The Ancient Egyptian City of ON along the River Niger: The History and Culture of Onicha Mmili (Onitsha) – by – Onwa Onyebuchi Amene Esq.

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From, Ugonabo Onwa Amene Esq.
an Attorney who practices
mostly in the International Court of Trade.

Our history as a people should neither be a mystery nor a guess work. It must be written by us for us based on our knowledge of what was, what is and what will forever be as children of Onicha: a divine town of assured prospects; a town that was oriented and aligned to sacred stars of the immortal galaxies; a town, that was divinely inspired and strategically founded on the sacred banks of God’s own river, the Niger. Onicha, the sacred abode, uniquely ordained to soar and tower above all obstacles; a town, where the immortal flame of God’s own love will forever glow.

Onicha-Ado n’ Idu! Atulukpa Ose! Onicha, oke Ebo na eri agu! Eke nwe ovia! (The royal python that reigns in the the sacred forest!) Oke Nnunu Mmuo n’ ebe n’ oku!(The mystical bird Phoenix who is immune from the inferno!) Onicha; my Onicha, our Onicha, the divine breasts whose nourishing milk has sustained all from the misty dawn of times!

The word “Onitsha” is an alienization of the proper spelling of our correct name “Onicha”. From my research, this word was first used by Mungo Park in his reports of his expedition amongst the Niger people and this was continued by other Europeans. The compound term “tsha” is non-existent in any African or Igbo syntax. We should abandon the perpetuation of this anomaly and revert to the correct form of our name: Onicha. The ancestral name of our beloved town is “Onicha-Mmili”.This was to distinguish it from our other kinsmen at other Onicha settlements on the West of the Niger, like “Onicha-Ugbo”; “Onicha-Olona”; “Onicha-Ukwu”; and other blood relatives that branched out from the major migrational group to develop those settlements on the West of the Niger or “Enu Ani”. It is really sad that these days, our interactions and dynamics with these our blood relatives at Enu Ani have become almost extinct.

My immortalized and legendary kinsman, Chief Philip Okonkwo Anatogu, the Onowu Iyasele of Onitsha, once explained that the word “Onicha-Ado N’ Idu” referred to the Nation of all Onicha stock that made the exodus from the Idu land. Idu was one of the names for ancient Egypt. “Idu” or “Edo” was later corrupted to Edo and was usurped by the Benin nation. The Iyasele explained that the towns of Onicha-Mmili, Onicha-Ugbo, Onicha-Olona, Onicha-Ukwu, Issele-Ukwu, Issele Mkpitima, Ezzi, Obamkpa and other towns of Benin migrational orientation were all collectively referred to as “Onicha Ado n’ Idu” by the Edos! Over the years when Onicha-Mmili became very accomplished, the usage of the name “Onitsha Ado n’ Idu” appeared to have been narrowed down to her. Many of our brethren at Enu Ani had criticized this as what they perceived as an attempt by Onicha-Mmili to solely assume what was a national identity of all Onicha children.

Who are Ndi Onicha? Onye ka anyi bu? Ebe ka anyi sii? Anyi abu ndi Edo/Idu/Benin?


Just like many ancient kingdoms that are now scattered in the Southern part of the Sahara, the Onicha history is rooted in Ancient Egypt. From linguistics, cultural, cosmological, anthropological, pictorial, traditional and spiritual analyses and comparisons, Onicha people and their Yoruba and Edo relatives are from Ancient Egypt, known then to our ancestors as Kemet. The word “Egypt” was a hellenised (from the Greeks) name for Kemet. (I have always wondered the psycho-social motivation for the European’s fixation for alteration of names and identities of the indigenous people that they conquer.)

Our confusion and rejection of our Egyptian roots is premised upon years and years of colonial mis-education and doctrine that the Egyptian civilization was attributable to Europeans. The imperialist oppressors never taught our history from its remotest past but taught and narrowed the genesis of African history to the colonial era and advent. Most Europeans who made a good effort to conduct research on African history and anthropology, like Professor Richard Henderson, in his “The King in every man” did excellent works but their works were very prejudicially narrowed in time and scope. None ever attempted to conduct an indepth study to connect our history to the advanced ancient Egyptian roots. This was a deliberate omission, perhaps premised upon the colonial doctrine that “Africa was a race without a past” because it does not take a lot of studies for one to connect Onicha and closely related communities like the Edos and Yorubas to ancient Egypt.

Words like “Yorubas”, “Benin”, “Igbos”, are relatively new terms and were never used by the ancestors of these people to identify them. We should also note that the Igbo, Yoruba, Edo, and many West African languages descended from one parent language and belong to the “KWA” language group. We must endeavor to write our history from its purest and ancient source and not be limiting our studies to events of 700 years ago. This is an insult to our ancestors whose eons and billions of ageless genes exist in us. ONITSHA DID NOT START WITH OUR ANCESTRAL ADVENT TO THE BANKS OF THE NIGER FEW HUNDRED YEARS AGO!


Marcus Aurlielus Garvey once opined that a people without a knowledge of their history is like a tree without roots. We must, for the sake of our children, approach the study of our history with fervency and zeal, otherwise, we deprive them of a foundation upon which they can stand to withstand the fierce battles of man’s unkindness to man as history keeps attesting. Just mentioning that we left Benin over a contest for a royal throne is a mockery of historical accuracy and a severe limitation of the true self knowledge of who we are, in terms of scope and time.

Who and what were we before the tiny or microscopic phase of the Benin/Edo experience? How did we get to Benin? And from were did we get to Benin? Why did we migrate from where we were to Benin?

Why does Onicha Igbo syllable contain more Yoruba words than Benin words? And why do our kingship and chieftaincy titles and arrangements resemble the Edos/Benin and not like the Yorubas? What was our original language? Do we still have its linguistic remnants in our chants, dirges, eulogies and dances? What is the meaning of the chants that we intone during the sacred Ido Ogbi gba (last funeral phase) of an ascended ancestor?

Why did Onicha people readily and without any objection embrace and adopt the mystical rituals of the Igala Immigrants and their Muo-Avia/MmuoOgonogo/Egwugwu, placing the Muo-avia on a powerful position that almost paralleled and usurped the powers of the monarch? Did the Igalas have any Yoruba, Edo or Benin roots? Did Onicha, Edo and Igala have a common roots? Why are the Ulutus/Mgbelekekes, who are Igala immigrants, the custodian of the most powerful sacred shrine in Onitsha: Ani Onitsha? These and many others are the questions that we need to ask?

Onitsha words like “Ogbadu”(corn), “Okwute” (rock/stone), “Ogede” (plaintain), “Ologbo” or Onogbo”, (cat), “Okpulukpu” (box or container”, “Erulu” (beads), “Ikpulu” (a specie of garden egg), “Inye Ori” by Muo Avia,(Ori means head or chi in Yoruba) and so many others are all Yoruba words, except “Ologbo” which is still used in Benin today. However, many of our traditional titles are the same with the Edos/Binis: Onicha titles like “Iyasele” is “Iyasere” in Bini; “Ogene Onira” is “Oliha” in Benin; “Odu Osodi” is “Osodin” in Benin; “Omodi Daike” in Onitsha is “Edaiken” in Benin; “Esagba” in Onitsha is “Esogban” in Benin; the “Isama” titles are the same in both towns amongst many others.

