various towns and regions.

“ Egbo, Igbo, Ebo and Ibo are the various spellings met within books
describing the race that inhabits part of the coast. Amongst the soft Isuama and Elugu the soft Ibo or Ebo is used but amongst the inhabitants of the coast such as Bonny and Okrika the harsher name Egbo is prevalent. In the interior north of the territory the nations are called Igbo which appears more the original name of the inhabitants.” (HORTON 1969:154)

The altering of the name Igbo was initially implemented with the intent
of establishing independence from the “Greater Igbo entity”,while at the same time maintaining the natural ancestral link with the main and originating body.

The often hostile reaction and rejection on the part of the Igbo towards the seceding Egbo, Ebo and Ibo gradually weakened the bonds of brotherhood ultimately resulting in the emergence of such “non-Igbo” tribes as the Efik, Ibibio and Oron of Calabar,the Egba and Igbo-Mina of Yorubaland and the Ewe and Ga of Ghana and the Fongbe of Dahomey.

The altering of the letters in a name to create an independent identity
such as that of Egbo,Ebo,and Ibo which at some “ ancient “ point derived out of the original Igbo continued after the Biafran War in regards to the Iwerre people as pointed out by Professor Ben O. Nwabueze.

“ It is well to note that of the Igbo border communities in Benue State
as well as those in and around Port Hacourt now strenuously disclaim
their Igbo identity. This disclaimer is manifest in practical terms by the
latter changing their names of their villages by prefixing them with a “ R “ so that Umuokoro becomes Rumuokoro, Umuigbo becomes Rumuigbo, Umumasi becomes Rumumasi,Umukorusha becomes Rumukorosha and so on. The intention is to make them not look or sound like Igbo names.”

Throughout this presentation I will be using Igbo as an umbrella term
describing the tribe in a general sense and as a specific reference for the majority of the tribe presently inhabiting Southeastern Nigeria and of whom are readily associated with the Biafran revolution. Egbo will primarily refer to the Efik and Ibibio also known as the Cross River or Ekpe Tribes.

The term Ebo will refer to the Igbo descended Mina Tribes of Ghana and Benin(Dahomey) which include the Ewe, Fon(Fongbe) and the Ga-Adangbe. The Ebo classification will also include the Igbo descended captives of Angola, while Ibo will be applied historically to the “ Western Igbo “ and those of Mozambique.

Egba will be used to describe the largest Igbo descended tribe living in
Yorubaland (Southwest Nigeria) inhabiting the Osugun State,while Igbo-Mina will address another Igbo descended tribe living in the Kwara State of Yorubaland.

THE EGBO ARE IGBO –

The majority of the captives taken to the Americas were from the coastal Egbo tribes and were referred to as Calabaris.

Presently in Igboland they are known as the Efik,Ibibio,Oron and Ekoi etc. and are well associated with a secret society known as the Egbo Society.

Although the present day Efik and Ibibio living in Nigeria generally deny
ancestral relations with the Igbo, this was not always the case as described by A.E. Afigbo, Professor of History at the University of Nsukka.

“ Until three or four decades ago there were many Efik and Ibibio
communities which proudly laid claims to Igbo origins but today would
treat such suggestions as an affront. Here we find the classic example of the trick which time and political consciousness play on historical writings.”

The explorer William Balfour Baike writes in 1854 that the Efik mark
was formerly the same as that used by some Igbos but more recently they have adopted another.

Egbo captives meaning those such as the Igbo descended Efik and Ibibio were targeted throughout the entire period of the slave trade beginning with the Spanish and Portuguese traders of the 16th century and continuing to arrive in the Americas throughout the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries.

The Aro slave trading network of Arochukwu first established itself in
1620 with the intent of enslaving the Egbo tribes. In regards to this task they settled in the most southeastern corner of Igboland,lands belonging to the semi-autonomous Egbo nation called Egbo-Shari.

Once settled, the Aro began to emulate and infiltrate the Egbo leaders in an attempt to deceitfully manipulate and redirect their governing institutions into a slave trading operative.

The coastal Egbo who were generally known to the slave traders as
Calabaris provided the majority of “ Igbo descended “ captives and were often referred to as KWA IBO. The general tendency to associate the Calabaris with “ Igbo “ is a result of the understanding that the Egbo tribes were related to the “ Greater Igbo Nation “ and therefore Herskovits refers to Calabari as a generic name for “ Ibos “ in the United States.

In Cuba it is understood that those known as Calabaris descend from
the Egbo tribes such as the Efik and Ibibio. During the time of the slave
trade the most powerful and numerous of the Egbo tribes were those
known as THE KWA. In generalizing the Egbo Nation with the dominant
Kwa tribe, all of the Egbo tribes were collectively known as Kwa Ibo.
Through the dominance of the Kwa tribe,the Egbo Society was also
known as the AbaKwa Society meaning of the Kwa people.To this day
the Egbo Society continues to actively function in Cuba.

The Egbo Society communicates by using a secret Igbo writing system
known as that of Nsibidi. Nsibidi symbols were recently discovered to be engraved on a number of African-American tombstones in Virginia. This most accurately attests to the Egbo ancestry of the deceased as these writings were sacredly maintained by the Egbo Society and were associated as Igbo through the undestanding that the Egbo tribes were of Igbo origins.

The word “Mbakara” which African captives used to describe the”white man” in the United States is of Egbo origins as it can be traced directly back to the Efik and Ibibio.

Egbo captives were so numerous and dominant in Virginia that some
historians of the Colonial Era actually referred to Virginia as “Igboland”.
By the 1700’s Virginia plantation owners gathered to discuss the “Igbo
problem “ as the hardworking but resistant Egbo are acknowledged to
have dominated the Virginia trade. This further lends credence to the
alleged Willie Lynch speech of 1712 which advocated the implementation of harsh measures of containment designed to eradicate Egbo culture and in turn slave resistance on all levels. The speech of proposals was delivered by Willie Lynch on the Bank of the James River in Virginia, in 1712. 120 years later Nat Turner led a revolt in Virginia that killed approximately 60 whites. In accordance with his Igbo(Egbo) origins, Turner bestowed upon himself the honors of Odogo,a ceremonial ritual in which an Igbo warrior places feathers in his cap to signify the killing of a person of rank in war. After killing Hark Travis,the head of the Travis farm,Turner placed feathers in his cap and a red sash around his waist.

