African Moors: The Appearance of the Original Berbers According to European Perceptions – By – Dana Marniche

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The Appearance of the Original Berbers According to European Perceptions

All the early major Berber tribes including the Masmuda, Sanhaja, Ketama Zenata and Nafusa are described as dark reddish brown like the “Indi’ or as “blacks” or Ethiopians in early documents. The notion of the early Berbers as being “whites” or Caucasoid is a new and racist one related to the concept of the African “Hamite”. Certainly the original Berber-speakers were never referred to as anything but “black” or something near it until the 12th century and were otherwise considered the color of Abyssinians and other so called “Indi”.

Kabyle Girl
Kabyle Girl

Even the Kabyles a notoriously fair-skinned “Berber” people of North Africa are up until the 19th century described as “brown” “apart from a few clans”. (See quotes below). The knowledge that Europeans were changing the complexion literally and figuratively of North Africa up until the 19th century has disappeared from modern European histories. Most know about the large part played by sub-saharan black slaves in the making of modern North Africa and Arabia while the white slave trade which was in fact dominant trade in North Africa until the fall of Constantinople (Istanbul in Turkey) in the 15th century had been largely ignored in historical writings of the 20th. Yet it was only a few centuries ago that Europeans visiting North Africa commenting on the fact that, “on almost every street of the cities of Barbary, Europeans could be seen harnessed to carts like draught horses or selling water from jars loaded on the backs of donkeys”.

1809 Commentary on those called “Moors” by an early 19th century observer: “They carry the Christian captives about the desert to the different markets to sell them for they soon discover that their habits of life render them unserviceable , or very inferior to the black slaves of Timbuktoo. “ from An Account of the Empire of Marocco, by J. G. Jackson published 1809 and 1814.

2003 – “From 1500 to 1650 when trans-Atlantic slaving was still in its infancy more Europeans were taken to Barbary than black African slaves to the Americas. See, Robert Davis Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, the Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800, MacMillan Publishers, published 2003.

The impact of the white slave trade and its contribution to the modern biology and appearance of the modern North African stems from before the Arabian and Muslim waves into Africa. The Roman ruler Claudian spoke concerning Gildo, the “Moorish” ruler of Africa and treatment of Roman women from the Levant by this North African chief and his countrymen:

4th century – Claudian wrote, “ when tired of each noblest matron Gildo hands her over to the Moors. These Sidonian mothers, married in Carthage city must needs mate with barbarians. He thrusts upon me an Ethiopian as a son-in law, a Berber as a husband. The hideous hybrid affrights its cradle.” Claudian, by Claudius Claudianus, translation by Maurice Platnauer, Published by G.P. Putnam’s sons, 1922 p. 113. (Gildo was brother to other Berber chiefs Firmus and Maseczel. Gildo is related to Aguellid or Galdi which remains the modern Tuarek word for chief. Masek, Amazigh ot Imoshagh was the name for the ancient and modern Tuareg clans in general. The Mezikes tribes were called “Ethiopians” in a Roman text of the time. )

Kayble boy1

1stt c. A.D. – “Diodorus Siculus speaks in reference to the expedition of Agathocles a Sardinian general, of three Libyan tribes on the coast of Tunisia, the Micatani and Zufoni (see Zafan ),who were nomads and the Asfodelodi, who by the color of their skin resembled the Ethiopians” , p. 50 The Mediterranean Race Book XX, 38, 57 Guiseppe Sergi, 1901. The Micatani were also called Ukutameni and Khethim by Josephus. In later writings they are called Ketama Berbers. The name Maketa or Imakitan remains a name for the eastern branches of the Tuareg.

1st century A.D.– Marcus Valerian Martial was one of the earliest Europeans to use the phrase “woolly hair like a Moor” in one of his Satires, and the phrase was commonly used up until the Middle Ages. See Nature Knows No Color Line by J.A. Rogers, 1952. p. 50 The Muslim era didn’t begin until the birth of Muhammed, the Prophet, over four centuries after Martial. By the 7th century the word came to be used for Arabians who in the early era of Islam for the most part were also described as of near “black” complexion.

1st century Silius Italicus also describes the Moors with the term ‘Nigra’ meaning black. In the 3rd century Roman dramatist Platus or Plautus maintained the name Maure was a synonym for “Niger” which was a common term for the word black. 6th century Isidore Archbishop of Seville claimed the word Maure meant black according to Brunson and Runoko Rashidi in “The Moors in Antiquity” in Golden Age of the Moor, 1991.

6th A.D.- Corippus uses the phrase “facies nigroque colorus” meaning faces or appearance of black color to describe the North African Berbers. In his book Johannis, I/ 245.

