When Europeans Were Slaves of North Africa

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WHEN EUROPEANS WERE SLAVES: RESEARCH SUGGESTS WHITE SLAVERY WAS MUCH MORE COMMON THAN PREVIOUSLY BELIEVED

COLUMBUS, Ohio – A new study suggests that a million or more European Christians were enslaved by Muslims in North Africa between 1530 and 1780 – a far greater number than had ever been estimated before.

In a new book, Robert Davis, professor of history at Ohio State University, developed a unique methodology to calculate the number of white Christians who were enslaved along Africa’s Barbary Coast, arriving at much higher slave population estimates than any previous studies had found.

Most other accounts of slavery along the Barbary coast didn’t try to estimate the number of slaves, or only looked at the number of slaves in particular cities, Davis said. Most previously estimated slave counts have thus tended to be in the thousands, or at most in the tens of thousands. Davis, by contrast, has calculated that between 1 million and 1.25 million European Christians were captured and forced to work in North Africa from the 16th to 18th centuries. Davis’s new estimates appear in the book Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800 (Palgrave Macmillan).

“Enslavement was a very real possibility for anyone who traveled in the Mediterranean, or who lived along the shores in places like Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, and even as far north as England and Iceland.”

“Much of what has been written gives the impression that there were not many slaves and minimizes the impact that slavery had on Europe,” Davis said. “Most accounts only look at slavery in one place, or only for a short period of time. But when you take a broader, longer view, the massive scope of this slavery and its powerful impact become clear.”

Davis said it is useful to compare this Mediterranean slavery to the Atlantic slave trade that brought black Africans to the Americas. Over the course of four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade was much larger – about 10 to 12 million black Africans were brought to the Americas. But from 1500 to 1650, when trans-Atlantic slaving was still in its infancy, more white Christian slaves were probably taken to Barbary than black African slaves to the Americas, according to Davis.

“One of the things that both the public and many scholars have tended to take as given is that slavery was always racial in nature – that only blacks have been slaves. But that is not true,” Davis said. “We cannot think of slavery as something that only white people did to black people.”During the time period Davis studied, it was religion and ethnicity, as much as race, that determined who became slaves.

“Enslavement was a very real possibility for anyone who traveled in the Mediterranean, or who lived along the shores in places like Italy, France, Spain and Portugal, and even as far north as England and Iceland,” he said.

Pirates (called corsairs) from cities along the Barbary Coast in north Africa – cities such as Tunis and Algiers – would raid ships in the Mediterranean and Atlantic, as well as seaside villages to capture men, women and children. The impact of these attacks were devastating – France, England, and Spain each lost thousands of ships, and long stretches of the Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants. At its peak, the destruction and depopulation of some areas probably exceeded what European slavers would later inflict on the African interior.

Although hundreds of thousands of Christian slaves were taken from Mediterranean countries, Davis noted, the effects of Muslim slave raids was felt much further away: it appears, for example, that through most of the 17th century the English lost at least 400 sailors a year to the slavers.

Even Americans were not immune. For example, one American slave reported that 130 other American seamen had been enslaved by the Algerians in the Mediterranean and Atlantic just between 1785 and 1793.
Davis said the vast scope of slavery in North Africa has been ignored and minimized, in large part because it is on no one’s agenda to discuss what happened.

The enslavement of Europeans doesn’t fit the general theme of European world conquest and colonialism that is central to scholarship on the early modern era, he said. Many of the countries that were victims of slavery, such as France and Spain, would later conquer and colonize the areas of North Africa where their citizens were once held as slaves. Maybe because of this history, Western scholars have thought of the Europeans primarily as “evil colonialists” and not as the victims they sometimes were, Davis said.

Davis said another reason that Mediterranean slavery has been ignored or minimized has been that there have not been good estimates of the total number of people enslaved. People of the time – both Europeans and the Barbary Coast slave owners – did not keep detailed, trustworthy records of the number of slaves. In contrast, there are extensive records that document the number of Africans brought to the Americas as slaves.
So Davis developed a new methodology to come up with reasonable estimates of the number of slaves along the Barbary Coast. Davis found the best records available indicating how many slaves were at a particular location at a single time. He then estimated how many new slaves it would take to replace slaves as they died, escaped or were ransomed.

“The only way I could come up with hard numbers is to turn the whole problem upside down – figure out how many slaves they would have to capture to maintain a certain level,” he said. “It is not the best way to make population estimates, but it is the only way with the limited records available.”

Putting together such sources of attrition as deaths, escapes, ransomings, and conversions, Davis calculated that about one-fourth of slaves had to be replaced each year to keep the slave population stable, as it apparently was between 1580 and 1680. That meant about 8,500 new slaves had to be captured each year. Overall, this suggests nearly a million slaves would have been taken captive during this period. Using the same methodology, Davis has estimated as many as 475,000 additional slaves were taken in the previous and following centuries.