Douglas Chambers recently published a book which discusses the alleged role of the Igbo in the murder of President James Madison’s grandfather who was killed in Virginia. Igbo (Egbo) revolts were so frequent and intense throughout Virginia that it was understood that this revolutionary mentality on the part of the Egbo captives was an obvious reflection of Igbo culture as the Igbo proverb states;

“ What saves also kills and what kills also saves.”

It is of interest to note that James Africanus Beale Horton who clearly
understood the proper application and usage of the term Igbo and its sub-tribe variants such as the Egbo,Ibo and Ebo chose to dominantly use the Egbo variant when speaking of the tribe in general,while remaining in clear avoidance of using the Igbo spelling. This is obviously a reflection of his descendancy from coastal Egbo captives who were resettled in Sierra Leonne.

“ The Egboes are considered the most imitative and emulative
people in the whole of Western Africa,place them where you will or introduce them to any manners of customs and you will find they easily adapt to them.”

“ The population of Egbo is unknown.” (HORTON 1969:157)

THE EBO ARE IGBO-

In accordance with his origins in the Essaka village of Benin kingdom, Olaudah Equiano referred to his people as being that of Ebo and never Igbo.

“ The West Indies planters prefer the slaves of Benin or Eboe.”

“ Deformity is indeed unknown amongst us.I mean that of shape. Numbers of natives of Eboe in London might be brought in support of this assertion for in regard to complexion ideas of beauty are wholly relative.” (GatesJr.1987:17)

The Ebo connection to Benin is further supported by Onyebuechi Amene who states the following;

“ Ebo is a Benin name. It was the Binis that went to Igala and
formed the Igala Royal families that took the name to Igala.”

“ The Ebo family of Isiskre still retain their ancestral Bini
names.”

Those captives who came to the Americas from Ghana and Benin
(Dahomey) were those known as Ebo or the Mina tribes. In fact a Mina tribe remains in the Kwara State of Yorubaland and refer to themselves as Igbo-Mina using the original Igbo spelling of the name.

It was the Portuguese Jewish slave traders who began selling Ebo captives from Benin to Ghana where they were used to work the Gold Mines. These traders coined the Ebo as “ Mina tribes “ meaning those destined for El-Mina, a Portuguese word meaning “ The Mines “. El-Mina became central to the slave trade in Ghana.

The most powerful amongst the Ebo(Mina) to arrive in Ghana were those called Ewe.

The word Ewe derives from the Igbo name Eke. Eke in the Igbo culture
refers to the feminine, motherly or birth giving attributes of the Supreme Deity Chineke. Through the interchangeable nature of the letters v and w Ewe is also pronounced with the v sound of Eve(Yeveh). It is from the life giving Eke,Ewe or Eve that a female lamb is called a Ewe and the mother of all humanity Eve.

Some reports estimate that over 3 million Ewe were brought to the
American South alone. Amongst the followers of African religions in Cuba, Ewe refers to the life giving herbs,while in Haiti,the Ewe deity Nanan Boclou is remembered as the god of life giving herbs and medicine..

The Ewe are closely related to the Mina tribe known as the Fon(Fongbe). In fact the word voodoo often associated with Haitian religious practice is a Fongbe word. The last Fon ruler of Dahomey was named Agbo.

Agbo was exiled to Guinea where he remained until his death.

In 1967, Haiti became the only country outside of Africa to recognize
the independent Igbo Republic of Biafra in seccession from Nigeria
The vote of confidence in favor of Biafra on the part of this tiny Carribean nation was due to the Haitian’s memory of their own “ Igbo “ revolutionary past. The numerous and successful slave revolts in Haiti are clearly documented as “Igbo” uprisings but yet we find the strongest presence of the ancestral deity Legba (Eshu) amongst the Haitians.

In Haiti Legba is described as the most powerful of all the Loa. He is the guardian of the sun and his color is black The guardian of the sun is most likely a code for the “ Land of the Rising Sun “ which is an ancient Igbo reference for the Land of Biafra. The Igbo revolutionaries and devoutees of Legba (Eshu) in Haiti were in actuality the Igbo descended Mina tribes such as the Ewe and Fon(Fongbe) who are well associated with the worship and reverence for Legba.

The other major non-Akan Igbo descended tribe to be sold from Ghana
are those known as the Ga. The Ga like the Ewe are known to have earlier “ Nigerian “ origins which more specifically equate with that of the Igbo.

A section of Belize City is known as Ebo Town. Most of the African captives arriving in Belize were imported from Jamaica and in turn it is acknowledged that the African captives of Jamaica primarily came from Ghana.

The Jamaican Festival Jonkonnu evolved out of the Ga Festival of Homowo and thus the African descended population of Jamaica can trace their Igbo origins through the Ga and the Ebo-Mina tribes as they became known.

Captives arriving in the Americas from Angola were also known as Ebo.
The city Ebo still exists in Angola. The Gullah whose name derives from Angola are an African-American community who live on the Sea Isles off of the coast of Georgia and South Carolina areas which record a majority of Angolan captives.

The Gullah are currently engaged in a strenuous battle to secure a memorial at a site called Ebo Landing. Ebo Landing was named in memory of the countless Ebo who drowned themselves in protest of their enslavement.

Mr. Utsey is a Gullah meaning a descendant of Angolan-Ebo captives.
He recently wrote to the Igbo Studies Association in quest of information concerning his lost Ebo identity. He stated that he was raised in an area which was approximately 45minutes from Ebo Landing. D.N.A. testing has confirmed his Igbo (Ebo) origins.

The presence of Angolan captives in Virginia is reflected in such names as Angola Creek,and the Angolan Quarter. What is of interest is the fact that there were many Angolans acknowledged to have been living in Virginia alongside of the Igbo (Egbo), however there is no evidence or documentation that indicates that the Angolans were any different in regards to submitting to enslavement in contrast to the Igbo(Egbo). In accordance with their Ebo culture the Angolan captives were known as runaways. In 1744,a runaway by the name of Angola Tom was captured in Orange County. This being similar to Jamaica where an
advertisement for wanted slaves lists the two largest groups of runaways as being those of Igbo and Angola. Igbos and Angolans are acknowledged to have dominantly co-existed in Delaware without any distinguishing differences in temperment and behaviors particularly in response to enslavement.