6th A.D. – Procopius in his History of the Wars book IV contrasting the Germanic Vandals who had settled in North Africa with the Maures claimed the Vandals were not “black skinned like the Maurusioi” . The tribes he classified as Maurusioi are those now classified as ancient Berbers, the Numidians, Masaesyle, Gaitules, Massyles and Mezikes several other “Berber” tribes then settled between Tunisia and Morocco.

After the 8th century the term Moor came to be used for the many Arabian clans who had invaded the Mediterranean and Africa because of their complexions which were the same dark brown or near black to absolutely black color of the Berbers.

1914 – Archeologists observance of the ancient North Africans portrayed in ancient Egyptian tomb paintings, “The brun Libyan type is the only one portrayed in the Old Empire, the xanthrochroids predominate in the New Empire representations.” P. 40 from The Eastern Libyan Oric Bates The intrusive xanthrochroids…do not appear before the XII dynasty… It safe to say that they were immigrants.” from The Eastern Libyans by Oric Bates Frank Cass publishers 1914. pp. 40 and 41. (These paintings of the ancient Libyans as a brown in color are in the works of Nina Davies.)

1939 – “The extreme long-heads, concentrated in the Hoggar and in parts of the Algerian plateau are the Tuareg and the purer families of ancestral nomadic Berbers, preserving the head form which they brought from East Africa, their Hamitic homeland.” Carleton Coon The Races of Europe, p. 257 1979 reprint.

Five major tribes of Berbers were spoken of by early Muslim writers including the Sanhaja, Masumuda Zenata, Ketama and Goddula which were categorized into dozens of others which in turn were divided into many more. Among them were the early Kabyles originally a group of Sanhaja Berbers. Most descriptions refer to the modern Kabyles as fair-skinned, but in the 19th century and early 20th, descriptions and in fact many photographs depict them as dark and near black. (Photos from the 19th century show both very dark-skinned and near white skinned Kabyle individuals from different villages in the region).

1890 – “The Kabyles or Kabaily of Algerian and Tunisian territories…besides tillage, work the mines contained in their mountains…They live in huts made of branches of trees and covered with clay which resemble the Magalia of the old Numidians…They are of middle stature, their complexion brown and sometimes nearly black.” Written in The Encyclopedia Britannica: Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature Henry G. Allen Company p. 261 Volume I 1890.

1834 The Scotsman Thomas Campbell says, “The Kabyles…dress like the Arabs and a part from a few tribes, are brown complexioned and black haired” p. 109 Barbary and Enlightenment: European Attitudes Toward the Maghreb in the 18th Century, Ann Thomson. Published 1987 by E. J. Bull

A description by Gillebert d’Hercourt in Etudes Anthropologiques sur Soixante-Seize indigenes de lAlgerie in 1865 said the Kabyle crania that were studied were generally dolichocephalic. In fact the physical anthropological studies done on ancient and modern North Africans show that early North Africans were dolichocephalic like the Tuareg and other dark-skinned berber tribes.
Not surprisingly most modern Berber-speakers who are fair skinned including modern Kabyles are predominantly mesocephalic (middle headed) or even brachycephalic. It is interesting that the dress of these modern Kabyle women resembles that modern women of the Balkans and that palm and blood group types are also like those of European Mediterranean Greeks. Many of these Kabyles also have a strong Turkish influence as judged from the recognizable Turkish Eurasian or even East Asian facial features. Obviously some groups other than a Berber one makes up the main genetic strain in many modern Kabyle-speakers. Culturally the modern fair-skinned Kabyles have been documented as among the most patrifocal people in North Africa whereas the ancient and modern Berbers like the Tuareg were notably matrilineal and matrifocal to the chagrin of early Muslim documenters who considered this among their ‘wicked” customs.

1901 – The Oases if Nafzawa and Wed Suef and Wed Regh and other Berbers of the Sus as “of very dark complexion” in Guiseppi Sergi The Mediterranean Race: The Study of the origin of European peoples The Walter Scott Publishing Company

On the Libyo Berbers called – Gaetules or Jeddala
The Gaitules were the most populous of the Libyan tribes of Strabo’s time (1st century AD). Josephus claimed they were descended from Havilah or the Avalioi who he says children of Kush child of Ham.

1st -2nd century – Juvenal, the Roman writer in his Satire V. 53 referred to “a Gaetulian, as a black a Moor “so black you’d rather not see him at midnight”.. Found in Madan’s translation of Juvenal, vol. I by J. Vincent published at Oxford.