The result is that between 1530 and 1780 there were almost certainly 1 million and quite possibly as many as 1.25 million white, European Christians enslaved by the Muslims of the Barbary Coast.
Davis said his research into the treatment of these slaves suggests that, for most of them, their lives were every bit as difficult as that of slaves in America.

“As far as daily living conditions, the Mediterranean slaves certainly didn’t have it better,” he said. While African slaves did grueling labor on sugar and cotton plantations in the Americas, European Christian slaves were often worked just as hard and as lethally – in quarries, in heavy construction, and above all rowing the corsair galleys themselves. Davis said his findings suggest that this invisible slavery of European Christians deserves more attention from scholars.

“We have lost the sense of how large enslavement could loom for those who lived around the Mediterranean and the threat they were under,” he said. “Slaves were still slaves, whether they are black or white, and whether they suffered in America or North Africa.”
#
Contact Robert Davis, Davis.711@osu.edu
Written by Jeff Grabmeier, Grabmeier.1@osu.edu
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46 thoughts on “When Europeans Were Slaves of North Africa”

  1. oh yes indeed they were.the first slave trade was the european slave trrade into north africa.one moor who was a sultan owned 25000 european slaves who built his colussus stables as they put it.there never was one european in the america who owned 25000 negroes…the golden age of the moor edited by ivan van sertima will restore knowledge of self on this matter

  2. For the white slave trade ( the first in the new world after “Indians” and before Africans): see

    White Cargo: The Forgotten History of Britain’s White Slaves in America

    by Don Jordan and Michael Walsh.

    The White slave trade in North Africa was fulfilled by corsairs through raids (razzias) into Southern Europe and also by Venetians Merchants who delivered their “stocks” into North Africa Slave Markets. (See Bernard Lewis : “The Muslim Discovery of Europe” and “Race and Slavery in the Middle East: an Historical Enquiry “)

    I read this book in French (Robert Davis’), but I feel that he wants to say that : ” It didn’t only happen to Africans”….

    I am African (Wolof and Fulani), born and raised in Paris (France).

    Generally speaking, Moroccans don’t feel black, if you say to a moroccan that he is black , he’ll called you names…They feel a special pride when they are blond with blue eyes (only few berbers called rifi).

    Some of them (the educated ones) know that they’re African, one of my berber friend (called Shleukh; ‘kh’ with the arabic tone or ‘J’ in spanish) told me that his ancestors came from Soudan. His family name is SHANGA. He is Dark Skinned with african features.

    Another Moroccan friend ( a girl) , has an african firstname : N’guiyah

    Southern Moroccans are closer to black africans ( African Clothes, Dark Skinned, food etc), they look like fulanis.

    There are many black africans students in Morocco, and it’s hell for them down there specially for non-muslims. They support racist talks and segregation all the times.

    A Moroccan is certainly black according to the “one drop rule” , and it’s clear that at least 2/3 of the Moroccan people is colored or even black. Moroccans do look like Dominicans (from the Dominican Republic)

    Their women use bleaching chemicals for their skin in order to look “whiter” and other products to have “White Hairs” or straight hair

    In North Africa, Moroccans are the darkest (brown and black folks) followed by Libyans. In south Algeria you have lot of blacks and many Black berbers. In south Tunisia you have some blacks too.

    But they all feel “Arab” or even “White”.

    But it’s a general syndrom within the black diaspora. I went many times in the west indies and some guys from the Dominican Republic or Porto Rico feel White or “Mixed”. In Paris, people would called them BLACKS or by the “N” Word

    1. I m moroccan from arab family.
      I have everything from an arab that people always think I am from the Gulf.
      Well I m proud to be arab. My tribe have many similarities than the gulf people (dance, language, …) When I speak to some city people they don’t understand some words and expression I use while when I use them in the Gulf they understand.
      But in the mean while I love a african people and I believe they have a whitter heart full more joyful and less pretentious than many arrogant arabs 🙂

    2. Based on how light, confused and evil many indigenous regions around the world have become, it is obvious that the gun is not the most destructive tool of the European. It is indeed his sex organ!

  3. Nehesy

    The original owners of Morocco and Mauretania are Black Africans. That is why you noticed that southern Moroccans have more affinity for Black people.

    Those Northern ones, are some mixed up Turkish people who came in the wake of the Ottoman Empire. Others are descendants of European slaves. But any true Moroccan originally from Africa is darkbrown like the rest of the continental so called “Black Africans”.

    See: http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/the-appearance-of-the-original-berbers-according-to-european-perceptions-by-dana-marniche/

  4. Jahdey

    My post was not a refutation , Original people (Tassili’s Frescoes) and Berbers in North Africa were blacks and black berbers surely (mostly) came from Ethiopia ( Ethiopia of the ancient, not today’s Ethiopia).

    The French Anthropologist Raymond FURON stated without any doubt that the oldest skulls found in North Algeria ( Constantine) were Dolicocephalic and akin to those in Upper Egypt.