With the abolition of the slave trade Igboland experienced the largest
population increase in all of Africa. Since Igboland was the area most
affected by the slave trade once left unmolested the population that supplied the most captives would naturally respond with the largest population increase.

Angola on the other hand is noted as the area which experienced the largest population decrease after the slave trade ended. Being that Angola provided many captives for enslavement to the New World,a population increase similar to that which was experienced in Igboland would be expected unless of course the captives taken from Angola were not from the native population but were imported Ebos as advocated in this writing. It is also interesting that in the case of the Angolan and Mozambique captives they are generally identified in the classification of country as opposed to any specific tribe.

Angola’s role as a Portuguese slave colony was confronted by Queen Nzinga who in 1624 declared all territory in Angola as free country, meaning that all captives reaching Angola would be declared free upon arrival.

Queen Nzinga’s efforts only temporarily hindered the mission of the slave traders who continued to import and export Ebo throughout the course of the slave trade.

THE IBO ARE IGBO

Although Mozambique did become a Portuguese colony similar to that of Angola,the Ibo inhabitants had already been living there centuries before the arrival of the Europeans and were residing under the Ibo tribal heading. The Ibo of Mozambique are presently known as Chi-
Mwani and speak a dialect called Ibo. In Mozambique there are two coastal cities named Ibo conveniently located for the importing and exporting of slaves.

In their early attempts to colonize Mozambique the Portuguese established their first trading post on what is known as the Ibo Islands and by 1754 Ibo was chosen by the Portuguese as their main clearing house for slaves.

It is estimated that by 1807 80% of the captives destined for the Americas were being imported from Angola, Mozambique and the Igbos of Biafra.

Beginning in the 16th century when the Spanish and Portuguese were in charge of the slave trade,they transported 15,000 slaves from Angola to America every year. The Ebos of Angola and the Ibos of Mozambique were classified amongst those of Congo. The Congo slaves began arriving in such places as Cuba in the 1500’s. The Portuguese began dispersing Igbo captives across Africa at the beginning of the slave trade in the 16th century. Those
sent to such places as San Thome and Gabon were of Ibo origins as
acknowledged with the first recorded Ibo slave Caterina Ybou who like
her fellow Ibo captives arrived at San Thome and Gabon to work on the
newly established slave plantations. In Gabon Ibo runaways were so numerous that one of the largest mountain in Gabon became a place of hidden refuge known as Ibounji. It is acknowledged that most of the captives that came to San Thome and Gabon were from the Congo and in turn it is acknowledged that these captives were Ibo. Present day Congo cities such as Ibondo, Iboko,and Ibola are reminiscient of the once numerous Ibo captive population.

THE EGBA ARE IGBO-

Southwest Nigeria is commonly referred to as “ Yorubaland “ which is home to a mosaic of distinct tribes and tribal states who collectively form the present day Yoruba tribal identity, however the original Yoruba designation exclusively referred to the Oyo, a tribe who
at one time lived amongst the Hausas in what is presently Northern Nigeria.

In fact the word Yoruba is of Hausa origins.

Misrepresentations of Nigeria the Facts and the Figures by Yusef Bala
Usman PH.D – Center for Democratic Development, Research and Training-

“ The fact is that the earliest record we have of the use of the very
name Yoruba was in the Hausa Language and it seems to have applied
to the people of the Alfinate Oyo. Don Masani wrote a book on the Muslim scholars of the Yarriba.”

Over the centuries the Oyo were gradually driven southward where
they in turn became the conquerers of the indigenous people of “South-west Nigeria “ who like their Southeastern counterparts were referred to as the Igbo. The Southwestern Igbo were protected by an army of masked warriors known as the Egbo or Egba.

Olumida Lucas states that the name Egba is synonymous with Igbo. The indigenous Igbo (Egba) lived in the forest area surrounding Ife. The name Ife derives from an Igbo system of “divination” called Ifa. It was at Ife that the Igbo (Egba) were first confronted by Odudwa who along with his youngest son Oranyan are remembered as the founders of the Oyo (Yoruba) Kingdom at Ife.

At the time of Odudwa’s invasion the indigenous Igbo(Egba) resided under the leadership of Obatala whose name means the Oba or Obi Ala. Obi or Oba was initially an Igbo title of authority and Ala is the land deity of the Igbo. Amongst the Egbo tribes of Calabar the Oba appears in the form of the deity Obassi who is also called Abassi.

Like the indigenous forest dwelling Igbos,the present day Egbas are
historically associated with the Obas. In fact the name of the Egba ruling council known as the Ogboni relates to the Igbo word Ogbonna which indirectly refers to an elder.

The Wikipedia Encyclopedia- “ Yoruba “

“ The numerous Egba communities found in the forests below Oyo’s
Savannah region were a notable example of elected Obas though the Ogboni ,a legislative judicial council of notable elders wielded the actual political power” ( The Ogboni “ Cult “ played a central role in the Brazil slave rebellion of 1809.)

In their initial encounters the Oyo (Yoruba) were unable to penetrate the frightening Egba(Igbo) as these intimidating masked forest dwellers mastered the art of instilling fear into their opponents. In defense of their homeland the Egba(Igbo) went further in raiding and burning down the intruding Oyo(Yoruba) settlements in the town at Ife.

The Egba were first defeated through the scheming of a woman named
Moremi who allowed herself to be captured as she used her beauty to seduce the Igbo (Egba) King into revealing the secrets of the masked Egba warriors.

She later returned to the Oyo providing her countrymen with the necessary information needed to finally conquer the Igbo(Egba) Kingdom. This defeat of the Igbo(Egba) is celebrated every year at the annual Eid Festival of Ife.

In 1835, the Egba declared themselves to be independent of the Oyo
(Yoruba) and in response the Oyo along with the Ijebu drove them out
of Ibadan, Ife and other towns north of their present day capital of Abeokuta.