Among the Gaetules were a tribe Dari or Darae Gaetuli, there was also a stream called Daradae Ethiopus (DARAE were a Gaetulian tribe in the W. of Africa, on a mountain stream called Dara, on the S. steppes of M. Atlas, adjacent to the Pharusii. (Plin. V. 1: Oros. i. 2: Leo Afr. P. 602.)
The Draa (Arabic: ???) (also spelled Dra or Draâ, in older sources mostly Darha or Dara) is Morocco’s longest river (1100 km). “The inhabitants of the Draa are called Draawa (an exonym), the most famous Draawi undoubtedly being mawlay Mohammed ash-Sheikh. Outside of the Draa region this name is mostly used to refer to the dark skinned people of Draa which make up the largest portion of its inhabitants.” Retrieved May 13th 2008 from

Descriptions of the Masmuda, Sanhaja, Ketama, Zenata Berbers of coastal North Africa and the Upper Atlas

Most Arab-speaking historians beginning as far back as the 8th century when Wah ibn Munabihh a South Arabian and descendant of an Iranian mercenary claimed the Berbers belonged to black races of Ham. Several Muslim writers claimed the Berbers were the sons of Berr who were said to descend from Mazigh ibn (son of ) Canaan Ibn Ham Ibn Nuh (Noah). The tradition found cited in Nafousa: Berber Community in Western Libya, Omar Sahli citing Dabbuz. Retrieved on-line from , July. 12, 2008.
The Zenata are called a Canaanite race by other Muslim writers see ‘The Berbers” Geo. Babington Michell, Journal of the Royal African Society, Vol. 2, No. 6 (Jan., 1903), pp. 161-194. The traditions state that in fact Berbers were descendants of Amalekites (Amalek) from Canaan and Himyarite from Yemen both descendants of “Adites” that had invaded Egypt before 1200 B.C. and “advanced toward the Maghreb”.
The Berbers as represented by the Tuareg especially appear to have called themselves Mashek or Mazigh who are associated with bringing the camel into Africa. Mashek is still the name of a tribe of the Mahra of Oman and Hadramaut who also claim an origin in the Yemen.
( In early Arabian tradition the lowland of Canaan or the Kenaniyya tribe was in an area of the western region of Arabia north of Yemen and not farther to the north in modern Palestine or Israel. See the Bible Came from Arabia. Kamal Salibi )

11th century – “The Berber women are from the island of Barbara, which is between the west and the south. Their color is mostly black though some pale ones can be found among them. If you can find one whose mother is of Kutama, whose father is of Sanhaja, and whose origin is Masmuda, then you will find her naturally inclined to obedience and loyalty in all matters, active in service, suited both to motherhood and to pleasure, for they are the most solicitous in caring for their children. “ 11th century the Christian Iraqi physician Ibn Butlan quoted by historian Bernard Lewis.

11th century – Nasr i Khusrau, an Iranian ruler described the Masmuda soldiers of the Fatimid dynasty as “black Africans”. See Yaacov Lev, “Army, Regime and Society in Fatimid Egypt, 358-487/968-1094”, International Journal of Middle Eastern Studies, 19.3 (1987) p. 342.

13th century – Primary Cronica General of Alphonso X of Spain describes the 300 Almoravid “Amazon” women whose leader is described as black and Moorish. They were “led by their leader Nugaymath al-Tarqiyya (the “star of the Tuareg archers” in Arabic) who led the Almoravid siege of Valencia”; cited in Nubian Queens in the Nile Valley by Carolyn Fluehr-Lobban, Ninth International Conference of Nubian Studies, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, USA. See also The Berbers in Arab Literature by H.T. Norris 1982.p. 20. Harvey , L.P. “Nugaymath Turquia, Primera Cronica General, Chapter 956” Journal of Semitic Studies 13, no. 2:232. Targiyyat or Targiya is a variant form or pronunciation in North Africa for the name Tuareg. 13th or 14th century Abu Shama, a Syrian, described the Masmuda Berbers as “blacks” in his, Kitab al-Ravdatayn. Found in Golden Age of the Moor, 1991 edition p. 57, edited by Dr. Ivan Van Sertima.

14th – The Almoravid or Al Murabitun dynasty coming from the Atlas was one of the last dynasties coming from Africa to rule in the Iberian peninsula. One of the 11th century rulers of Andalusia and North Africa was Yusuf Tachfin who had come from a long line of miltary rulers. According to “Roudh el-Kartas” (History of the Rulers of Morocco) by Abd Allah, and A.Beaumier’s French translation of the 14th century work, Yusuf was of “brown color”, of “middle height” with , “ thin, little beard, soft voice” and “woolly hair”. The Almoravid dynasty was supposedly composed mainly of Sanhaja clans of Massufa, Joddala (Gaetuli) and Lamtuna (or Auelimidden Tuareg)- the Auelamidden have since moved southward and live in Niger.