The land of Kemet or ancient Egypt, also called Idu or Igodomigodo by our ancestors, now sadly inhabited by descendants of Arabic and Turkish (with other European) invaders, was before the invasion, the ancestral land of Onicha people and many other African nations.

We were forced to make a southern migrational exodus to avoid annihilation by the constant invasion from foreign forces from Persia, Turkey, Albania, Macedonia and other parts of Europe. The land of Egypt was a very sophisticated and super advanced nation of civilized people. The foundation of ancient Egypt was laid by Africans who are now scattered in disorganized groups called tribes and clans; in total ignorance of their identities, contributions to world science, arts and their very advanced civilized roots in ancient Egypt.

Now and then, it hurts a lot to see the ways that Turkish-Arabs have been desecrating the ancient tombs and graves of our African ancestors in Egypt. Our ancestral graves are being excavated on a daily basis in the name of “research”. If these were their ancestors would they be allowing these desecrations and digging up of their ancestors for studies and research? In the name of research and studies, they are destroying land marks and coded information left by our ancestors for us and our children. Six years ago, they conducted a melanin pigmentation/skin color test on the skins of 25 Pharoahs and ancient Egyptian mummies that they excavated and found that they were all Africans with very dark skins but this information is yet to be published in the bi-annual Egyptian Historical Society magazines. The Key is to keep the African in stupor and ignorance of his great past.


Everything that the world knows today in terms of religion, science, astrology, astronomy, medicine, laws and other branches of philosophical studies are from ancient Egypt. According to Herodotus, a very travelled Greek Historian, who kept records of his visit to ancient Egypt, Egypt was peopled by very disciplined and organized citizenry who were “very” black people with “wooly hair”. Everything revolved around the Pharoah, who was an incarnate of God on earth.

The word “Pharoah” is the Greek translation of the Kemetic term, “Parah” meaning “Great house/home or abode”(compare this to the title of our King, “Obi” which is also a home or abode”.) The term alludes to the fact that the King or Pharoah is a great abode or temple that houses many forces, spirits or powers. The Gods and Goddesses dwell in his body making it “a great house or “Obi”.

The “Obi” of modern Onitsha today is the continuation of the ancient Pharonic dynasty of ancient Kemet or Egypt. Onitsha must retrace the history of her monarchs from his imperial Majesty Obi Achebe back to the Ogiso Kings of Igodomigodo in Edo, then to Egypt; to Pharoah Tutankhamon, Pharoah Amenemhet, Pharoah Amenemes, Pharoah Amenkhuti Ra; Pharoah Khafara, and back to the first dynasty in Egypt. Enough of this tracing of our kingship to just Obi Oreze or his father Ohime(corrupted to “Chima”) by his later descendants. Did they not descend from somebody? We must take back our history to where it belongs. Do we have to wait for Professor Henderson to come and tell us?


Onicha got its name from the ancient Egyptian city of “ON”, unfortunately renamed as “Heliopolis” by the Greeks and now being called “El Minah” by the modern Egyptian government, which has changed the name of this city five times. The City of “On” was the citadel of spiritual excellence and was one of the most sacred cities of ancient Egypt.

The priests of On were very mystical and were the repository of the ancient mysteries of Egypt. The priests of On guided their mysteries jealously and were the only priests that crowned the Pharoahs. No king of Egypt could be recognized without being consecrated by the priests of On. They were called the “Priests of the most high”. The Pharoh and his family traditionally resided in the city of On. “Onicha” means those that were sacked or cut off from the city of On. The word “cha” in ancient Egypt means to cut, descend or fall from. The Onitsha Igbo dialect term “chapu” like in “chapu ya isi” (cut off his head) still has the same root like the ancient Kemetic Egyptian language: “cha” : to cut off or make to fall.

Onicha people were actually those that were cut off or fled from the sacred city of On. Literarily speaking, Onicha means “people of On that fled” from On. Some people had wrongly described the word Onicha as those who “despise others”, but that could not be correct because they were the ones who were charged with the responsibility of consecrating and annointing kings and priests. As a matter of fact, the names, “Tutankam-on” and “Solom-on” are rooted in the city of On. Solomon means he who was initiated into the mysteries of On.

In Onicha today, we see the term “On” reflecting in many of our names and traditional titles. The term “On” is found in some of the following Onitsha traditional chieftaincy titles: “On-owu”, “On-i-ra”, meaning “On” dedicated to the ancient Egyptian God called “Ra”, “Onika” meaning the Ka of On; the word “ka” in Kemetic language means “the soul”, therefore, “Onika”means the soul of On. We also see the word “On” in “Onya”, “Onoli” and “Onwolu” all chieftaincy titles in Onicha.

In their roles as priests, ON-icha people after being cut off from Egypt, continued to play their roles as priests and in that capacity sojourned with different closely related communities that were scattered in Africa, especially in West Africa, where their services as priests were still needed.

They dwelt amongst other fellow Egyptians and Punis (Cannanites) who had fled/migrated from ancient Egypt to avoid foreign invasions.

They were in Ile Ife, today in Ile Ife, some Yorubas of ON-icha stock are still residing there. Till date, an ancient ritual of the battle of Moremi, an Ile Ife Princess’ conflict with Onicha inhabitants are still enacted on a yearly basis.

Onicha priests were also in Benin kingdom or Edo land.

They were also in Igbo land. I suspect that the Priests of Nri were distantly connected to the city of On. That is why till date an Nri King upon consecration must bring certain sacrifial items (tributes) to the Obi of Onicha and must sleep over in Onicha before assuming the Nri throne.

Why would the very traditional Nri people who were (and still are) known all over the Igbo land as a holy people and the spiritual custodian of all Igbo lands, accord these rights to Onicha Kings? All these indicate that Onicha and many other tribes had had prior interactions and established certain traditional precedence which had been ongoing before the Onicha town was founded just around 700 hundred years ago. No Nri man would just concede to subject his divine King to some unknown immigrants who just crossed over from the Niger River, if that were to be the case.

Times have really changed. It should be noted that I am referring to an era when we had no tribal or linguistical differenciation as we have now. Many of the modern African tribes and languages were non-existent in the past. We were all one group and spoke one language, different languages developed after our exodus from Egypt and sojourn with other different populations that were in other parts of Africa when we migrated.

These priests of On made sure to plant the concept and importance of establishing an independent nation like the ancient city of On where Onicha people would assume their prime and primordial roles as divine priests amongst men, once again. Onicha-Mmili was an attempt to recreate the ancient city of On for Onicha people after years and years of persecution and oppression for their priestcraft at the hands of many hosting relatives who over the years forgot who and what Onicha stood for.