As a result of contact between the Ijebu and the indigenous Igbo the city Ijebu-Igbo was established.The founding of the Egba Kingdom of Abeokuta in 1837 is considered to be the last kingdom to be recognized within the “Yoruba federation of tribes .” By this time the term Yoruba had expanded beyond its original usage in referring to the Oyo and now generally applied to all of the inhabitants of Southwestern Nigeria.

The tradition of the masked Egba(Igbo) warriors is likewise documented
in Southeast Nigeria amongst the followers of the Egbo Society of Calabar.

EGBO- A secret society at one time existing as a political bond between various towns especially Eastern Nigeria. – World Book Dictionary A-K 1974.

In 1876, the Scottish Presbyterian missionary Mary Slessor came to Calabar. According to the accountings of Ms. Slessor in the “ Igbo “ dominated areas a secret society known as Egbo went around in masks and beat people. She claimed to have chased a group of Egbo and tore off a mask. The image of Mary Slessor would later appear on the 10 pound British Monetary note. ( The Egbo/Egba warriors seem to have a problem or weakness in defending themselves against foreign women. First Moremi in the west informs her people to burn the masks of the Egba(Igbo) warriors and later in the east Mary Slessor
claims to have ripped a mask off of an Egbo man.)

The Egba of Abeokuta worship a deity called the Oro. Oro is a god who
resides in a bush. In honor of Oro a sacred ceremony is performed at a secluded spot inside the bush. This ceremony is called Igbo Oro and is very similar to bush ceremonies observed by the Egbo Society of Calabar. There are many similar practices and rituals performed by both the Egba of “ Yorubaland “ and the Egbo Society of the east. In this regard it is of interest to note the name of the Biafran Officer from Ejagham(Calabar), the formidable Captain Ndom Egba.

Although the concept of Legba varies it began as an ancestral
memorial designed to maintain the Egba identity during times of
persecution and hardship. Legba is also known as Eshu and relates
to the deity Isua which is honored in the Egbo Society as the Master of Ceremonies. Legba was also activated in the New World as a means
to counter modern slavery and its attempts to wipe out the Egba identity of the captives. The deity is described in Yoruba mythology as the “Divine trickster” because of his ability to outwit his fellow gods. Evidences of Legba have been documented throughout the Americas in such places as Brazil,Guyana,Trinidad,Haiti, and New Orleans under various names such as Lebba,Legba,Elegbara and Liba. It is the Igbo descended Mina tribes such as the Ewe and Fon who are most readily associated with the Legba variant.

The term Elegbara is of great significance because not only does
the name appear in the Americas amongst Igbo descended captives
meaning the Egba and the Mina tribes but it is also the name of a tribe
that lives on the Southern Sudanese- Northern Ugandan border and of
whom are likewise related to the Igbos of Nigeria as they are known by
the variant of Elegbara being called the Lugbara. When travelling in Uganda I personally met a Lugbara Doctor of Medicine who previously studied alongside of Igbo students from Nigeria. The Lugbara man stated that he could understand much of the Igbo Language which held a great deal in common with his own Lugbara Tongue. Through numerous and prominent cultural and linguistic affinities the Lugbara man was definitely convinced that the Lugbara and the Igbo are akin.

Similar to the Igbo of the east,the western Igbo descended Egba were
always known to be revolutionaries in continual revolt against the Colonial British authorities, European missionaries, and their traditional Yoruba enemies being primarily that of the Oyo and Ijebu. In 1929 the Igbo market woman of the east led a tax revolt against the Colonial British Government which became known as the Abia Women’s Tax Revolt. The Egba women carried out a similar tax revolt in 1947 known as the Abeokuta Women’s Tax Revolt of Egba Market Women. The Egba market women were led by Fumilayo Ransome Kuti,a teacher and wife of a prominent Egba educationalist. The protest of over 10,000 Egba women caused the governing authorities to abolish taxes on women for several years and the Alake who conspired with the Colonial authorities spent three years in exile in Oshogbo.

Many of the positive social and ethical traits which are often associated with the Igbo are historically documented as being characteristic of the Egba as well. Robert Campbell who along with Martin Robison Delaney signed a pact with Egba leaders for the right of resettlement of African – Americans to “ Egbaland” states that the Egba are the most industrious people on the face of the earth.(Burton 1863:101)

James Africanus Beale Horton concerning the Egba(Akus):
“ It must be admitted without question that there are no people on the coast who are so hard working and so long suffering in proportion to what they expect in return. “ He also went on to say that the Egba as a race are amongst the most industrious, perservering and hard working people on the coast of Africa.(Horton 1969:149)

In terms of education the Egba like the Igbo are deserving of great acclaim. The first Black-African to receive a nobel prize in Literature was an Egba man named Wole Soyinka who like the Igbo actively opposed the Nigerian Government during the Biafran War. Soyinka was detained by agents of the state between 1967 and 1969.

In this regard Booker T. Washington whose middle name Tanifeani attests to Egba origins should be noted as the founder of the famous Tuskeegee Institute.

In Brazil an organized Ibo revolt led to the establishment of the Independent “Ibo Republic” of Palmares which lasted 45 years. Being consistent with “ Igbo resistance “ Palmares ended in a massive suicide of Ibo warriors who preferred death to capture. The city Ibotirama testifies to a strong Ibo presence in the region,however as in the case of Haiti, Afro-Brazilian culture and religious practices are more readily associated with that of the “ Yoruba “(Egba) including
the worship of Legba.

Olukwumu is spoken in Brazil and interestingly enough in a few Western Ibo communities such as Anioma, Idumu-ogu,Ubulubu,Ugbodu,Ugboba and Okwumuzu.In fact communities bearing the name Olukwumu(Olukumi) still exist amongst the Western Ibo. Although this dialect cannot be found in the Yoruba heartland it remains in reference as a “ lost dialect of the Yoruba Language”. All of the above clearly indicates that many of the captives in Brazil including those who successfully revolted in the establishment of

Palmares were of western Ibo origins and like the Egba are being mistakenly classified as Yoruba. In Brazil the Western Ibo were accompanied by a massive importing of Ebos from Angola and Ibos from Mozambique,the latter further accounting for the dominant and preferable Ibo usage amongst the Brazilian captives.