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126 thoughts on “African Moors: The Appearance of the Original Berbers According to European Perceptions – By – Dana Marniche”

  1. Everything that Queen Dana says in her article about the original black Berbers of North Africa, is confirmed into these following books (written by French Scholars) :

    – Recherches Anthropologiques sur la Berbérie Orientale : Ernest Chantre et Lucien Bertholon ( Tome 1 and 2)

    You can download the 2 volumes from this link below, click “Recherche” and search with the Names Bertholon or Chantre :


    You can download them from this link below

    Into these 10 volumes you can find many proofs or clues concerning the existence of the ORIGINAL black Berbers [often called western Ethiopians by classical historians like Romans and Greeks; See : GSELL, TOME 1, Page 295 to 304] during Antiquity and later on.

    The Black Presence in North Africa ( Algeria, Tunisia, Libya ) during the Paleolithic and NEOLITHIC periods is also demonstrated: [Bertholon TOME 1 ; pp 237 to 241]

    Please take special note of Pr Lucien Bertholon acknowledging that Black people in Carthage were in the highest spheres, specially our African Queens/women :

    – Pages 270-271 TOME 1 ;( The African woman Priestess of TANIT and found in a rich design sarcophagus).

    – Page 279 – TOME 1; about Africans found in Carthage he says :

    “Ce ne sont pas des individus quelconques” ie “They are not common individuals” ie They were not the slaves that you see in racist movies or read of in Eurocentric books…

    Page 280 – TOME 1: He speaks about another African woman found in a rich sarcophagus.

    He says that their type or race ( African women found in the highest spheres of Carthage) still existed in North Africa when they were doing this study…

    Furthermore, the African woman Priestess of Tanit had affinities with the Negroid Neolithic race found in North Africa at Tebessa ( Berber region) ) by Debruge [ See Tome I page 237]

    There are many affinities between the Nubians and the Negroid Neolithic inhabitants of North Africa, the later can be called ETHIOPIANS [ Tome I, Page 331]

    See also Stéphane GSELL [Tome IV page 174 to 177] , for African presence in Carthage.

    GSELL further says about the slaves in Carthage that : ” Les Pays Méditerranéens alimentaient largement les marchés d’esclaves” ie “Mediterranean Countries supplied fully the slave markets ” ie White slaves were predominant in Carthage….[Tome IV page 140]

    About the Moors’ descendant of Spanish Moors (Andalous) who settled in Tunisia in 1609 , Lucien Bertholon and Ernest Chantre say :

    ” La peau est bistre souvent à fond rouge” ie ” The skin is bistre often a red color” [ Tome I page 369]

    Here is the color that he called ‘BISTRE” :

    He could have say BROWN COLOR…

    I have always had a doubt about the ancient people called NUMIDIANS, Chantre and Bertholon say that in the MEDRACEN [ Numidian ROYAL MAUSOLEUM] all skulls found were PLATYRHINIAN : [Tome I page 325] ie Numidians of the highest cast were certainly black men…

    The blond type Berber existed as well, but they arrived later in North Africa.

    Thet Distinguish 2 different “races” in Neolithic North Africa :


    – “A DOLICHOCEPHALIC , SMALL , MESORHINIAN RACE” : HIGHLY MESORHINIAN is for highly “medium” Broad Nose (sic), they emphasize that this race were subject to frequent PROGNATHISM ie ANOTHER BLACK RACE…[TOME 1 page 241]

    Enjoy !

    PS : You may use a translator unfortunately it’s not in english, specially for the Haters…

  2. Hi Nehesy, Thanks for mentioning Tome. I will definitely look this up. I ‘ve used in the past Gsell, Gautier and also Hiernaux is a great source for info on ancient North Africans, Saharans and their connection to Ethiopians. I saw a long time ago in a book on ancient Egyptian paintings which showed Carthaginians in their dark brown color often with prognathous aspect. Now since I can not picture anywhere I am starting to think I imagined the photo although i know Sergi mentioned as well they existed..