    Martin BERNAL and Christopher EHRET have shown that Berber culture has his roots in Ethiopia.

    The Lebu/ Lebou or Tehenu/Tehenou of ancient Libya were Ethiopians or Black as well. African Scholars like Pr Cheikh Anta DIOP, Pr Babacar SALL or Pr Théophile OBENGA gave very clear statements about this fact.

    I read also “The Golden age of the Moors” by Pr Ivan Van Sertima.

    But these guys (Moroccans or Mauritanians) don’t feel black it’s a fact. Even if most of them are Dark Skinned (Brown) and sometimes Blacks. They preferred to be called : Arabs, Berbers but not Africans or Black.

    In their language black is very pejorative term.

    In Mauritania , they look like Fair or more often dark skinned Indians but they HATE black people. In south Mauritania you have many africans like : Fulanis, Soninkés (Sarakhollés) but it’s hell for them as well.

    Some Mauritanians practise slavery, and it’s fair to say that it’s dark skinned people who are enslaving darker skinned people. They feel “arabs”.

    It’s not their women who show this racism ( many are married with blacks specially Moroccan girls) against black people but mostly the men;

    One thing is sure Mauritanians bear african names (muslim african names ) like us : Amidou ( Instead of Ahmad), Mamadou ( Instead of Mohamed), Fatimatou ( Instead of Fatima) , Aminatou (Instead of Amina) etc.

    They wear African clothes as well, the same we have in West Africa in countries like :Senegal, Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Mali.

  5. I’m not understanding why anyone would have a problem with a Moroccan not “feeling black” or African. The one drop rule in the United States cannot apply when we are talking of populations because in that case mostly everyone in North Africa and the Middle east and even East Asia and southern Europe would be called “black” which many are not. M

    Modern Moroccans and North Africans who are fair-skinned and speak Berber or Arabic have large amounts of Near Eastern, Central Asian and south European blood UNLIKE the early BERBERS or occupants of North Africa and Arabia who were indeed black or at least near black in color.

    The reason the Fulani look so much like the southern Moroccans and Mauritanians is because it has tribes with the most Berber blood. The Woodabe (Futa-be) Fulani are in fact the only people in Africa still wearing the costumes and designs and hairstyles their ancestors wore depicted in on Old dynasty tombs of the Tehenou as shown in the book, Nomads of the Niger by Carol Beckworth. These ancestral Fulani or Fellata or (Fut) also appear in full color (dark brown) in a book by Nina Davies. I first saw them in a large framed picture above the entrance to the library at the Oriental Museum in the Univ. of Chicago in the 1980s and called to find out from the head librarian there whose name was i think Chuck in the 90s to which text the painting had come from. I was later horrified to discover that these people were still found in Africa and in fact the ancestors of so many millions of African Americans according to Sterling Stuckey and others on the slave trade.

    Never the less it is my belief that the Djehenou-Tehenou Lebou people some of whom later mixed with the non-African peoples of the Sea were also joined in and after the Hyksos dynastic period with a related people whose remnant colonies Josephus (circa 1st century) refers to as Chethim and other Greeks and Romans as Macetae, Ukutameni, (later called Ketama Berbers) who had in fact colonized all of the coasts and isles of the Mediterranean including Syria/Palestine (according to Josephus) and whom according to other early Greek authors were like the “Ethiopians” in complexion. These people were said to have been led by Dharis or Doris (Idris of the Arabs, Atlas of the Greeks) across Africa were responsible for the name Imakitan for the eastern groups of Tuareg.

    Arabian and Biblical tradition refers to the Hyksos as Amalekites and Adites. Cathim (Heth of the Bible) is in fact an Amalekite ruler in Arabian tradition. The lands of the Amalek whom appear to be the Meluhha of Assyrian texts were then extending from the region of Sanaa in Yemen to Mecca and Medina. A geographic area which originally comprised the land of Canaan. The names of some of the “Canaanite” kings such as Anak, Sheshai have been found on Hyksos scarabs as Nakhi and Sheshi. (See David Rohl’s books).

    The clan names among the Tuareg like Kel Inneg (Anak), Imaketan or Ketama (Khethim) and the name for their language Ti’finagh supposedly meaning belonging to the Phoenicians (Ph’anakes of Manetho) probably preserve evidence of their Arabian or “Canaanite” origins. Josephus referred to the Amalekites as the “Phoenician shepherds”. The Ketama Sanhaja, Masmuda, Nafusa, Zenata groups were also closely related tribes of similar origin and complexion.

  6. I didn’t read anybody who have a problem with Moroccans who don’t feel black (it’s their very problem lol), but I’m talking about personal experience (Reading or copying books is not enough sometimes people need to travel in order to see the reality in Africa) : I know Moroccans around me and I went into this country: They hate black people.