In Cuba the Olukwumu were referred to as the Olukumi,Lukumi or Akumi. The Egba have traditionally resisted identification with the term Yoruba preferring to be called Egbas or Akus. Slaves in Cuba known as the Lukumi or Akumi meaning of the Egba people were well known for suicide resistance which often found them hanging from the branches of the Guasima trees. This being very similar to the “Igbo” resisters of Haiti who were likewise remembered for suicide resistance as understood in the Haitian saying; Ebos pend cor a yo
meaning the Ebos hang themselves. The relationship between the names Olukwumu and Olukumi with that of Akumi (Aku or Egba) further solidifies the common origins which link the Western Ibo and the Egba peoples.

The Egba who like the Igbo were originally known as forest dwellers are
acknowledged to have been at one time living east of their present day location.

The process which led to the vanquished links of brotherhood between the Igbo and the Egba can be characterized by the often strained relations that currently exist between some of the eastern and western Igbo communities of today.

Biafran Nigerian World Message Board-JAN.6th 2004 Efulefu of Western
Kind.

“ ………. lately some misguided Igbo people of Anioma/Ibusa (in short Western Igbo stock) have been making anti-Igbo noises. I read that a group of 419 purporting to represent Anioma and all Western Igbo issued a statement disavowing their Igboness……. If you are from Western Igboland and you no longer wish to consider yourself Igbo you have only one option. Pack your damned bags and leave otherwise we are coming!!!

History not only records the common origins of the Egba and the Igbo
but their common destiny as they are identified as two groups most
devastated by the slave trade which is expressed in the following;
“ The Egba have suffered more than any other nation in West Africa
from the depredation of the slave trade.”(Horton 1969:146)

“ It is stated that a dispersion of the Egba in the 1st quarter of the 17th century scattered the exiled Egba to Sierra Leone,United States, Gambia, Fernando Po, Hausa, Borneo, Central Africa, The Fezzan, Egypt and even Istanbul.” (Horton 1969:146)

“Igboland was one of the areas most affected by the slave trade. Igbos were exported as slaves throughout the whole period of the trade.” (Isichei 1973:45)

The Four African Societies of Modern Cuba represent the various elements which comprise the Igbo ancestry of African-Americans.

1. LUKUMI (EGBA) – The Lukumi Society whose name derives from Akumi meaning those of the Akus who are the Igbo descended Egba and their brethren the Ketu. They are often mistakenly referred to as Yoruba,an estimated 275,000 were brought to Cuba.

2. ARARA (EBO) – The Arara Society pertains to the Igbo descended Mina tribes who were designated to work the Gold Mines of Ghana and of whom were sold to the Americas from Sao George which became known as El-Mina (THE MINES). El-Mina was the center of the gold trade and the focus of the greater slave trade. The main Mina tribes of Ghana were the Igbo descended Ewe and Ga,while in Dahomey they were called Fon(Fongbe) or Abo as in Abomey. The origins of the Mina tribes is maintained in the name of the Igbo-Mina tribe of The Kwara State in Yorubaland. Most Mina tribes were known as Ebo and approximately 200,000 arrived in Cuba.

3.The Egbo Society(EGBO)- The Egbo Society consists of the descendants of the coastal “Igbo Nation” of Egbo-Shari. The present day Efik and Ibibio are amongst the most prominent tribes to be historically associated with the Egbo Society,however during the time of the slave trade the largest and most powerful tribe within the Egbo nation were those known as the Kwa and thus the Egbo Society was also known as AbaKwa(Abacua).

The majority of the Kwa were sold to the Americas during the Slave trade. Slave traders often referred to the Egbo as Calabaris or Kwa Ibo. A division of the Egbo Society is called Ekpri Akata. Many present day Yorubas and Africans in general now derogatorily refer to African-Americans as Akata (Akuta). Since there was such a large number of Akata(Egbo) sold during the slave trade the term Akata became synonymously associated with those being enslaved. Approximately 240,000 Egbo were brought to Cuba.

4. BAKONGO (IBO/EBO) – The Congo Society is made up of the
descendants of Ibo captives who arrived in the Americas from
Angola(Ebo),Mozambique,and the Congo and Gabon.Ibo captives
were shipped to the Americas throughout the 16th,17th and 18th
centuries. Their practices are often reflective of that of the slave-
trading tribes of whom they encountered such as the Imbangala,
MaKua and Lemba.

Bibliography
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Known as the Niger and Tsadde- Frank Cass LTD
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in History and Memory.Oxford University Press NewYork 2003
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Press,Boston 1958
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Peoples- Edinburgh University Press-Edinburgh1969(1868)
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Press-Cambridge 1995.
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1976.
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The Genesis of a Relationship – Faber and Faber Pub London
1973.
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-Lagos 1948
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Reflections in Narrative-University Press of Florida-Gainsville
1966
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Tauris pub. 1998
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and Winston-NewYork 1965
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18th Century Chesapeake and Low Country-University of
North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill-1998
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www.secureworldwidelife.org/expeditions/mozambique
dispatch9.html-March 2004
25.Nwabueze,Ben O. Prof.-The Igbos in the Context of Modern
Government and Politics in Nigeria(a call for self examination
and Correction) Ahiojuku Lecture 1985
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/chido.igbosoribos.html
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House Publications 1995
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messageboard.biafranigeriaworld.com/ultimitebb.cgi/ubb/get/
f/l/t/001374/p/l.html
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of the Igbo Civilization in the Cultural Theatre of Igboland in Southern
Nigeria- Ahiojuku Lecture-1987
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of the Living Gods Pt.1- www.onitshaado.net
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Press-Madison 1992
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London 1912,Negro University Press NewYork 1969
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Virginia Commonwealth University-A Gullah raised 45 minutes from
Ibo Landing-(Igbo origins confirmed through D.N.A testing-Igbo
Studies Association- isa@truman.edu
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Diaspora-Sutton Pub.-1997
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44 thoughts on “The Greater Igbo Nation – By – Ishaq D. Al-Sulaimani”

  1. assalaamu alikum dear sir its me aazam from india i want know about the fruit & seed name akin in english topper i need this akin seed for food purpose were shall i get in nigeria what will be the price in kg i came to know that akin seed is mostly nigerian people are using this for soup purpose is there anybody to send this to me plz on payment