  3. Some on this site mentioned that there were “copious” numbers of people of Arab Moorish and Libyan background. It should be understood that the word ‘Arab” before it became the name of people who speak Arabic was originally the name for a people who caled themselves “the blacks”. According to Ibn Manzur or Mandur the well known 13th c. linguist of Lisaan al Arab, they in fact called themselves as such because they were mostly “dark brown in color”. Another translation says “It is said that he (Al Fadl) meant that he is from the purest of the Arabs because most Arabs are black-skinned”. Quoted from The Unknown Arabs by Tarik Berry. In Tarik’s book are other quotes by Arabic historians and linguistics who say such things as “Lank hair is the kind of hair that most non-Arab Persians and Romans have, while kinky hair is the kind of hair that most Arabs have”. Abn Abd Rabbu in El-Iqd el Fareed said that early Arabs said things like,”A fair-skinned Arab is something inconceivable or unthinkable.” A common saying by the true and pure Arabs was ” light-skinned as if he is one of the slaves.” Just as in Europe the phrase “woolly hair like a Moor” or “black as Moor” became common. “Red in the speech of the people from the Hejaz, means fair-complexioned and this color is rare amongst the Arabs. This is the meaning of the saying…a red man as if he is one of the slaves’ The speaker means that hsis color is like that of the slaves who were acaptured from the Christians of Syria, Rome and Persia.”
    Today people of Syria and Iraq who have little Arab blood but are more Eurasiatic than AfroAsiatic see themselves as Arab as do Westernerns. Early Arabs, however, looked down on people the color of most Syrians as shown by many early quotes and modern Syrians and Iraqis would have been considered what they are – mainly descended from their subject people and concubines. Iraqi “Arabs” who had been the result of intermixing for over a thousand years with non-Arabs moved into the Persian Gulf a few centuries ago, and thus we have the many fair skinned high -class Arabs there. But they come from a tribe named Anaeza or Anaisa bin Wa’il whose clans were notoriously “black” in early Arabia, and originally from the Yemen. Many of their clans such as the Murad (or Amurath) who never left the Yemen are still African in appearance. It is these African or original Arabs who left south the Yemen and north Arabia, Hejaz and Nejd (Central Arabia) to conquer Syria, Iraq, Spain and North Africa. They became most of the Moors or Moro of the Iberian peninsula for several centuries before the bulk of the Berber Moors or Sanhaja, Zenata groups also mostly dark brown entered the peninsula. These Moors Arabs and Berbers toward the latter centuries continued to bring great numbers of European women into Spain and Protugal and other slaves into the Canary Islands. Africans must learn and recover their history and languages so you can preserve your heritage or others will steal them away for good.

  4. Hi Dana

    Bertholon and Chantre [page 267; Tome ] say that the second African woman found in the rich sarcophagus (number 4) had all the characterics of the small dolicochephalic brunette skin race : ” la petite race dolichocéphale à peau brune”.

    It’s undoubtly Giuseppe Sergi’s concept.

    They described her with the priestess of TANIT [ TANIT shares many characteritics with AKUABA the Ashanti “deity”] as ( page 267 , 279, 280 Tome 1) :

    1. “Dark red” skin
    2. Negroid
    3. High Prognathism
    4. Platyrhinian
    5. Dolicocephalic
    6. Small (Height)

    If we add the 6 features we have the definition of Sergi’s “EurAfrican Race” or more properly the Black African race who spread civilisation outside Africa.

    So It’s highly possible that you saw this picture.

    Bertholon and Chantre generally use a scientific “jargon” in order to avoid the words “black” , “African”, or to mislead people.

    They show some racist bias as well, for Instance Bertholon and Chantre say in one hand that this negroid people were to be found in North Africa since Paleolithic and Neolithic ( Page 237)…

    Latter they assume that Phoenician imported Africans (ie slaves) in Carthage, and contradict themselves (Page 304 : Tome I) …

    It’s a trick to deny our history, because many scholars like Joseph McCabe for instance acknowledged that Phoenicians had many slaves from the North ie Barbaric Nations ie the EUROPEANS’ ancestors.

    Some Phoenicians kings had Negroid Features too : TABNIT and ESHMUNAZAR II for instance.

    TABNIT :

    ESHMUNAZAR II (his son):

    Anyone who want to see pictures of black African phoenicians ( taken at the British Museum) please consult the following book :

    “When we Ruled” by Robin Walker.

    The next time I’ll go in London I’ll look for them if GOD wills…One of them represent An African Princess or Deity :

    Thanks again for your scholarship

    PS : IF I MAY, You should write books about the Black Berbers and Original Arabs.

    I bought Tariq Berry’s book and one wonderful thing he said about Ibn Mandhour’s book “Lisan el Arab” (About the Name ADAM), was confirmed to me 2 years ago by a Somali Brother who had studied at AL AZHAR.

    This friend told me that ADAM means BLACK EBONY in colour (In ARAB Language) and he gave me Ibn Mandhour’s references.

    Unfortunately I don’t read Arabic. But I’ll definitly learn this language if GOD wills.


  5. Hi Nehesy,

    First I would like to say I’m glad you have Tariq’s book. Secondly, I think the most important book is, The Bible Came from Arabia, by Kamal Salibi, which proves the Arabian origins of the Canaanite,Philistines, Israelite and other Afro-Semitic peoples.