The migration of Onicha people from Benin happened in phases over many years and did not happen once. The Ohime/Obi Ezechima’s exodus was one of the last ones that occurred but it should be noted that not all Onicha people left with Obi Eze Chima or Ohime. Some stayed back and are still in Benin today.

Some took a different migrationary route towards Ile Ife and Ado Ekiti. Some went to establish Ondo. Some made a northern migrational journey towards the north to establish the Igala Kingdom.

The Attah of Igala and a substantial part of the Igala kingdom were Onicha people who immigrated into Igala from Benin. According to oral traditions, the first Attah of Igala was a Priestly-Prince of the Edo/Benin Kingdom.

Now it can be understood why the Onicha people were ferried across the Niger and greatly assisted by their Igala kinsmen when they reached the banks of the Niger river. It can also be understood why Onicha people easily incorporated many Igala rituals and traditions into their own concepts. They were of the same roots but different branches. Onicha people left Benin to establish Igala; that was the secret behind the easy adoption of and exchange of different tenets amongst Onicha and Igala people.

Some Onicha people, before Eze Chima’s exodus, had left Benin to establish other towns like Issele Ukwu, Ebu, Kwale, Ezzi, Onicha-Ukwu, Okpanam, Asaba(originally called “Araba”) and some other towns of Benin orientation that had been established before the Ezechima’s exodus from Benin.. It was these settlements that habored Obi Ohime/Ezechima when he and his family fled from Benin. The migration from Benin to Onicha Mmili took many years, towns of Onicha-Olona and Onicha-Ugbo were established by Onicha people who felt reluctant to continue and follow Obi Ohime to Onicha-mmili.


Obi Ohime or Eze Chima, having been told that he could not enter Onicha, stayed for a long time in Obio (a town across the Niger from Onicha) with his family and relatives before he died.

After he died, his relatives decided to continue with their migration to establish Onicha. The qualification for whom shall be crowned king was conditioned upon who shall sound ancient rhythms on a wooden Ufie. Traditionally, Ufie cannot be owned or be sounded/beaten by a person whose father is still alive. The contestants to the throne having just lost their father, had no ufie, however, Oreze Obi, had carved one which he hid under the boat and sounded first upon getting to Onicha whilst his siblings were busy looking for the appropriate wood to cut for the Ufie.

The contestants to the throne were Oreze, Ukpali, Agbor Chima, Ekensu (Aboh Chima), Obio, Obamkpa and Isele. All these men were all children of Eze Chima. This is very important because I have read some articles being written about “non-royal and royal” Onitsha families by people who are very ignorant of our history.

Dei Ogbuevi was uterine brother of Eze Chima and was therefore not excluded from Onicha kingship unlike the children of Eze Chima outlined above. That is why any Dei descendant can still aspire to the Oncha throne, unlike the descendants of the children of Eze Chima that contested the throne.

Rather than contest the election of their sibling, they resolved to emigrate from Onicha and go back to “Enu Ani” to establish their own clans. Thus Obamkpa, left to establish Obamkpa town. Umuasele, Iyiawu and Umu Odimegwu Gbuagwu villages are all descended from Obamkpa.

Ukpali went to found Agbor and Ekensu went to found Aboh.

After, Ojedi’s sacrifice of her life to save Onicha, her father Dei, left Umudei village to reside with his nephew Ukpali who had founded Aboh town (because then, it was a taboo for a child to die before the parents.) Whilst at Aboh, Dei had more children, who just like their Aboh relatives, became very wealthy by fishermen and traders.

These children of Dei in Aboh, whenever they came to Onicha to trade and market their wares, would spend some days with their relatives at Umudei village. Some later settled at Umudei after exchanging marital vows with other Onicha people and founded the “Ogbe Onira” clan in Umudei village, a very spiritual, mystical and tough clan. The term “Aboh Rika” is now being erroneously applied to all Umu Dei people, but this is historically incorrect. It was originally used for Ogbe Onira clan because of their “Dei-Aboh” roots. Till date, our relatives from Aboh town are saluted with “Abohrika”. It literarily means Aboh predominates! One always sees that pride wherever children of Eze Chima are founded.

When Dei later left Aboh, he went and founded Oguta town in Imo State and till date, only descendants of Dei can assume the throne of Oguta town. In Oguta today, the Umudei Village exists. Traditionally, whenever, the Obi of Oguta visited Onicha-Mmili, he would first go to the Diokpa of Umudei village who would then accompany him to the Obi of Onicha.


Onicha is made up of nine clans: the Umu-Ezechima Clan, Ugwu na Obamkpa Clan; Awada Clan; Ubulu na Ikem Clan;Ulutu Clan;Ubene Clan(Umu Okwulinye);Ogbolieke Clan; Obior Clan; and Agbanute Clan.


Onicha people traditionally beleive in one omnipotent God whom we call”Ose Ebuluwa” or “Osa Ebuluwa” ( “Olisa Ebuluwa”.) One of the original ancient Egyptian, Kemetic names of God, was “Osa”. The Greeks changed it to “Osiris”. Another name of God in ancient Egypt was “Ra”.

In Onicha today we bear the names “Chukwu Ra” etymologically it alluded to “Ra”, the high spirit. It was this aspect of God that the Jews worshipped that is why the term”RA” is reflected in many Jewish and Isreali names. Terms like (Abraham);Ab “Ra” ham, (Israel): Is “Ra” el, {Sarah};Sa “Ra” h, (Raphael);”Ra” phael, (Gabriel);Gab “Ra” el, (Ariel); A “Ra” el, (Mount Ararat);A,ra “Ra” t, and so many others. Could these be “just” coincidental?

In Benin, God is called “Osa No Obuwa”, which has the same etymological root with “Ose Ebuluwa”. The closest transliteration(it cannot be adequately translated into English) of the term “Osebuluwa” can be glimpsed if one attempts to etymologize the term “Osebuluwa”. The term is derived from “Ose/Osa(mystical force/being), ebili(waves), uwa(world), Osebuluwa therefore, subject to my human limitations, means “The mystical being whose waves sustain the world.” Going into the mystical and esoteric meaning of “OLISA”: which literarily means “the devourer of mystical seven”, would cast me beyond the scope of this article. MAKA NA IVIE LIE ISAA ONAA!(WHATEVER DEVOURS SEVEN CEASES TO EXIST!)

The name Ose Ebuluwa was (still is) deemed so holy that the Onicha men, especially Priests of Nze(Agbalanze) would not respond to any greetings from family members upon waking up in the morning, until they ritually cleansed their mouths with (chewing stick) Atu Oborsi, bathed and then faced the direction of the rising sun to pronounce the sacred name “Ose Ebuluwa”. He does this whilst standing in a very consecrated and hallowed ground called “Ani Ezi”. This name is very powerful:none should dare to falsely swear in this name. Our ancestors were spiritually advanced to know that God had no gender, we therefore till date ascribe no gender to God unlike in our European oriented creeds.