  2. Please take Ishaq’s claims with a grain of salt. This essay claims that virtually every ethnicity of note in western and central (and even southeastern) Africa are of Igbo descent. This is simply inaccurate–these are all proud ethnic nationalities with their own identities. James Africanus Horton certainly did not claim Egba were Igbo–he explicitly identifies them with Aku, the Sierra Leonean term for Yoruba. Likewise, the Efik and Ibibio are the originators of the Ekpe initation society also known as Egbo–it is not the same thing as being Igbo. These claims make as much sense as claiming that the Japanese emperors are ancestors of the Edo of southern Nigeria because of the Edo Meija, or that Ojibwe Native Americans are descended from Igbos because Oji is a common Igbo word. That’s not scholarship, so please stop misleading people. Read real Igbo scholars like Elizabeth Ischei or Adiele Afigbo for accurate Igbo history. Toyin Falola etc. for Yoruba history, Ekpo Eyo for Efik/Ibibio history and so on. Ishaq has no verifiable record of scholarship on these topics and is spreading misinformation all over the Web.

    1. @Concerned Reader: As a scientist I can authoritatively tell you that all the tribes mentioned in this article share the same DNA haplogroup E1B1a…

  3. Concerned Reader,
    I believe that you are not just
    concerned but are frightened about change and
    revelations of truth which have the potential to
    awaken the masses. Your fear has led you to
    hypocrisy and a baseless critique of propaganda.
    1. Your campaign of propaganda begins with an
    attempt to deviate from the actual research and
    corresponding conclusions by focusing on
    phonological similarities which are clearly not the
    basis for any of the findings mentioned in the essay.
    Obviously without any supporting information it would
    be ludicrous to simply draw a correlation between the Edo of
    Japan(Asia) and the Edo of Nigeria in Africa.

    An example of your propaganda:

    I make a statement that my friend
    Mike owns a Bike. Your response is that
    just because my friend is named Mike
    doesn’t mean he owns a bike. The fact that
    the name MIKE and BIKE rhyme had nothing
    to do with my conclusive statement.

    You hide behind the names of Isichei and
    Afigbo in an attempt to comfort the audience
    although their names are clearly referenced
    as sources for the essay. Your concept of
    research is based on reporting,mimicking
    and plagarizing others. You challenge the
    Egba/Igbo connection by stating that James
    Africanus Horton never claimed that the Egba
    were Igbo while I never based that particular
    claim on any such statement from Horton.
    Then you ignore Horton’s statement that in
    Calabar the Igbo are called Egbo and instead
    pretend that the rhyming names have nothing
    to do with each other. I noticed that you failed
    to comment on the Yoruba tribe known as
    Igbo-Mina. I guess Igbo doesn’t rhyme with
    Igbo. Concerned Reader, your concern or fear
    is not about whether the findings are true or not.
    Your fear is the potential for understanding and
    possible realignment. If I had wrote a rhyming
    essay about Yemen and Lemon you would not
    have even bothered to comment.

  4. Concerned Reader,
    The problem is that in
    your haste to critique you have focused on
    phonological similarities rather than the
    content of the research. To draw affinities
    between the Edo of Japan and the Edo of
    Nigeria would obviously be ludicrous without
    any supporting research and documentation.
    You were correct in stating that Horton never
    stated that the Egba were Igbo and likewise
    I never claimed that he made such a statement
    However Horton was very clear in stating that in
    Calabar Egbo is used in place of the original
    Igbo a point that you obviously overlooked.
    In studying Igbo history I likewise encourage
    the writings of Ishei and Afigbo who were both
    referenced in the essay .

  5. Ishaq,
    I believe without any research that there are many Igbo’s in the carribean islands. Before coming across your write up or research,i have ALWAYS believed that there is somethng between Ndigbo and a country like Haiti.

    Please Ishaq, do well to give us a detailed reseach on the true nature of The Greater Igbo Nation,especially in the Carribeans.
    Welldone for a nice job,this is just the begining as some of us will soon join your kind in this kind of research,to correct the LIES OF THE ENEMIES OF NDIGBO.

    TONYBEDE,
    Msc Student
    Unilag.

    1. Tonybede,
      If you are interested
      in participating or the planning of
      Igbo projects in the carribean
      contact me at the Cultural
      Education Institute.

      ishaqa777@hotmail.com.
      All requests will be forwarded
      to Dr. Grier for consideration

  6. There might be historical evidence to show that the Benins of Midwestern Nigeria descended from the Sudanese Hebrews having originally settled in Egypt. The Ibos as well as the Yorubas and many other tribes of West Africa and Southern Africa are the Lost tribe of Isreal. Cultural antecedents may be more perceptible in some tribes who held on to the Hebrew traditions but may not be evident in others who had followed pagan gods and traditions. This is worth researching.

  7. But the Yoruba are clear about their history. Besides their cultural disimilarity with the Jews, the Yoruba are keenly aware, and lucid about their origins. I don’t also think that a Bini would claim that the Bini were Hebrews. Careful folks. Not everybody in the world came from Israel.

  8. From the land of uprising risen sun – east Bight of Biafra in west coast Atlantic ocean Africa we like to share with you backward race culture and value from the symbol seal of cosmic kind of beast nature made idol glorious spiritual head being host body of human race in air form central core fluid intelligent system atmosphere.

  9. The majority of slaves were not called Kalabari, slaves were sold at the Kalabari ports that does not make them Kalabari. ( not Calabaris) and Kalabari are not Igbo. They are an Ijaw tribe who originated from Ijaw and Isoko descent . Later on many took Igbo wives from Aro and Oguta, so we do have Igbo blood. The writer of this article it seems knows of Nigeria by text books and has very little on ground information. He seems to be confused by any name similarities. Egbo is a secret society of the Efik and Ibibbio groups, it is possible they are related to Igbo but Egbo secret society I do not think is evidence, btw I think this society is also called Ekpe. Could we all be related, I believe so, but his article is full of a lot of inaccuracies, also it is Ondo not Onde. This article is a bunch of mis-information as we say in Nigeria lot of sugar has been added to the truth.