    But before I continue I would like to ask again if you can translate for me the exact source of the Cairo Lettre about Ramses and the statement below. i went to the site and read the French statement below.

    “…Their size (ancient pharoahs) was rather average, with the exception of Ramses II whose analysis of the genes proved that he was tall. It was also demonstrated that his skin was brown and that its hair were black, and not a red-haired person. The red color which was found on its mummy is due to a dye (probably of the henna). His eyes were black with a light tint of brown color…”

    Also, I am familiar with Bertholon and Chantre’s findings from Diop’s book, however,’ the Carthaginian painting I saw was not a woman, but they were of copper black-skinned soldiers wearing hairstyle similar to Egyptians and Medjayu nubians and with more prognathousism than on the usual Medjay statues.

    Sergi described his small Mediterranean type as pygmies by the way and they must be similar to the very small dolichocephalic dark brown Arabian types “with attenuated limbs” still living in Hejaz ,Asir and Yemen. I just happen to know they exist because of having lived in the Arab section of Brooklyn.

    Very glad to see you have bought Tariq’s book. I will be putting much of a book I’ve been working on for the last 30 years on my site within the next 2 months – God willing. Its just that every time i get ready to try to publish it I find more startling information. Tariq’s book, for example, which I had just seen last year confirms my findings that the early Arabians were all dark brown and black in appearance, and that these were the clans that were called Moors in Spain see in his book early quotes and statements about the Arabian Banu Abs’ . Sulaym, Khazraj, Aus, Hudhail, Maddhij, El-Nakha, Kinaniyya, Tamim clans and individuals. All of these groups lived in and founded the cities of Seville, Grenada, Toledo, Cordoba, etc. and yet now it is argued that one is being Afrocentric if one says the Moors were called “black”.

    One can see in Donald Hardin’s book called , The Phoenicians, how they were portrayed by the Egyptians, -just like the modern men of Eritrea and Ethiopia. And yet there was supposedly some had problems with the fact that Vin Diesel played Hannibal because he is half black, when in fact it would have been more realistic to have had a much darker person like a Fulani or Tuareg of Mali play him judging from ancient . Also it is not true that the Hyksos people were for the most part Eurasiatic . They were generally early Canaanite or Amalekite (Meluhha) peoples represented by the modern Imashlagha Tuareg, Amlukh in Yemen, Rahawein and Mahra of modern Yemen and Somalia. The ruler Khaian whom you mention is in fact seen in the Afro-Arabian genealogy maps in Tarik’s book and called el Qiyan. Lenormant had it right in claiming the early Hysksos were originally Cushites related to the Galla Oromo. peoples.

  6. Hi Dana

    This website represents the official information website of the Egyptian Arab Government : Egypt State Information Service.

    According to the first line :

    “Dans le cadre des recherches effectuées par l’Université du Caire en collaboration avec le Conseil supérieur des antiquités, il a été possible de parvenir aux caractéristiques anthropologiques des Pharaons”

    Translated below

    ” …Within the framework of the researches made by the University of Cairo in association with the superior Council of antiquities, it was possible to reach the anthropological characteristics of the Pharaohs…”

    This Study has been led by The University of Cairo [Université du Caire] in collaboration of the superior Council of antiquities [Conseil supérieur des antiquités] which is linked to the Egyptian Governement.

    Lettre du caire numéro 58 du 25/04 au 01/05/2000 :

    Cairo Letter number 58 : 25/04/2000 to 01/05/2000

    Unfortunately they didn’t give the full study, and the name of the authors. They just published a summary of the results obtained by these two entities.


  7. Please visit :
    put up by someone named Sarrys
    Thanks Nehesy

    By the way I found this video in black and white showing Arabs of Jizan south western Saudi Arabia. I guess in the early part of the 20th century dancing very much like west Africans. i was stunned. Jizan is part of what Salibi rightly considers the land of the original Israel and ancient Canaan before they moved north. Enjoy

  8. Thank you Dana, indeed it looks like an African Dance, more specially : NDOMBOLO in RDC ( Congo). Anyway their drum sounds african, and the rhythm is african too.

    I met many black arabs in London, and they were from the higher class. Many of my Somali friends told me about them, specially in south Arabia.

    Now I’m asking myself if many blacks in Africa who claim ancestors in Arabia/Yemen were not rights if their assumption.

    I used to think that it was false testimonies in order to be closer to Islam religion ( by saying that ther were SHERIFF or descendant of Mohamed-saw).

    But now I’m seeing this assumption , with a different eye.

    One thing is sure though Tariq Berry made a little mistake when he said that the name SENEGAL comes from the berber tribe SENHAJA.