In Onicha spiritual philosophy, in the divine realm, things of the physical world like genders, colors, emotions and other trivialities do not exist. We believe that everything in God’s creation has a divine purpose. We see everything on earth as a reflection and part of the divine will and therefore regard every object, living or non-living as having a sacred stamp from God Almighty.

We see the herbs, the sky, the sun, moon, stars, rivers, hills and everything on earth as a different expression and extension of ourselves: we see everything on earth as our equals and do not endorse any superiority over GOD’S creation.

We do not seek converts or convince others to believe in our path of spirituality because everybody has his/her own path and pact with his/her Chi. Thus an Onicha man/ like most traditional Africans, would not impose his views of the divine concept and wage a holy war to convert other towns to partake in his spirituality.

We believe that our ancestors having ascended to the divine realm before us, have the powers to intercede on our behalf over our spiritual needs since their genes still exist in us; we believe that our connection to our ancestors are eternal and was so ordained by God. We use objects or images in our communications or prayers to the divine just as an objectification of the divine principles that they may represent and never WORSHIP or ascribe Godliness to anything carved by human hands. Above all WE BELIEVE THAT GOD, IN GOD’S INFINITE WISDOM, CREATED US AND MADE US MANIFEST AS NDI ONICHA FOR SPECIAL REASONS AND THEREFORE CANNOT SIN AGAINST GOD BY BECOMING OR CONVERTING INTO WHAT GOD DID NOT MAKE US TO BE.

Onowu Anatogu, philosophized that “… na onwelu ive Chukwu ji kenye Agu n’ovia, welu Azu tinye na mmili, aputakwo na mmili, enwe Azu Isi, enwe Azu Asa na azu ndi Ozo ga asi…” (God for a divine purpose created the lions and placed them in the jungle, and with the same divine purpose cast the fishes in the waters, and further divided them into different species like the Cat fish, Electric Eel and other species.) He further stated that it would have been very easy for God to make him an Awkuzu, British, Nsukka or French man, but for some reasons God did not. He concluded that God never makes a mistake or regrets God’s creations.

Our spiritual cycle and circles revolve around our divine King, the Obi of Onicha, the Agbo Ogidi, who encapsulates and personifies, the ultimate divine manifestation of sacred principles in man.

The Obi of Onicha is the soul of the past, present and future of Onicha people. He embodies all and is the big house (OBI) that swallows all, this is why he is addressed as “Agbo Ogidi” the true pronounciation is actually “Ai-Gbo Ogidi”.

The Obi is the royal cobra (UBI) that that kills and swallows its prey.

The Obi is followed in spiritual rank by the Eze Idis (Eze Idus – kings of the people of idus) who are the custodians of Nze and empowered to consecrate men to become Agbalanze.

The Diokpas (the first fruits of each familial obi – great house) are also sacred beings whom God and the ancestors have chosen to intercede in spiritual matters on their behalves.

The Agbalanze are consecrated priests who can officiate before the sacred ancestral or other divine altars for intercession.

The stool of Omu (Queen) of Onicha has been vacant for more than hundred years now. Our last queen was Omu Nwagboka. She was from Ogbendida village and was married into the Egwuatu family of Ogbeotu. The Omu was never the wife of the King in Onicha but was appointed by the King on the recommendation of the Ikporo-onitsha (the women of Onitsha).

Unlike many Onicha men, many Onicha women upon their deaths, became deified and elevated to the status of godship (a ritual that the Catholics copied from Africans.) In Onicha today, Princess Ojedi (Nne na ama Odu,Umudei), Omu Atagbusi(Ogbolieke), Aze (Abalaka, Oti idu)Umuaroli, Queen Uto (Oke Alusi odigbogbo, Ogelli Ete, Umuase), Obiasi Okwu Ogodo (Ogbeotu), Ucheju Onyeama (Odoje), Agadi Nwanyi (Onicha), Okike Iba (Ogbolieke) and others that I cannot mention, were all deified feminine ancestors.

I still believe that only Onicha women will redeem Onicha from its present decadence like they always did in the past. I will credibly defend this belief anywhere and whenever challenged thereon. Omu Atagbusi, led a boycott of Onicha Women from purchasing the imposed merchandize of the British royal Niger Company. This conflict later resulted in the bombing of Onicha by a British War ship, HMS, around 1778. After this assault, Omu Atagbusi, never surrendered, but continued to wage attacks that later forced the British to vacate from Onicha to relocate at Asaba which was then made the headquarters of the Royal Niger Company.


The true meaning behind the saying that “Ive eji abu Onicha erika” is being lost on us. The Onicha man is primarily motivated by inwe avo ojuju (spiritual and emotional balance) and preserving a good name for his children.

Violence and crime are not in his nature. What makes an Onicha man what he is, is his love for Onicha and his unsolicited penchant to help and assist his kinsman or women.

An Onicha man takes pride in seeing his fellow kinsmen being succesful because he sees himself in them.

We are now daily murdering that fraternal and sororial bonds that our ancestors employed to make Onicha what it was.

Would Ukpali, Obamkpa, Ekensu, Abor Chima, Obio have walked away, today, if their brother Oreze deceived them with the sounding of Ufie to become the King, as he did around 700 years ago? Let us learn to forgive ourselves! Let us abandon trivialities and submit ourselves to the divine order of life.

I dedicate this article to those unsung and quiet Onicha people who have been doing their desperate best to assist and elevate Onicha and her children; despite our ingratitude and unkindness to them.

I also dedicate this article to my father, Ugochukwutubelu Oranyelu M.C.J. Amene Esq., whose good name and excellent character became my passport in gaining the trust, patience and confidence of many men and women of diverse orientations who were very knowledgeable about our culture.


“The History of Ancient Benin Kingdom and Empire” by Chief D.N. Oronsaye published in 1995 by Jeromelaiho.

“The King in every man” by Richard Henderson published in 1972 by Yale University Press

“Echoes of the Dark Land” by Charles Finch III published by Khenti Publications in 1999

“A history of Ancient Egypt” by Dr. EAW Budge, New York Humanities Press 1968

“Know Onitsha Families” by Eke Prince Ekwerekwu printed by Amakohson Printing Creations 1989

“My Odyseey” an Autobiography by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe published by Spectrum Books Limited.

Visits and studies of ancient sculpture and arts of the people of On at the city of Heliopolis” in Egypt.

Interactions and interviews with multiples of Onitsha men and women who “cast their ears to the earth”

“Dictionary of Ancient Egyptian language” by EAW Bugde published by New York Humanities 1978

“Egyptian book of coming forth by day and night” by Ani, published 5,000.00 B.C in the Papyrus of Ani, an Egyptian Priest.

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56 thoughts on “The Ancient Egyptian City of ON along the River Niger: The History and Culture of Onicha Mmili (Onitsha) – by – Onwa Onyebuchi Amene Esq.”

  1. Ra is Ancient Egyptian word for God. Chukwu or ChukwuRa is Igbo word for God. Ra could have come from Igbo word Chukwura or from Ora another Igbo word. In the olden days, when people greet Eze Nri, he would reply by saying Ora. In his book, Igbo people: Professor Umeh states that Ra came from Ora.

