THE COMING OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN
The usual method of Indo-European and Chinese invasion was two-fold. First, they settles in a country in small groups and were partly assimilated. Over a period of time their numbers increased. Once they reach a numerical majority they joined forces with other Indo-European speaking groups to militarily overthrow the original inhabitants in a specific area and take political power. Since these communities occupied by the blacks often saw themselves as residents of a city-state, they would ignore the defeat of their neighbors. This typified their second form of invasion of the countries formerly ruled by the Proto-Saharans/Kushites/Blacks.
D’iakonov on the other hand, believes that the Indo-Europeans (I-E) homeland was the Balkan-Carpathian region. He has shown that the culture terms of the I-E group indicate that they made their way across forest-steppe and deciduous forest zones to settle other parts of the world. This view is highly probable.
The view that these people were farmers seem unlikely, since the ideal farming areas in Europe were already settled by the Anu and people from the Fertile African Crescent as discussed in this unit. Instead of being farmers the I-E people were originally nomads.
The steppes could not have been the homeland of the Indo-Europeans because it was heavily occupied by the Proto-Saharan people until after 1300 B.C. In support of an early presence of Indo-European speakers on the steppes many scholars maintain that the Andronovo cultures and wheeled vehicles are markers of Indo-European “High” culture.
But this theory has been proven to be unsupportable by the archeological and linguistic data. The civilizations and economy that characterized “Old Europe” are foreign to the Indo-European culture portrayed in the Indo-Aryan literature.
Many scholars use the chariot and horsemanship as an ethnic marker for the Indo-Europeans. But it can not be proven that the horse drawn chariot was an exclusive Indo-European marker. This is further supported by the fact that the IE roots for “wheel” number four, this illustrates that this technological innovation must have come from elsewhere and was later adopted by the Proto-Indo-Europeans after there dispersal. The wheeled vehicles were used in Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley before the 3rd millennium. The presence of pre-Dynasty and early Dynasty wheeled toy animals from Egypt and elsewhere supports the view that the wheel was a well-known technology to the Kushites before the expansion of the Indo-Europeans.
The horse can not be a marker for the Indo-European dispersal either. It would appear that in the steppes, the horse was not intensively used until the Iron Age. V.M. Masson believes that horse domestication and riding developed in the 1st millennium B.C., on the steppes.
The early I-E speakers were Kurgan nomadic warriors. Kurgan is a name used by archaeologist for the early Europeans.The term I-E does not refer to a racial type, because many of the ancient I-E speakers may have been black , given the fact that among the depictions of the People of the Sea on Egyptian monuments their are African people. But today the only I-E people we have are Caucasian.
Evolving in the Caucasus Mountains, the Kurgan folk were pastoralist. They herded cattle, pigs and sheep.
The Kurgans were a very destructive people. They destroyed vast regions of forest across Europe. By the Fourth millennium B.C., wide tracts of forests were gone in Europe. Upon their encounter with civilized Africoid communities, the latter were enslaved while the Kurgans adopted their culture. The Kurgan warriors used these slaves to grow grain.
The Indo-Europeans remained an insignificant group until they learned the art of metal working from the Hittites of Asia Minor. This along with natural disasters that took place around the world after 1600 B.C., helped the Kurgans to infiltrate civilized areas in the Aegean and Indus Valley.
The Kurgan people are also known as the Battle Axe/ Corded Ware Folk. By the Third millennium B.C., the Kurgan people were breeding horses and organized themselves into militarized chiefdoms. The symbol of the warrior class was the horned helmet common to the Sea Folk and later Vikings. Their common weapon was the double axe.
The Kurgan folk in small numbers slowly migrated into the centers of civilization, first in northern Mesopotamia, then India. By 3500 B.C., the Kurgans were invading the Caucasus region. Beginning in 3700 B.C., Old European settlements had walls built around them to keep out the Kurgan warriors.
These early I-E people practiced human sacrifice. At the death of a man his wife was often killed and buried with him.
The Kurgan people mixed with the indigenous Africoid people. Some of them were made slaves by the warrior elite’s. If black communities were more powerful than the Kurgans, they formed an alliance between themselves and conquered weaker groups. Once the Kurgan tribe became stronger it would knock off its former ally.
By 1400 B.C., Mycenae civilization was under the control of a Kurgan ethnic group known as Achaeans. The Achaeans later founded other city-states in Greece.
Pictures of these nomadic warriors are depicted in courtyard of Medinet Habu, in Egypt. These white Japhetic Philistine folk were relocated in Palestine, where two hundred years later they destroyed Sidon and Troy. This Philistine Kurgan ethnic group is called Phrs in Egyptian documents.
Another group of Kurgan tribes took Crete. From bases in Crete, around they invaded North Africa west of Egypt. The Egyptians called these Kurgan tribesmen Rebou. This group formed the white Libyan population, which occupied much of the Delta region of Egypt, before the founding of Carthage by the Phoenicians.
After conquering the original Pelasgian, and Mycenaeans who were also from the Fertile African Crescent, the Achaeans formed the Greek states of Peloponnesus. Their major cities: the Pelasgians originally founded Mycenae and Tiryns in Argolis, and Pylos in Messenia.
Between 1400-800 B.C., the Achaeans began to take control of the Greek mainland , the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula, Crete and numerous islands in the Aegean Sea. Under Agamemnon, the Achaeans conquered the Nubian, Egyptian and Phoenician armies at Troy, the last Pelasgian stronghold in the Aegean were destroyed.
By 1300 B.C., the Dorian tribes invaded Greece and defeated the Achaeans. The Dorian conquest of Mycenae led to Crete becoming a major center of Achaean civilization. The Dorians learned the art of writing from the Phoenicians.
The period between the 12th and 8th centuries B.C. , in the Aegean is considered the Dark Ages. The only information on these periods is found in the epics written by Homer Iliad and Odyssey.
These books show that the old trade links were destroyed and the I-E people were mainly pastoralist again since the Dorian invasion all culture was destroyed. At this time the Greeks got their gods from the Egyptians, and learned agriculture from Cerops, also an Egyptian (Diop 1974; Bernal 1991).
Among the early I-E social relations were patriarchal. The hereditary warrior class controlled the best lands and large slave populations mainly made up of the native Blacks and poor Indo-Europeans. The landless people served as serfs for the ruling class made up of warriors.
A Basileus led each Indo-European ethnic group. He was military commander, judge and high priest.
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