    I didn’t refute any time that early berbers in Africa were blacks and early Arabs as well. Godfrey Higgins, François Lenormant (book 6: Ad, Thamoud, First Amalekites etc) or even Bertram Thomas are very clear : The true and first Arabs were blacks. And some are still living in Arabia (I met some of them in London ). Even Pr Malika Hachid from Algeria says that Berbers ancestors are to be find in Africa and with the time they mixed up with white people.

    As I said earlier fhe classic “The Golden age of the Moors” by Pr Ivan Van sertima is an irrefutable proof about the Blackness of early Berbers or even Frank Snowden’s books (Blacks in Antiquity and Before Color Prejudice).

    Gsell a French scholar says that Southern Moroccans are from East Africa (Soudan and Ethiopia) and some Berbers in South Morocco are aware of this fact.

    However some blacks in Morocco were formers slaves kidnapped by the Moroccan Army from Tombouctou when a Moroccan king with the help of Europeans (guns, canons, troops) destroyed this african town. This is how the scholar Ahmed Baba finished in Morocco. See for instance Pr Joseph Ki Zerbo’s books.

    Many white Berbers tribes lived under the protection of Songhai Rulers. Some of the latter had white berbers concubines and even slaves, like in the Ghana Empire.

    Yusuf Ibn Tashfin had a west african mother (Soninké) and had Fulanis and Soninkés troops with him when he conquered Spain ( War Diaby NDIAYE was one of the African king who helped him). Even the Late Hassan II the former Moroccan King had a west African Mother ( from Senegal).

    So we can say that some miscegenation occurred between some Blacks and white berbers.

    Nevertheless the people who are the closest to fulanis in Africa are Somalis and Ethiopians (Family Names, customs , Physically etc).

    Pr Shomarka Keita has prooved in many articles that people in East Africa, like somalis or classified as “Hamitic” (like we fulanis) by Europeans “scholars” were not specially mixed with another people (Fair skinned Berbers or someone else) and were “true” africans:

    http://wysinger.homestead.com/keita.html see article : “Interpreting African Genetic Diversity”

    We Fulanis are from Egypt, (in our tradition, Heli Yoyo), like many west african tribes (wolofs, soninkés etc). According to our ancestors we came from the East. And for Instance the surname Barry , exists for Fulanis in West Africa and Somalis in East Africa. Somalis themselves say (and know) that Fulanis belongs to their group.

    Before Davis, J A Rogers showed in his books that Europeans were slaves in North Africa ( A Moroccan king Mulay Ismael had 25000 white slaves).

    But it must be said that it was generally fair skinned North Africans ( Turks conquerants or White Berbers muslims) who used to enslaved Europeans not Black people.

    And many of them have been freed (by Christian donations to free them)…Even the whites who came along with the Moors back to Africa were mainly Muslims or Jews (few saqalibas followed the moors to africa) not slaves.

    Of course many white slaves were in the population of North Africa and intermingled with them during the time , but come on !!! 1.5 Millions white slaves in North Africa ( many have been Freed see J A Rogers, and some went to the West Indies as Indentured Servants: see Father Jean Baptiste Du Tertre) can’t be compared with the African Slave Trade. And this is why Davis’ book did not enjoy me specially this part:

    “Davis said it is useful to compare this Mediterranean slavery to the Atlantic slave trade that brought black Africans to the Americas. Over the course of four centuries, the Atlantic slave trade was much larger – about 10 to 12 million black Africans were brought to the Americas. But from 1500 to 1650, when trans-Atlantic slaving was still in its infancy, more white Christian slaves were probably taken to Barbary than black African slaves to the Americas, according to Davis”.

    The Portuguese had been destroying Africa (Congo) since the 1440’s…And the first slaves was sent to Portugal and Spain.

    Davis book is not fair because he wants to “mitigate” the African Slave Trade by saying that between 1500 and 1650 , they was more White slaves than Black slaves. SORRY I can buy that !

    Anyone who read books from : Michael Gomez, Eric Williams, or Richard Price knows that at this time slave traders were savagely destroying Africa…

    PEACE

    1. Blacks did to have white slaves, and not a few of them either. The Arabs/Berbers may have been catching them, but sales were made throughout North Africa, and these sales included sales to Blacks. Great comment over all.

  7. hello im a morrocan and my english is very bad so try to understand lol

    ” terrell ali bey Says:

    September 15th, 2008 at 1:04 pm
    oh yes indeed they were.the first slave trade was the european slave trrade into north africa.one moor who was a sultan owned 25000 european slaves who built his colussus stables as they put it.there never was one european in the america who owned 25000 negroes…the golden age of the moor edited by ivan van sertima will restore knowledge of self on this matter

    fasle . because this sultan was not a negro . morroco was not gouverned by any north african dynasty after 1492 therefore this guy was not a black man …..he was arab from the Saadi dynasty or the alaouite dynasty and i can assure you that those people came from the middel east and they were pure arabs …..i don’t know why you call him a “moor ” sultan .it’s a meanless word invented by europeans. north africans never called themselves moors or saracens or something like that this sultan was morrocan and that’s it .

    im really disappointed…… ivan van sertima is glorifying slavery .. the barbarian slave trade make muslim look wicked . savage and barbarian i can’t understand how somebody could be proud of this dark history

    remember that most slave masters were arabs .. and remember also that in this same exact time black african were also brought from the south ( gnawa ) wich means the masters weren’t really black….