    In Wolof, the most important language in SENEGAL , our original country name which is SENEGAL before the French arrived , was called SU – NU – GAAL by the natives:

    SU – NU : means OUR in English [NU is pronounced with the SPANISH letter “N”]

    GAAL : means a BOAT/ DUGOUT in English.

    So SENEGAL meant originally ” IT’S OUR DUGOUT” in Wolof.

    French transformed SUNUGAAL into SENEGAL, because they could’nt tell it properly.

    Even for the capital : DAKAR or DAKHAR in wolof pronunciation

    DAKHAR [Tamarind in English] was a big tree , below which our elders used to gathered in order to discuss important issues.

    This was the most important place which is located in actual capital of senegal. So the french named the capital Dakar according to the place where our elders used to gathered for special purposes.

    The city of DAKAR/DAKHAR has been founded by the LEBOUS an “ethnic” group who is closed to the WOLOF. They are (were) mainly a FISHER group.

    DAKHAR in their language means TAMARIND. Many kings came from their group like DIAL DIOP, or LAT DIOR DIOP.

    They fought hardly against the slave traders, along with SERERS another ethnic group who have many affinities with Wolof. They both came from the NILE Region.

    The late Pr Cheikh Anta DIOP [RIP] was a LEBOU as well.

    One last thing in Senegal the people that we call MOORS or MAURES in French are BLACK at 80 %. They even have the arabic accent.

    The MOORS in Senegal are reknowned for being the best smiths specially for silver jewels. In senegal we all wear silver bracelets for SILVER’s medicinal virtues. It’s a tradition from our ancestors of the NILE VALLEY.

    @ Rozi , you’re very welcome

    I met many learned Jamaicans in London. God Bless my Jamaican Brothers and Sisters.

    Where is Sasha ? How come he doesn’t answer ?

    Another clue for him: Stephen GSELL [ Tome 1, Page 303] says that negroid people have been found in Algeria in the city of ORAN. They were troglodytes of the NEOLITHIC Period…This clue comforts FURON PALEOLITHIC foundings…

    1. ndiadia ndiaye ….was the king of the wolof people.hes father from sanhajal tibe.
      abuba cri bin oumar //so do your on math. the senegal IS ZENEGA OR SENHAJAL
      Im original of nother senegal //toucouleur/ do to use a plesuarism.

  9. Hi Nehesy – yes, I think there are afseveral major mistakes in Tariq’s book. However, I think I had also read the idea about Senegal being derived from the nameSanhaja came from Cheikh Anta Diop, I had seen that written somewhere myself, but not sure if it was Diop or somewhere else.
    Also, interesting about what you say on the Moors and silver smithing that was supposed to be one of the traits Moors brought with them when they came to America with the Portuguese. I was just listening to someone talk about this on Youtube.

    As for the Oran skeletons you were talking of i think they are supposed to be Capsian related.

  10. As to where is Sasha? This is probably Mathilda of Mathilda’s blog or someone who likes to rely on her . She’s the one that often spouts that stuff about the white Paleothic African roots of Kabyles and claims I misquote Coon without giving the documented refutations.

    Fortunately having specialized in Western theories of biological evolution of holocene and prehistorica North AFrica at the University of Chicago I happen to understand where many both (black and white0 getting involved with history writing are misinterpreting recent “genetic” studies and applying them to neolitihic and more recent populations haphazardly. This is not the way to rewrite histroy.

    It creates enormous problems when one tries to create history with the conclusions of a relatively recent and developing science. Its being done all over the internet to the point where Mathilda and friiends are calling ancient Nubians “50 percent” Caucasoid – whatever that means. In fact although genetically- based studies alone can speak of biological affiliations they can not usually validate where people have originated in the holocene as most populations are not in the same location they were in during the neolithic, let alone paleolithic.
    Actually, as for the Oranians – although most during the neolithic may have been related to dolichocephalic “negroids” as Gsell and others termed it, some of the skeletal evidence of the prehistoric Taforalt and Oran culture in the paleolithic period were mesocranic or brachycephalic and greatly different in appearance then most Capsians and other so called Ibero Maurusians like the Mechta Man and populations of Jebel Sahaba and Wadi Halfa. That had been known long before genetic studies.
    Eurasiatic or non-African populations also occupied Cyprus in the paleolithic. The culture of such peoples, however ,was markedly different then the dolichocephalic African-related paleothic peoples in North Africa adn Aurignacians in Europe who seem to have been associated with the mother Goddess cult even at that early time. This is judging from the findings of Mellaarte and other earlier physical anthropologists.


  12. I’ve read this article regarding berbers in north africa especially in Algheria, I found that in many historical events were false, even in the photos, which attributed to Kabyle while the women’s suit have nothing common with Kabyle, but it’s more konowen in the Aures Chawia. the second photos of the boy is more knowen in Morocco than Algeria.