    1. Aha, an Igbo man, established ancient Egypt. To provide evidence in support of my claim here, I will cite Dr. Ben Jochannan, a world renowned Egyptologist, he stated that ALKEBULAN and not Kemet or ON or any other name was the oldest name of ancient Egypt.

      ALKEBULAN is Igbo word and any person from Igbo land can easily recognize this word as Igbo. In modern Igbo, ALKEBULAN would be written as AKAEBULAN OR AKAEBULAM OR AKAEGBUNAM depending on the dialect and the part of Igbo land the speaker comes from.
      Ani & Aha, both ancient Egyptian words are still written the same way in Igbo language and are still used in everyday Igbo communication.

      Hint: Papyrus of Ani

      Over 1,000 ancient Egyptian words are found in Igbo language and are still in use today. Ancient Igbo people are the ancestors of ancient Egyptians.

  2. About two weeks ago BBC reported that scientists have been able to traced the man who established ancient Egypt. The name of this man was Aha. Aha is Igbo word for name. Today in Igboland people, especially males are still named Aha. To make it possessive “m” is added and it be comes Aham which means “my name”. Aha or Aham is also written with “f” instead of “h” to read Afa or Afam the possessive form of it. The full version of it is Ahamefuna or Afamefuna. Similarly, Malachi which is Igbo name was derived from Amalachukwu or Amalachi and later Malachi.

    It might interest the reader to notice that the English make word possessive by prefixing “my” before the word. For instance, my item. It does not take a genius to figure out that the English possessive word “my” has its root in Igbo possessive word “m”. So is the English word Item. Item is also an Igbo word. It is a possessive word for Ite. Ite is a pot in Igbo. To make Ite a possessive word, you simply add “m” at the end which makes it item. A pot is a thing. Item is an English word for a thing or an object, or an article. Many English words can trace their origin to Igbo. Another English word that is rooted in Igbo is “volume”. Volume is sound. In Igbo, Olum is sound or literally my voice. vOLUMe from Igbo word OLUM. English is not the only European word that has Igbo root. The German word for grandmother is Oma. Oma is Igbo word. Professor Umeh stated in his book Igbo people that the ancient grandmother of Igbo people was called Oma. He stated that Oma mbala river which was anglicized Anambra river was named after our ancient grandmother. Anambra state was also named after Oma, ancient igbo grandmother. Today, Igbo people remember her by saying omaaaa when they embrace one another, just like a mother embraces her child or children.

  3. The author stated that in Benin God is referred to as Osa No Obuwa. He failed to mention that this was because of Igbo influence on Benin people and Benin culture. People of Benin came from Yoruba people , but Osa No Obuwa is not part of Yoruba language and culture. Osa No Obuwa was derived from Ose Ebuluwa or Olisa Ebuluwa which is Igbo word for God. The authority of Eze Nri and influence of Igbo culture extended to Benin, all over Delta state, Igalla land, Idoma, and thorough out south-south states. Due to Igbo influence Ose Ebuluwa or Olisa Ebuluwa is now used by Efik people, Ibibio people, IJAW people, Idoma and Igalla peoples. They also have four Igbo market days: Eke, Orie, Afor, Nkwo and follow the Igbo lunar calendar. Eze Agulueri, Eze Nri, Eze Oraeri, and all the priestly kings in Igbo land prior to Europeans coming to Africa were the continuation of Pharaohs of Egypt. It is important to mention here that Pharaoh is Greek for Igbo word Faro. Wherever the author uses Onicha people, it should be replaced with Igbo people because the so called Onicha people are Igbo people comprising of Nri people, Obosi people, and Aro people from where Eze Chima and his group came from.

  4. Igbo is not a new word as the author claimed. The word Igbo has been in existence for hundreds of thousands of years. Igbo was derived from two composite Igbo words Ndi and Gbo. Ndi means people and Gbo means ancient. When you bring the two word together you get Ndigbo. Ndigbo means ancient people. Igbo comes from borrowing the “I” from Ndi and adding it in from of Gbo to get Igbo. Igbo is short for Ndigbo which means Ancient People.

  5. I think the reason why the author said that the word “Igbo” did not exist before was because of the writings of the European Anthropologists and missionary authors. When the Europeans came to Igboland, they would ask the natives where are you from, instead of saying Igboland, the natives would give the name of their town. Unlike the British who when ask the same question would say England or Scotland or Ireland, or etc. However, when the same question was asked to the same Igbo people in a foreign country, they would reply Igboland. The answer that is given depends on where the question was asked. The Europeans in their ignorance failed to figure this out. If the Igbo did not reply the way the British expected them to reply, the British would make up assumption and substitute it for fact. They print these assumption as fact in books. Today unfortunately, when some Igbo people read these books written over 100 years ago they accept them as correct when they are incorrect. It is the same Europeans who said that Onicha people are from Benin people when Onicha people are comprised of Aro, Nri, and Obosi people; the same Europeans who deceived the Aro people into believing that they were not Igbo when Aro people came from various parts of Igboland. The same Europeans who said that ancient Egyptians were not Africans when they were ancient Igbo. Ancient igbo established ancient Egyptian civilization. Ancient Igbo built pyramids, did mummifications, established both the (ancient Egyptian and Israelites) religious rituals, customs, and rites. The Israelites were ancient Igbo. The Essential Talmud was authored by an Igbo man named Nnamani.

    The same Europeans who said that the Igbo did not have education or written words just because they did not see school buildings and textbooks when we have informal education and Nsibidi. The same Europeans who said that the Igbo people are pagans just because they did not see church buildings and Bibles when we have Omenani. Omenani is the law of the land. Omenani is composed of natural laws, spiritual laws, and metaphysics. They also said that the Igbo did not have laws just because they did not see courthouses when we have Odinani Ndi Igbo and Oracles.

    The word Igbo is not only archaic but also can be seen in Jewish texts as a name of a person or towns in Israel and ancient Egypt. Igbo is as old as the oldest name in the world.

  6. It is important to know that the ancient Egyptian culture and the culture of the Israelites came from Igboland. The name Abraham is short for Igbo name Abrahamogu, Malachi is short for Amalachi, Noah is short for Nnaoha/nnoo etc. Igbo word for welcome is nnoo. When we welcome visitors to our housewife and we say Nnoo, we are in essence remembering our forefather.

  7. Housewife=HOUSES. Correction is for a sentence made in the above comment. Crazy iPad keeps making unauthorized changes to my typing.

  8. Great article on the city of Onicha being the recreation of the Idu or Egyptian city of On on the Niger river in Nigeria by Onwa Onyebuchi Amene.

    Great post by Saachi about the Igbo people being the creator of Ijuputa or Ancient Egypt and the Hebrew being Igbo. Saachi your knowledge on the Igbo people is similar to Professor Catherine Acholunu knowledge on the Igbo people.