  8. Kharim

    Go read the series on Black Arabs on this website. Your eyes will open after that. You may be from Morrocco but that does not make you a moor. Many present day Morroccans are descendants of Turkish colonizers (false Morroccans) and European slaves, so they have an interest in suppressing the true history.

    You say Morrocans never called themselves Moors? Maybe, but where does the word Morro – co come from? Morro means Moor. Moor means Black Africans. You are an immigrant so certain things will be over your head.

    Jahdey

  9. Karim:

    Have a look to this one : Mulay Rashid a Moroccan King

    http://tinypic.com/ogxl7a.jpg

    Many South Moroccans look likes this picture above

    ou may be right about the Gnawas, but : Can you deny that there isn’t any blacks in South Moroccans (Sahraouis ) ?

    And can you deny that your former king Hassan II had a Black African Mother ?

    Lot of Moroccans nowadays are white berbers (Rifi, Shleuhi, etc) intermingled with European, East Asians and Blacks, you are not Arabs.

    Moroccans are the Darkest in West North Africa with Mauritanians : Dark Brown…And it’s not scientific to say that it’s due to the sun….

    And even for the Royal Dynasty I’m not sure about their claim of being descendant of Mohamad (saw) : They all claim that in North Africa and Middle east lol….

    The French soldiers helped the Alaouites in order to access on the Moroccan Throne, they together killed a lot of Moroccans who didn’t want both of them.

    95 % of North Africa are arabized white Berbers, they can’t even speak or read classical Arabic…

    If you ask to a Qatari or a Saudi they would say that you (North African) are not Arab. An d if you met them (true arabs) they look like the blacks in the West Indies.

  10. Karim

    According to Malika Hachid ( a scholar from Algeria) , Berbers in North Africa have black african ancestors :

    ” les ancêtres les plus lointains des Berbères sont de pure souche africaine, mais ils sont déjà mixtes”

    Translation:

    “The most distant ancestors of the Berbers are of pure African origin, but they are already mixed”

    But I don’t understand how they could obviously be ALREADY MIXED because at this time which means between 11000 and 10000 BC (as she says into the article) , I don’t understand How/where the whites could be found in North Africa ?

    She says that they are mixed between : Mechtoids and Capsians

    Here is the link in French ( A berber website) :

    http://www.tamazgha.fr/article.php3?id_article=508

  11. Jahdey

    1 – turks never invaded morroco
    2 – i know that the very very original arabs were black but the ones who invaded north africa and morroco exactly were not black.. you can call them ” false arabs ” but the point that the arabs that invaded north africa were light skinned… al jahiz himself ( a black polymath ) always called the habitant of the modern day saudi arabia irak egypt ( arab egypt not ancient ) etc…. WHITES .. even the founder of morroco idriss 1 ( arab ) had a black slave named Rached ..any way the point is that most medieval arabs were not blacks…
    3 – you gonna have to explain to me why arabs used the words ” sudan ” and ” zenjistan ” ( land of blacks ) to refer to west and central africa but they never used it for north africa think about that……
    4 – you know that morroco was the last country to join the barbary slave trade and the first one to drop out .. acording to you 1.25 million slaves were brought across north africa … north africa is 4 region morroco probably had 200.000 even less……….. ….. i don’t see how 200.000 slaves will be ancestors of almost 16 million morrocan…
    5 -” Many present day Morroccans are descendants of Turkish colonizers (false Morroccans) and European slaves, so they have an interest in suppressing the true history.” false because people don’t care about color here…. moors were muslim .. and that’s enought for them..
    6 – how the imazighen ( whites ) found in central morroco used the word ” tmazigh ” to refer to themselves…. this word was lost for centurys amoung other berber tribes and i don’t see how some european slaves would know this word……
    7 – how do you explain the presence of fair skinned people among some black berbers ( touareg for exemple ) ??while you can’t find one single black guy in riff or central morroco ?
    8 – Sallust ( roman dude ) description of berbers never mentioned them as blacks..
    9 -Herodotus suggested an anatolain origin of the berbers …… you can guess that he saw them as non-black…….
    10 – Augustine of Hippo was not a black man…..
    11 – tariq ibn ziad in spanish history books is not desribed as a black man……
    12 – description of ibn battuta t (traveller ) in ancient arabic book really portrayed him as a light skined man …..
    13- black slave trade existed longer than white slave trade… from the begining of this country until the 1920 “s and yet only 20 % negroid blood is found in morroco … it sounds logical for 1500 years of slavery .. i don’t know if you know what the gnawa are …. ?
    14 – there is more than one egyptian painting showing the berbers in a lighter skin than egyptians….

    ps : sorry for the bad english im only 16 years old ……

  12. Nehesy

    the alaouite dynasty is not black and moulay rashid was not a black man it”s only an imaginated portrait by europeans …

    you should know that alaouite dynasty still had black slaves until this verry day … you can ask any morrocan and he will confirm what im saying…. nelson mandela saw this in his visit to hassa II and he was made as hell ( that’s why he support the independance of western sahara ..)