  13. These photos are on-line from photos of the late 19th century. They are called Kabyle by the people who had photographed them. The Chawia are normally thought of as a not very dark people as well. let us not forget there were two different Kabyles spoken of by Europeans. One was obviously more numerous and darker and different than the other. One also dressed like the Arabs and the other dressed like the Greeks. The original Berbers of Kabylia and the Aures were Zenata (Ifuras), Hawara and Ketama, not Greeks who adopted Berber dialect.

    1890 – “The Kabyles or Kabaily of Algerian and Tunisian territories…besides tillage, work the mines contained in their mountains…They live in huts made of branches of trees and covered with clay which resemble the Magalia of the old Numidians…They are of middle stature, their complexion brown and sometimes nearly black.” Written in The Encyclopedia Britannica: Dictionary of Arts, Sciences and General Literature Henry G. Allen Company p. 261 Volume I 1890.

    1834 The Scotsman Thomas Campbell says, “The Kabyles…dress like the Arabs and a part from a few tribes, are brown complexioned and black haired” p. 109 Barbary and Enlightenment: European Attitudes Toward the Maghreb in the 18th Century, Ann Thomson. Published 1987 by E. J. Bull

  14. Damn !!!! I visited Mathilda’s website , which is full of crap, and this woman does’nt have any education. Her churlishness is very repulsive…

    And the so called berbers who posted on her website, are not a surprise for me…As I told you , nowadays, North African Women from Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia, are using chemical products in order to straighten their hair, and skin bleaching products specially in Morocco ( Like in the EAU, Jordania, Syria, Lebanon, or India..).

    Their men used the same tricks to look more European. But only Afro-descendants can actually have nappy hair.

    When it’s raining, they run if like the devil were behind them… looking for a shelter

    They have been colonized mentally, and think that having a white skin is a sign of beauty, I guess it can be explained by the French colonization.

    Specially Algerians, they forgot why the French attacked and colonized them in the 19th century : Stopping the white slavery in North Africa.

    Anyone who reads French can find articles about the first Berbers who were Blacks. French scholars like Bertholon, Atgier, and Adolphe Bloch were all agreed about the fact that the term moore or maure was initially used for the black men who lived in North Africa.

    Dr Adolphe Bloch wrote an article named :

    “On native black races which existed formerly in northern Africa” or “Sur des races noires indigènes qui existaient anciennement dans l’afrique septentrionale”.

    He presented this article at the French Anthropology society in 04/08/1896, available on the website Gallica.

    My younger sister went to morocco 2 years ago , and as she looks like a somali, moroccans talked to her, and thought that she was a Moroccan berber…Black berbers is a reality not a myth…

    1. Greets Jahdey, Tariq, Nehesy –

      Nehesy I just saw your funny comments about the Mathilda pseudohistory blog. I won’t put the word anthropology into it as she doesn’t even apparently understand when the neolithic began. I shouldn’t have been so surprised though.

      Some Moroccans came up to me too and questioned if I were one of them. They thought I was trying to pass for something else because of the way most North Africans are treated in France I guess. I am around the same color as Obama though. I don’t consider myself fair.

      This is very interesting about the French attacking North Africa because of the white slave trade. Do you have any sources i can look at about this. I will also look at this website Gallica. i like to read early European writings on the Berbers and other now mixed people. Many seemed to have been quite aware the original appearance of the Berbers and other ancient peoples of the Mediterranean. It was from Richmond Palmer I learned that Roman texts have many different European tribes settled in ancient Mauritania living along side the Berbers – iIncluding the Armeni, Phrygi, Vandali, and others aside from the Romans. The term “Berber” for modern fair-skinned Berber speakers must have come to be only within in the last two centuries or so since no mention is made of this before then.

  15. In a recent book (2008) , the french scholar Didier Lahon ( University of Rio de Janeiro) says that Mulay Mohamed Cheikh a Moroccan prince son of Mulay Mohamed (el mesloukh) was accepted in the Order of Santiago in 1594.

    His father was an ally to Don Sebastian the first, both died during the battle of Alcacer Kebir in 1578.

    This Moroccan Prince named Mulay Mohamed ech-Cheikh was a Black man according to Didier Lahon. See this book below page 223:

    “Les Africains et leurs descendants en Europe avant le XXe siècle.”, It’s a kind of “AFrican presence in early Europe” from Prof Sertima (RIP)

  16. Hi Nehesy! Do you mean to say that Senegal was called Senegal or Suu nuu gaal before the arrival of the French? Also, do you agree that the Zenega were in the region when the French arrived, which was my point in mentioning the origin of the name Senegal?

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