    I think Ijuputa/Idu/Egypt was established by the Igbo people and became a multi ethnic African state over time. Among the Egyptian people were the Igbo, Akan, Yoruba, Fon, Soninke, Wolof, Mande, Haoussa, Bamun, Lunda, Kuba, Bateke, Tutsi, Somalian etc. According to oral historian Abd El Hakim Awyan the 42 nomes of Egypt were 42 African ethnic groups who later people the world.. The Yoruba people were name after the God Heru/Horus, the name Yoruba is Yeru/Heru ba meaning soul of Heru. The Congo people word for writing is sonika a word that come from the Ancient Egyptian word for Papyrus soninka who was name after the Egytian scribes and papyrus makers the Soninke people of Ancient Egypt now living in West Africa.

    I agree with Lawyer Onya O Amene African history shouldn’t be a mystery and a guess work. The Roman Christian destroyed African history by burning the Library of Alexandria and all the Ancient libraries of the Mediterranean world. After their libraries and book destructions the Roman and European Christians replaced real world history with a false history base on lie agreed upon. African scholars should write the real history of African people and the real history of the world.

    1. Horus is Greek. It is a derivative of Igbo word Oru. Isis is Greek word for Igbo word Isi. Hawaii is also derived from Igbo word Awaii. When the British got to Hawaii, they asked the people, what do you call your islands, they replied Awaii. The British in their ignorance or in their arrogance and with intention to deceive as usual wrote Hawaii instead of Awaii. They did the same thing to the Igbo people, instead of Onicha they wrote Onitsha, instead of Ahaba they wrote Asaba, instead of Oka they wrote Awka , instead of Oma Mbala they wrote Anambra, etc.

      Awaii is a name of Igbo dish. The dish is made up of slices of yams(land)and contains a lot of sauce(water). Hawaiian people were Japanese. The Japanese were Igbo who came to the islands called Japan via China. When the Japanese came to the islands, they named it after their favorite dish Awaii. A bunch of lands surrounded by water. Both the Japanese and Hawaiian languages can teach their origin to Igbo language.

      The Japanese are Igbo people and they still bear Igbo names and still practice to a larger extent Igbo/Hebrew culture.

    2. Thanks Mr Mena7 for this interresting comment.
      I am intrigated by the term “Yeru” , name from which Yoruba came from. One day, the discover of Dan Baki pyramid in Niger Republic told me that in the Ta-nut area, a custodian of Hausa oral history told him that In ancient time there was a king named Yaro ( The child/The young man in Hausa language). Yaro was said to have wings(HiRA) and this Yero buit three towns named Tibiri( Tibi-RA). Yaro remained young till his death.It was said that he proceded to Egypt.
      Fulani people in Hausaland have kings names with this root “Ba-Yero”
      Yoruba are among the 14 hausa states.
      Note that not all hausa states speak hausa language. Other States that speak other languages than hausa are the Mundang(kwararafa), Gwari, Nupe.
      One of Osirus names is Ausar(may be Hausa). Osirus was cut into 14 parts by Seth and these parts became the 14 Qasr of Egypt: qasa/qasar means territory in hausa language.
      The diversity of languages was due to the fact that 7 among the 14 princes were from the DauRA Queen, the other 7 princes were from other mothers that didn’t speak Hausa.
      Moustapha Gadalla, American-Egyptian Egyptolog , In his book:”The exiled Egyptian, the heart of Africa” said that the history of 7 legitimates and 7 unlegitimates hausa states came after 7 states made alliance with Egypt inviders to fight their brothers.
      Sultan Bello, Son of the Djihadist Usman Dan Fodio, who is a Fulani and learned islamic scholar wrote in one of his book that Gobirawa, people of a Hausa state, came from Egypt. This book was written around 1850.

  9. Hello Mena7

    I know Professor Acholonu, personally. What I write here are not mine and what Professor Acholonu writes in her books are not hers either, they’re facts about Igbo people and Igbo culture. Simply put, we merely write what we see in Igbo people and their culture. Many non Igbo who have observed Igbo people and studied Igbo culture, especially the colonial Anthropologists, colonial Archeologists, and Missionaries also have reached the same conclusions.

    Anybody who is serious about knowing anything about or reconstructing the cultures of ancient Egypt and Israelites(Hebrew/Igbo), should march straight( on the double) to West African countries, particularly the region known today as Eastern Nigeria.

    For a very long time, the Europeans have been stealing African cultures and passing them off as their own. It is time Africans set the facts straight and put an end to this European thieveries and European crimes and other European foolishness perpetrated against the African peoples. Thank God for the Internet, Africans can now voice their opinions to the world at minimal costs. In the past, major bookstores in the West do not carry books authored by Africans and the costs of publishing those books were exorbitant, hence, the majority of African people were not heard. Today things are different and the Internet is the driving force.

    1. thanks you both Mena and Saachi for your interesting inputs.
      According to historien Amadou Hampaté Ba; fula personal names are dedicated to Supremes. Samba (boy name /dedicated to Supreme Sam) Demba(boy name/dedicated to Dem), there are seven boys names and five girls names, i suppose it means in those times the ideal family have twelve childs…the elder is Demba, the second is Samba, the benjamin is Yero-you just teach me in fact he is Heru/Horus.

      1. Thanks Sadi, I saw your comment after posting the 1st one.Maitre Souley Garba the discoverer of Niger’s pyramids wants to elucidate this point. He wants to know if Ba-Yero(in Birnin Bayero: City of Bayero), or Ado Bayero, Emir of Kano has a link with this Sarki Yaro (The Young king/or King who is always young, in hausa).
        Ba-Yero means in Hausa Yero is no longer alive. “Ba”when preceding a name signify that the person is died, his soul has gone, same in ancient egyptian.
        Maitre Souley Garba is a Fulani, but in his studies on hieroglyqhs, he discovered that it was written in Hausa.
        The ancient egyptians told people who they are by leaving many proofs, carving stones showing traditional wrestling, traditional boxing(Dambe), sport with sticks(fulani people) etc.

        1. hello Kona konawa.To name the soul fula says Wonki (Ankh?), or fittendu(fitt/fett something that squeeze ), Ba is a family/Clan name(maybe the soul of the body clan), boy name Yero is the lattest/smallest of the family.Our teachers says that the “Ba” and “Barry” were the teachers in Ancient Egypt.

          1. “Ba” when preceding a name of a race or an ethny signify an individual of this group. Example: the ancient Turanians were called “Turawa”(people of Tura) ; an individual “Ba-Ture”, terms used today to qualify white people of western descent.
            what convinced me that hausa language was ancient egyptians language written in hieroglyph are those terms : Aminti(celestial guarden) in ancient egyptian , hausa term which means ” Agreement of God which leads to Paradise: Amintin Allah”.
            Angwanti(period of bride in hausa ) and garden of Ialo (Yalo is a vegetable: auvergine in french).
            I found these terms unchanged in an egyptian text:”Speech of Thôt”.