    Lalla Abla bint Tahar the mother of hassan II was black ?? i didn’t know that can you proove me this ?

  13. jahdey

    the word morroco has nothing to do whit the word ” moor ” it’s a spanish coruption of the word ” marrakesh ” in european language and it’s just a coincidence that the word ” morroco ” sounds like ” morro ” in english because in spanish it’s ” Marruecos ” ( clair coruption of marakech ) and in french it’s ” maroc ” ( while moor in french is “maure ” )

  14. dana

    “Ketama Sanhaja, Masmuda, Nafusa, Zenata” lived near black african and were in constant war with the ghana empire and songhai empire and were invaded by them many times…. it can explain their dark complexion i guess….

  15. morroco came from ” marrakesh ” in spanish the coruption of the word is ” maruécos and in french it’s maroc and has nothing to do with the word moor

    Nehesy this is not moulay rashid ..ths is an imaginated portrait by europeans who weren’t allowed to enter morrroco ( law against chrestians ) this is the real moulay rashid as he apperas on several morrocan portrait …in the royale castle and of course in the old morrocan Currency
    http://www.douane.gov.ma/Histoire_douane/img/HISTOR11.jpg
    this is so not a black man…..
    http://www.carphaz.com/Images/Kenitra/moulay_ismail.gif

    his son moulay ismail….

  16. Karim

    The first slaves of the Arabs in North Africa were the WHITE BERBERS…

    Arabs had hundred thousands of White Berbers slaves, this is why Kahina fought against them. And this is why you have nowadays many white Berbers who live in the Mountains : Their Ancestors fled in the mountains in order to flee the ARABS…ISLAM (a new religion)….and SLAVERY…

    Leon the African ( who was Moroccan and a slave in Roma) , Flora Shaw ans Stanley Lane Pool gave enough proofs in their books.

    WHITE BERBERS were the first slaves of the ARABS in NORTH AFRICA…

    I didn’t say that Alaouites were blacks and this picture of Mulay Ismael is from the 18 Century.

    Nevertheless they claim descent from Ali Ib Abi Thalib ( ra) and some descriptions present him as a dark skinned Arab.

    ARABS had white skinned slaves like : Persians ( HASSAN AL BASRI- SALMAN AL FARSI), Slaves ( East Europeans), Indians, White Berbers, and even Arab slaves ( Ammar Ibn Yasir was a slave).

    The first slaves of the ARABS were the weak ARAB tribes through RAZZIAS. Pre-Islamic ARABIA was divided in two classes : MASTERS AND SLAVES.

    There was ( and still are) many BLACKS ARABS in ARABIA nowadays, like in YEMEN or OMAN.

    I’ll give you the reference of the book where you can find their pictures.

    The Original Arabs looked like actual yemenites: They were BLACKS and they look like ETHIOPIANS with often BLACK EBONY SKINS.

    When you say that there wasn’t any black Arab who participated in the North Africa conquest it’s not true…..Because many Yemenites tribes settled in North Africa.

    AMR IBN AL AS (ra) was a BLACK ARAB , he was among the refugees who went to Najashi (the Negus) in ETHIOPIA. He conquered Palestine and Egypt….

    UBADAH IBN AS SAMIT (ra) was also a BLACK ARAB, he was from a noble arab tribe, and he was the chief of the muslims when they conquered Egypt…He was an ANSAR as well…The Chief of the Copts didn’t want to talk with him because HE WAS BLACK.

    MUHAMMAD IBN MASLAMAH (ra) was BLACK. He was described as “Tall, Black and Strong”

    AMMAR IBN YASIR (ra) who was a QOREISH was also A BLACK ARAB.

    ZAIB IBN HARITHAH (ra) , MUHAMMAD’s (saw) adopted son was also a BLACK ARAB. He was kidnapped by members of the Banu AL QAYN tribe , and sold as a slaves. His father HARITHAH IBN SHURAHIL went to mecca in order to freed him but he refused.

    These are few examples, there were many BLACKS : ARABS and ETHIOPIANS within the Prophet’s companions.

    And among the first and best sholars of ISLAM there were many, many BLACKS. They don’t say it into the islamic books though (or they hide it)…

    Even OMAR IBN KHATTAB (ra), the second caliph, has been scorned by the enemies of islam as the ” SON OF A BLACK WOMAN” because his grandmother was a BLACK ETHIOPIAN. He was a very Dark skinned arab….