  10. The Efiks/Ibibio/Ekoi,Oron and Ejaghams are the originators/owners of ‘EKPE/EGBO/MGBE which is also known as ‘ABAKUA’ in Cuba. We are NOT a branch or a sub tribe of the IGBOS in any way form or fashion. I don’t know WHERE you got your information from,but it is TOTALLY inaccurate,misleading and fictitious!
    Also there is NO ‘CALABARI’ Tribe,but ‘KALABARI’ who in turn are NOT of Igbo origins.
    Also ‘AFIGBO’ doesn’t exist,but ‘AFIKPO’,which is NOT Igbo either.
    The EKPE cult is unique to the ethnicities I mentioned,and has remained almost intact in Cuba,and I’m pleased to say,they know who they are and what their heritage is, and it is agreed they are of the afore mentioned ethnicities…NOT IGBO!

  11. Sulaiman has a knack for facts, he only needs more research, I can direct him. The Efik are descended from the Aros who mixed with the Ibibios and later formed Calabar. It is undisputed that the slave routes all over the Bight of Biafra were Aro preserves including the Port of Calabar-The Aro are Ibo with lineages spread across the Bights of Biafra, Benin and even the Camerouns. For political expediency, the Kalabaris have transited from being Ibo to becoming just Kalabari and more recently they are now Ijaw- A man can claim to be whatever he wants to be. Facts remain that the Kalabari are Ibo who speak a mixture of the Ibo & Ijaw languages as is always characteristic of the Ibo outside the homeland. Kings Amakiri & Perekule were Ibo just like Jaja of Opobo & Oko Jumbo of Bonny – all within the same geographical region.

  12. Thank You Walter for expounding. ” …the Kalabaris have transited from being Ibo to becoming just Kalabari and more recently they are now Ijaw…” Is a very powerful statement!
    Unfortunately the relatively oppressive containment of the Igbo in the aftermath of Biafra has reinforced the splintering and separation of the remnants of the ” Greater Igbo Nation “. In recent years this triggered much tension between the Ijaw and the Igbo. I would like to share a paragraph from the writings of Lawrence Chinedu Nwobu:

    ” There seems to be an emerging consensus by the Ijaw to brand people from the Igbo speaking areas of Rivers state as non natives. The irony or rather what makes it funny, is that the Ijaw are always quick to exploit the internal divisions within the Igbo nation, to tell us that the Ikwerre’s or Etche for example are not Igbo, the obvious fact notwithstanding. The divide and rule game that is being played, is that the Ijaw’s claim that the Ikwerre or Ndoni are not Igbo when it suits their political calculations, and remembers they are Igbo when it does not suit their political purpose. This should serve as a lesson to those Rivers Igbo charlatans who make themselves pawns and clowns in the hands of their enemies by denying their identities. When the chips are down they would be reminded by their very enemies that they are Igbo.”

    http://www.nigeriavillagesquare.com/articles/lawrence-chinedu-nwobu/dr-peter-odili-and-the-ijaw-question.html

  13. Considering the huge population density in the Igbo heartland it is only normal to expect emigrations and expansions to neighboring territories.Characteristically from the 14th century the Igbos crossed the Niger to form its Western Igbo communities and contribute to the development of the great Benin Empire-Till the early 20th century Nri priests were required to perform rituals and rites during the coronation of a Bini Oba. One of them was Chima who for fear of his life had to push back home & eastward to found Onitsha during the ascendancy & power tussle involving Oba Esigie in the 15th century. Obaseki the friend and successor of Oba Nogbaisi is of Western Ibo origin particularly Akumazi. To the East the Aro-Ibo pushed to the coast and founded Calabar and many Efik and Ibibio communities- They definitely held political hegemony over these areas. To the south & coast are the Ijaws and in between they and the Ibos where many vacant Islands.The Ibo Perekule founded the Kalabari Islands which have been consolidated by another Ibo family the Ama-Akiris.-They speak Kalabari & Ibo; Bonny was founded by the Ibo, Chief Ubani -hence they spoke Ibani & Ibo; Opobo was founded by Jaja, they speak Ibani & Ibo. Kalabari & Ibani are all amalgams of Ibo & Ijaw. To the North the Ibos gradually interacted with the Idomas & Igalas and founded Ibo speaking communities like Otukpo and Ibaji. These expansions were effectively stopped by the British in the early 20th centuries.
    The Ibo world is divided into 2 viz Igbo & Olu, Igbo refers to the Igbo heartlands and Olu refers to the satellite KWA groups. The Olu is further divided into 2 viz Olu & Olu-mmili (Sounds like Olukwumi} Olu refers to the satellite communities located on solid land ie the Edo, the Igala, Idomas, Isokos, Urhobos etc while Olummili refers to communities surrounding the great River Niger & the Atlantic ie Efik, Kalabari, Bonny, Opobo ans yes much of the Western-Igbo.
    The word IGBO in much of the satellite states (since the 14th century) is a derogatory term for a bush and backward people with particular reference to their less exposed relations in the Ibo heartland. In Yoruba the word IGBO also means bush and so many communities in Yorubaland are named derivatives eg Oke-Igbo, Ado-Igbo, Igbo-Mina etc.
    The Benin Empire with its militant Ibo nature extended across much of Yorubaland, Benin Republic and parts of Ghana. The Port of Lagos was captured by the Binis in the 16th century & named EKO meaning war camp, from where they launched further campaigns. It is not unlikely that this Yoruba IGBO communities where earlier founded by Igbo elements further Eastward. It is also noteworthy that IGBO-AKIRI an speaking community in Agbor Kingdom from whence General Ogbemudia hails is presently called IGBANKE. This de-igbonisation occured in many Igbo satellite states.
    History aside, that the Igbo remains highly respected race in Africa remains undoubted.The Prime of Igbo coagulation & hegemony was between the 1940s to 1960s, the civil war brought about a political and psychological dispersal.My thinking is that the Igbo have remained stuck to political-defeatism and suffer from a SIEGE COMPLEX while the Olu simply re-integrated and moved ahead- Like the story WHO MOVED MY CHEESE.Hence it is important to note that only the IGBO limit themselves, and this limitation is only political and affects only Igbo leadership. In other spheres the Ibos lead others follow. The Ijaw and other South- South ethnic groups remain proud brothers and cousins-Definitely NO DIVISIONS only Political Survival.