  10. For non Igbo people who read this blog and who do not know what OFO is, I must explain it to you. Ofo is an Igbo ritual object/symbol that is used in almost every aspect of Igbo culture. Ofo is a piece of stick taken from OJI or Ogirisi tree. Ofo, once blessed by a High Priest, becomes sacred and mystical and powerful enough to part a body of water. In the Old Testament of the Christian Bible and Jewish Torah, Ofo is described as the rod or staff of Moses. Moses used his Ofo to part the Red Sea for the Israelites to cross over from Egypt into the land of Canaan. Likewise, Eze Nri(High Priest of Nri town) used his Ofo to part Agulu lake to cross over from Adazi Nnukwu, a town where he is ordained the Chief Priest by the Adama Priests into His native town of Nri, The Igbo use Ofo to ratify agreements and perform rituals. When an agreement is reached in Igboland, the high priest or the person presiding the occasion strikes the Ofo four times on the ground to signify agreement. Striking Ofo four times on the ground also denotes that the agreement or oath or ritual is now effective and binding between the parties and before the deity of Ala/Ani and the ancestors.

    In every courtroom in the world today, you would see Ofo, now called gavel used by Judges to call for attention to important issues or to punctuate rulings or proclamations. Gavel or Ofo is customarily struck in Igbo land and courtrooms to indicate opening and closing of proceedings. In the United States Capitol, and the parliament houses around the world, Ofo is used by the senate president to convene meetings and in performing other activities of the senate.

    The point I’m trying to make here is to show that the concept of gavel in western culture was derived from Igbo Ofoism.


    History of NRI KINGDOM, Anambra State

    Encyclopedia » History

    Nri is an ancient Igbo city-state in Anambra State Nigeria. The Kingdom of Nri was a center of learning, religion, and commerce in pre-colonial West Africa. Historians have compared the significance of Nri, at its peak, to the religious cities of Rome or Mecca: it was the seat of a powerful and imperial state that influenced much of the territories inhabited by the Igbo of Awka and Onitsha to the east; the Efik, the Ibibio, and the Ijaw to the South; Nsukka and southernIgala to the north; and Asaba, and the Anioma to the west. The rulers of Nri did not use military conquest, but used religious authority and control of commercial routes as tactics in the spread of their city-state. Politically, Nri is known to be the most ancient origins of the Eze kingship in Igbo societies. But Nri and its rulers were also known for their occult religious Juju, an institution that instilled both awe and fear in those who made pilgrimages to the shrine.
    Commercially, Nri was against slave holding. “Osu” was the name of outcasts of other communities who migrated and were accepted in Nri. Some Osu became eunuchs. During the colonial period, Nri and the regions under its political, religious, or commercial control became international markets for palm oil. In the heart of Nri influence was the Igbo Ukwu bronze castings.

    Eze Nri, Nri Enwelana II, Obidiegwu Onyeso


    NRI KINGDOM is the oldest Kingdom in Nigeria. It was founded around 900AD by the progenitor, Eri, the son of Gad. According to biblicalaccounts, Jacob had Leah as his wife who begot four sons for him. When Leah noticed she had passed child-bearing age, she gave her maid – servant, Zilpah to Jacob to wife, and through Zilpah he had a son named Gad. Gad then bigot Eri, who later formed a clan known as Erites vide Genesis Chapter 30 verse 9; 46 verse 16 and Numbers chapter 26 verses 15-19. Eri was therefore amongst the twelve tribes of Israel via Gad.

    During their stay in Egypt Eri became the high priest and spiritual adviser to Pharaoh Teti, the fifth dynastic king of Egypt around 2400 BC.

    During the Exodus, which marked the beginning of the mass movement of the tribes of Israel, the tribe of Eri was amongst the tribe that left Egypt following the injunction from God to the Israelites (see Deuteronomy chapter 28 verses 58 – 68). Some of these tribes founded settlements in the southern part of Sudan, where they established the “Nok” culture, which is similar to that of other (sun Cult) culture, like Nri, Fiji, Samoa, and Jukun in the Northern part of Nigeria and elsewhere. But others who could not remain in the Southern Sudan traveled further South, some branched off to Jukun, in Northern part of Nigeria, others continued and arrived at the confluence of Rivers Niger and Anambara known as “Ezu-na-?mambala” and settled there while some veered off to the Island of Fiji in the South Pacific Ocean. An intelligence report notes that the Fijians have the same sun culture with the people of Nri.

    When Eri arrived at the confluence of “Ezu-na-?mambala” he had two wives, namely Nneamak? and Oboli, Nneamak? begot five children, namely (a) Nrifikwuan?m-Menri being the first son (b) Ag?l? (c) Ogbodudu (d) Onogu and (e) Iguedo the only daughter. Oboli begot ?n?ja, the only son who founded the ?gala Kingdom in Kogi State. Meanwhile, Nri-Ifikwuan?m begot Ag?kwu Nri, Enugwu-Ukwu, Enugwu-Agidi, N?f?a, and Am?bia, while his brother Ogbodudu who later became Nrinaoke N’Ogbodudu had founded the Diodo Dynasty, while his brother Ezikannebo founded Akamkp?s? and Amanuke. Onogu Begot ?gbariam, while Iguedo, the only daughter, begot Ogbunike, ?kuzu, Nando, ?m?leri, and Nteje, Known today as ?m?-Iguedo clan, while the former are better known as ?m?-Nri clan. According to Nri Oral tradition recently substantiated by archaeological findings of ?raeri/Igbo-Ukwu objects, the unification of Agukwu, Diodo, and Akamkp?s? was enacted constitutionally during the beginning of reign of Nrib?ife (AD 1159 – 1252) who was the first Eze Nri to observe the ?g?-Ar? Festival as a pan – Igbo affair in 1160AD (Prof. M.A. ?nw?eje?gwu 2003).

    Nri-Ifikwuan?m took after his progenitor Eri, and became a high priest among his people. He left Ag?leri in search of a better living place, according to Mr. M.D.W. Jeffreys report, and settled at present Nri site. He started performing what Eri did at Egypt, cleansing of abominations, giving titles such as prestigious ?z? title, to his people, proclaiming the New Year (?g?-Ar?) etc.

    ?G?-AR?: ?g?-Ar? is an annual festival of the Nri people. It is during this festival that Eze Nri proclaims the New Year to all the Igbo communities under his jurisdiction, and he then announces the Nri calendar to the people. The Nri calendar is made up of thirteen (13) Lunar months namely:

    (1) ?nwa Mb? (1st moon) starts from 3rd week in February each year.

    (2) ?nwa Ab?a (2nd moon) March to April, (clearing and farming).

    (3) ?nwa Ife Eke (3rd moon) April to May (?gan? or hunger period)

    (4) ?nwa Ana (4th moon) May to June (planting seed yams).

    (5) ?nwa Agw? (5th moon) ?g?chi and mmanw? (Adult Masquerades) June-July.

    (6) ?nwa Ifeji?k? (6th moon) Yam Ritual (Ifeji?k?) July –August.

    (7) ?nwa Al?m Chi (7th moon) Yam Harvest (For Al?s? only) comes up August to early September.