    There was many Black Arabs at the time of Prophet Muhammed(saw) and they were also in the armies who conquered North Africa…

    I’ll give you the reference of the book where you can find pictures of the present BLACK ARABS IN ARABIA.

    In this same book you have also pictures of Blacks Berbers in LIBYA (GHADAMES)

  17. i dont read this every day or i would have came back that day.i didnt say he was a negro i said he was a moor,i said no white man owned 25000 negroes ,isnt that what it says ,cant you comprehend english,when you call me out read what i typed properly.you looking to look smart off my back uh uh .now let me break it down,the moors were in ,akebulan kemet,egypt/egipt,nubia/mali/morooco before mohahamedism,the moors come before mohammedism an anything that came killing from the north an made people slaves.you dont know what black means in law in america an universally which is why people get paid to keep other people stupid by blocking knowlege with gangerine lessons put in place by the fake fez wearers who worship baphomet.all moors are not muslims of muhammed an the ones who are got moorish science after mohammedism islam not i self lord am master which was replaced that was first wars in west an east against the moors by religious fanatics of today.i didnt even keep reading what you wrote it say black black black ,africa africa african.this will be a stupid conversation cause africa is akebulan ,black for skin color is what the european named you after black a moor an you kept the black after negro.you are not black cause your skin is dark the only ral color black is up the black holes of you ass nose ears that the doctor needs light to see .where everyone must pass to be born.when you go to ancient times race was not invented,we did not have that ,the grafted ones did ,the blue /green eyed ones.we are from ancient times before we were taken as slaves an replaced by the ottoman turks an mohammedism.the fez went to the red /blue lodge temples ,thats why they have to learn the koran to initiate,egypt ,north akebulan when the conquered they kepyt the religion language arts an said it was theirs ,did the romans change spanish to italian no just moorish latin name to spanish.moors were here in this land for 100000 years an our seal is on the left side of the bill.we are not all from the east in the 1600s ,we were here an didnt call our self ni color of law coroprate title.i dont see how we were bought from africa either like the black people say an allof us here just came 400-500 years ago as slaves.noble dre ali ,c.m bey.do you know what the turks are ,is he talking bout turkey,no pale red ruddy amazon mystic turks from patagona,still telling people they come from caucus mountains,if you dont know where caucasions come from how can you know what a turk is ,caucus mountains are land we gave them when we ruled europe ,when we ruled europe,they couldnt attack the south until the moors lost europe except spain an portugal then we lost that to.,hes talkng history everybody which we know is a lie but its taught in universitys by fez wearing prpfessors with symbols on top.they took over tha masonry to with minimal degrees.these are the race creators ,they are the sons of the patagona blondes from south america,you nothing of this cause its not written for the average eye but im the owl who can tell you.the moors dont say the black they say they human,once again we gave people religions ,all the races we created an they changed them to paternal religions.we are a science not a religion,i woulssay all religions but that would be telling you the religions came before us.that would make adam ,eve the bible all that legitimate,thats why people have arguments on false platforms hizz.torys story,do you know what a tory is.the lighhter ones disrespected the darker ones but they stillcome from the darker ones.backward teachings like bilal being the fourt convet when he really was a moor conquered .we were expelled from kemet an that area in 641a.d..moorstoday are all religions cause they all are our science.when euros couldnt read write or speak we did not tell them we were black an they were white when we raised them into civilization and nobility.race was created to hide that.in i self lord am master is the first islam ,islamism,your talking mohammedism ,the boring modern history of mankind after we the moors fell.mohammedism is not the original moors ,man woman none of that.hizz torys story is not our story so you cant argue modern timeswhen you dont know wha we were doing 100000 years ago up until we fell an lost power tothe crreed holders of mohammedism an masonry.they dont hate muslims an praise allah,two arms two legs an one head ,muslim=muscles tisssues an bones,allah=all law see thats not mohammed male mystery god who translaters always call he like in the bible.those books all have the s taken away from he ,making them false platforms with saturn the male replacing venus as the creator.thats the day after my earth day an i know i didnt give out no false info all mathematically correct ,i do not have an opinion ,opinions area waste of time ,im trained to know not think an before a type i know what reality facts i am puttiing back in the brains of my people.washitaw moors ,iriquois moors are trying to put it back but its being blocked by the so called black mans hatred for the so called white moor like master farrad muhammed was.thats who came in a conquered ,but ah who conquered them first who raised them to speeak read write bathe ,christians didnt bathe we were we before we were slaves ,,we were the slave masters accept it.the plantations in the south were our taken over by euros who lied an said they was here first.im not a good moor ,i havent learned to love ignorance an lack of reading comprehension.my words were to short for a reading mistake like that to be made by someone who blazes in as if they have so much intelligence,an you gotta really be that to catch me in a false lie as you have claimed.you have lessons of the university ,1,2,or 3 degrees of the university ,we the moors are universal degreesan thats what we come from an cannot so 360 degrees cant be ruled by 3 an rasta livewire is going back to 360,you can come elevate or stay in the dark.my people,,,,search the curse of baphomet chick publications if you cant get site,,,www.chick.com/reading/tracts/0093/0093_01.asp this enforces bull crap about the fez an mystyc amazon turks ,invaded fez,they say muslim hordes ran over fez i the 8th century,thats modern history compared to us.we did moor than falll to the red ruddy ones who we created an be slaves for theem taking their last names an asking fort repect in them, a black person in law is a moor with a european slave name thats it in the union states of europe.kill the emotion its a spell with no potion.peace jah dey ,i challenged that man on you tube as did about three shieks so we gonna put back right an exact knowledge in our people,all asiatics the moors.we didnt start as slaves an we will not end as slaves.we must come back to our original nationality that they stole in this land right here.all others who insist on the slave name africa after it carthage an hannible was conquered by roman general cyprio africaanus in 204 a.d an sold out by the numidians who were moors to.thats when they first got in not the 8th century.we lost cecilia or cicily as its called today in 1081.back to africa by euros was revenge they still maintain today.i did not call the sultan a negro an once i see that you wrong an you cant see that admit that then whats the sense in talking with nonsense that cant read what they are refuting,then comment like they are making a point.its a creation like santa claus .2+2= 4 i aiint gotta say no moor