  14. I do appreciate your effort and zeal into your research. But your writing is only correct, partially.

    I read “the word Ewe derives from the Igbo name Eke. Eke in the Igbo culture
    refers to the feminine, motherly or birth giving attributes of the Supreme Deity Chineke. Through the interchangeable nature of the letters v and w Ewe is also pronounced with the v sound of Eve(Yeveh). It is from the life giving Eke,Ewe or Eve that a female lamb is called a Ewe and the mother of all humanity Eve.”

    Hmm.. The Igbo word ‘chineke’ is a derived from the phrase ‘chi na eke’. ‘Chi’ means ‘God’ (‘chi’ also means ‘daylight’). The verb ‘kee’ or ‘ke’ means ‘create’. All together with the qualifier ‘na’; ‘chi na eke’ –> “chin’eke” –> ‘chineke’ –> ‘God creates’ –> ‘God is creating’.

    We Igbos, translate ‘chineke’ into English as ‘God the creator’. When Igbo people want to refer to God emphatically, they often ‘Chi okike” meaning ‘God of creation’ or ‘God the creator’.

    Having analysed ‘chineke’, which I have done with confidence, being an Onye Igbo (a person of Igbo origin) who speaks Igbo, I ultimately must state that I don’t see any, and there is no correlation between ‘eke’ and ‘eve’, nor between ‘eke’ and ‘ewe’. By the way the word ‘eke’, means ‘a character that one is born with’.

    1. EKE is the Creator as in the Creator of Life. Eke is the feminine Life bearing force which is Ewe and EVE. EKE is the Feminine CREATING FORCE who is symbolized by the serpent which represents EVE the Mother of all humanity who is known by the Serpent in the Garden of Eden.

  15. Folks:

    Mark my words: Time is coming when all Igbo will be proud of their heritage, and Igbo Prominece in the black world will return.

    Those who have rears, let them hear.

  16. In reply to those who ague to question the authenticity of this article i say: Being IGBO and ever conscious and happy of my identity,i keep wondering why a fellow IGBO should by any means feel inferior to any other race in the world and to make matters worse,try to assert his claim of brotherhood or paternity to any sub-Igbo tribes along the Niger or any where in the world who deny such.Against all odds,the Almighty sustains and prospers us wherever we are,and like the blessing upon our father Jacob,we are blessings wherever we are accepted and settled,since the IGBO of the hinterland were purposely excluded from the Nigerian political machine,how good has governance fared,on the contrary things go from worse to worse,and when they desire a little sunlight,they(the contemporary oppressive Nigerian political machine) call the IGBO to take key strategic position that would help serve the purpose of the moment.As for the Ijaws and those other contemporary noise makers in the Nigerian political scene ”IGBO SI N’UKWU JIE AGU,MGBADA ABIARU YA ORIRI”(Goodluck Jonathan became IGBO when he wanted to win the presidency) . Finally,may i suffice it to say that any true blooded IGBO who by mischief or outright treachery denies same is out rightly denying himself the blessings of our father Israel as bestowed upon us by the exulted, majestic One and only true divine nature of God.

  17. Ishaq

    I am a bit confused.
    Many pics of Isis show a serpent on her head dress. the same for horus i.e. on his fore head. what does this imply originaly? what does it imply if we assume the colonisers connived to have the serpent.

    I sent you some pics of King Shaka etc with a feather on their foreheads. NB.

    As we all know now. The Zulus migrated from Egypt. There are some other pics I will send you re elongated heads, Kint TUT etc.

    But for now sort out this one. is it the feather or ?

  18. The Igbo and Ewe are not even related. Where are you getting this from? The Igbo are more related to the Kongo people’s as they share an origin. The Erverhs and Ga are related but not with the Yoruba or Igbo. The Egbas are a subgroup of Yoruba and so are the Eyeo. The Igbos practiced twin killing and the Ewe’s and Ga(Erverhs:Proper name) venerate twin births. The migration of the Igbos PREDATE the era the Hebrews arrived in the moreauan kingdom while the Gas and Ewes have a recent migration stemming back 2000 years (ROUGHLY around the same time of the Israelites exodus). As a matter of fact, the Ewes have an oral history stating that they came off Mesopotamia. Last, Afa divination a.k.a and mistakenly referred to as voodoo originally comes from the Ewe people, NOT Igbo who while practiced a priesthood, was not even termed Afa or Ifa until recent historians tried to modify the histories.

    1. you are wrong about Igba Afa,make your research well,in Igbo land,there are two types of ”dibia” (doctor/diviner),they are dibia afa and dibia nkpologwu (herbs/roots) some one can be just one of the two or both…..it’s been that way for ages.

      1. As I stated, there was no AFA in Igbo society. There was dibia. If the Igbo has now acquired AFA, then they LEARNED it either from Yoruba or Bini. Igbo were no diviners until they worked in the royal courts of Igbo. Please do your research well and even read up on Victor Uchendu who was born in and lived in Igboland in the early 1900’s.

  19. mr Ishak,
    I learnt alot here,for those saying ekpe originates or only found in kalabari and the rest,you got that wrong,in my home town in Anambra state I hear of ekpe society,then the words ”ike ekpe” means to share the forest land. Then I don’t know if their is any relationship between Alake and Anake,the name of my great grand father is Anake which might mean Earth- create(s) or Earth-divide,since I don’t understand yoruba.Then Olukwumu, olu means voice,language,people living abroad or far out……it is common Igbo saying ”Igbo je mba je olu’ meaning Igbo travels far and wide. Then ”kwumu”, which is written kwo-umu,kw’umu, means carrying children. Olukwumu could mean,Igbo travels with her children,or Igbo language/people in it’s different form/dialect outside home. This second meaning is kind of idiom,as it is common in the Igbo language. From the things I’ve come across so far in history druring slave trade and colonisation,they refer Senegalese as Eboe with bigger physique

  20. This is an eye opener.and well researched. The only fault here is that alot of young Igbos don’t know their history, they don’t read vast and they don’t ask deep questions from their elders.

    They also don’t have the sophistication and strategy to link the dots, like going to the Uganda and other places, carrying out researches and holding reunion treaty with the distant nationalities.

    Well I thank Ishaq for this article.

    Igbos will bounce back and they will do well in the near future.

    A deep saying says, ” Let Ndigbo be, for if she wakes, she will shake the whole world “.

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