  18. we cannot argue over their books an lies arab history books post moorishh ,spanish to is romanized after 1492,our books were burned they had the reality truth.its like arguing the bible or koran ,they are given to people to argue over ,what is false are these books that camre affter ourswere burne or hidden in the zionistic temples.the object has been to seperate the negro from the moor as if they were two different people before mohammedism ,askanash ,yiddish judaism ,an 324 a.d council of nicea christianity.our vocabulary must be ours not what they branded us as slaves after they were slavs

  19. the black is inside the womb of wombman all woman the reality creator.men take credit an lie on woman as being first so then they must do it to other men after ,thats the race race to be first

  20. we schooling you male alllah worshipping mohammed morroc-cons right here in orlando florida on your reality story right here,this was morroco before where your from was called morroco,all you get is what they teach you in school,you get good knowledge in morroco but not here or there about the real moors or first moor from ruth of the moabites .red ruddy mohammedism its the ancient moors you call muslims .that got took as slaves after they raised mystic turks.you had to be raised to call your self white an your raiser black,for the purpose of rule an measure.thats why they call muhammed red,arabs from yemen are not the euro fake arabs you see in iraq /iran /jordon/ect,anwar sadat was killed by them on live t.v,,,,let me tell you how they do ramadan,,after fasting all day they eat three full course meals after the sun goes down so break fast is bout 8 pm an dinner is about 2 am.they got sick my friend justice the god he got sick,so thats backword right there cause moors do do nothing like that when fasting,wh fast allda an make up for it at night ,kills the wwhole cleanse ,it no cleanse its more poisining to eat when the body does not digest after 9 pm ,but these muslims do then they wanna argue wit anything an anyone that calls they self a moor not fom their region like they got a lockdown on moorish science which they dont know any,moore ,they only know islam of mohammed am forgot what the origin was .thats why all yoou hear is mohammedism from them and they got that as slaves after the moors fell an lessons replaced degreees for the common man an degrees only went to nobles an serfs, peasants got religion an lesson or mathematical subtractions of knowledge instead of degrees.i met people from morroco who knew moor than whats being put forth in this discussion.they knoweven if he does not.people there so busy trying not to be a skin color they forgot the light wont be without being in the dark first.they are not the moors but the moorish sons,the moors ae thee now called black/hispanic an all other brown eyed asiatics on the planet.the black a moor gets the shortest end of the stick an isplaced too start the race from the bottom position with all others taking turnriding piggyback to get up econimically in commerce which is status an class an has been miscalled now as nobility. oj wasnoble cause he was a rich atthlete ,that as you see is not nobility.noble drew ali ,c.m bey ,jose pimienta bey,empress verdiacee,we took mason an dixon to that line of north an south.christianity an mohammed style islam were both created by the franciscan brotherhood after i self lord am master was hidden in the masonic temples of europe

  21. the world was not created 6000 years ago but thats the oldest history recollection of theirs,,hizzz tory can be no longer than that an that shows the reality of the moorish seal on the left side of the dollar bill which is 100000 years/ tears old at least.anyone who started calling themself ruddy red skin white to rule has to lie to maintain their power in termsof where it came from.they were called redmen by us but they told all the indian they created he was the redman.the people who speak spanish know this ask them thats why they say they the so called white was called the red man first ,the people enslaved by the anglish english were lied to in their new language about all colors

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