    (8 ?nwa Ilo Mm?? (8th moon) ?nwa Asat? festival (September ending).

    (9) ?nwa Ana (9th moon) Ana Ritual comes up in October.

    (10) ?nwa Okike (10th moon) Okike ritual takes place in early November.

    (11) ?nwa Ajana (11th moon) Okike ritual takes place in November ending.

    (12) ?nwa Ede Ajana (12th moon) comes up in ending of November to early December.

    (13) ?nwa ?z? Al?s? (13th moon) offering to Al?s? (early January to early February).

    The Nri were great innovators in rituals, diplomacy, economy, administration, and management of a segmented and decentralized people. The Lunar system of calculating the year with a system of adjustment was known to the Nri priests of Al?s? Ar? and the knowledge of the movement of the heavenly bodies were employed in calculation the lunar year, according to Northcote Thomas (M.A. Frai) a British Government Anthropologist who served in ?ka District in the early 20th century, in 1910 he reported he got names from the following heavenly bodies at Nri-Pleiades, Orion and Great Bear. Therefore Nri elders had clear knowledge of these stars and others which helped them in calculating the intervals between each Lunar period and finding their directions during their sojourn from one Igbo Village to another in both the semi – forest and the forest zones.

    During the ?g?-Ar? Festival, Eze Nri proclaims the New Year; he also distributes seed yams to the Igbo People and asked them to go home and farm. He tells the people that after his ?g?-Ar?, approximately within four days but certainly not more than three native weeks (Izu An?) “you will have the first rainfall, so after this rainfall you can go ahead to cultivate your crop”.

    Eze – Nri introduced the cowrie currency (Ego ayo), and a sophisticated system of using cowrie as a medium of exchange and valuation was developed in the Igbo cultural area. The system of calculation and the table of conversion used in the Nri area in the late Nineteenth century were as follows:

    1 Mkp?l? Ego = 1 Cowrie

    6 Mkp?l? Ego = 6 Cowries = 1 isi ego

    10 Isi Ego = 60 Cowries = 1 Ukwu

    20 Ukwu = 1,200 Cowries = 1 Af?a

    20 Af?a = 2,400 cowries = 1 Akpa ego or ili Af?a

    10 Akpa (bags) = 240,000 cowries = Nnu Af?a.

    Fowls and bags were valued in Ukwu, goats and sheep in Af?a, cows, slaves and land in ili Af?a. Bride wealth was negotiated in nnu, never to exceed four Nnu Af?a. Iron bars and rods, copper bars and rods and manilas were valued in terms of cowries. In order to facilitate carrying them around for transaction, cowries were strung together in rows of sixes and sewn permanently on mats in bundles of 6, 1,200, 24,000, and 240, 000. The mats were rolled, loose ones were tied in bags of 24,000 called akpa.

    Prof. M. Angulu Onwuejeogwu equally reported the conversion of cowries to British currencies this way. At the beginning of the 19th century, the British introduced the pound, shillings and pence #, s. d. currency system. This new system was resisted in various ways. First a dual currency system was developed, traditional goods were sold in cowries and European goods in British currency. Later cowries could buy British currency and British currency could buy cowries. By a system of haggling, the exchange rate varied and was determined by several factors. As more European goods began to penetrate without replacement, the British currency backed by law, became dominant. In 1925, the following rate of exchange was still operating in many rural markets.

    10 cowries = 1/2d (Half Penny)

    20 cowries = 1d (One Penny)

    60 cowries = 3d (Three Pence)

    120 cowries = 6d (Six Pence)

    240 cowries = 1/- (one shilling)

    1200 cowries = 5/-(Five Shillings)

    1400 cowries = ?1 (one pound)

    24,000 cowries = ?5 (Five Pounds)

    120,000 cowries = ?25 (Twenty five pounds)

    Having introduced trading and currency which was the cowrie system, and having worked out the rate of exchange to accommodate the British traders and their currency system, Eze Nri introduced a sort of local system for people with extra money to keep on this Prof. M. Angulu Onwuejeogwu 1981 writes:

    In Nri, a rudimentary local banking system developed, during the slave trade period, men with strong buildings began to keep the cowries of other people in return for commission. Such men became very rich and were able to give a capital loan to persons who wished to begin a trading venture. No fixed rate of interest was paid, one had to haggle over the interest called ?m?l?nwa on the principal, isi ego.

    Stock Exchange was introduced for the first time in Nri, for instance stock exchange was associated with ?z? title. In this system, a person who had belonged to one of the alliance groups called Ogwe Mmuo. The candidate for the title will purchase a total of Nine (9) shares known as “?f? Itenan?”. The shares are known as “?f?” the stall of immortality. The ?z? titled man will get his entitlements depending on the number of ?f? ?z? he has. An ?z? man with nine ?f? ?z? will be entitled to nine shares whenever a new person took the title and made payment. One could sell his ?f?, except three, within his ?z? group at a loss or profit, whenever he is in need of money. He could use his ?f? as security for a loan, the person giving the loan will take the shares allocated to the ?f? whenever payments of share were made until the capital and interest were paid back by the owner of the ?f?. If a man dies his male children will inherit the total ?f? ?z? and the allocated shares. Shares of ?f? ?z? lapses two years after the man’s death, it is known as ovunisi. The family of the dead ?z? man will continue to take all shares accruing from the ?f? ?z? left. The son could use one of the ?f? ?z? in taking his own ?z? title. If he did this he would continue to take shares accruing from his own ?f? and those inherited. If he has brothers, the ?f? ?z? of their father would be shared according to the law of inheritance in Nri. (Northcote W. Thomas, M.A, F.R.A.I) 1913.

    The ?f?, the staff of immortality, ritual and political authority was converted into a type of security certificate. Nri used the ritual system to achieve economic enhancement via Stock Exchange. This cultural civilization was introduced to Igbo – land before the coming of the British Colonial Administration. Therefore, Nri bequeathed this highly civilized pattern of exchange to Igbo – land.

    Eze – Nri introduced the four market days to the Igbo Land, namely Eke, Oye (Orie), Af? and Nkw?. In each of the communities where the Eze – Nri establishes these markets, he will keep one of his Al?s? (Deity at that market square, and leave one of his agents to take care of that Al?s?. The inhabitants of that community will pay allegiance to the Eze – Nri through that agent, especially during the ?g? – Ar? ceremony of Eze – Nri.

    It is on record in Igbo land that Eze – Nri introduced agriculture in Igboland. He introduced yam, cocoyam, and other cash crops in Igbo – land. That is why at every ?g? – Ar? ceremony, His Majesty the Eze – Nri will share out seed – yams to the people present, to go and plant. This symbolizes the introduction of yam to the Igbo race.


    (1) Nri – Ifikuan?m 1043 – 1158

    (2) Nri – Namoke (from Diodo) 1090 – 1158

    (3) Nri – Buife (From Obeag? Unified ?f? N’al? Agukwu and Diodo) 1159 – 1259

    (4) Nri – ?mal? (Uru?ji) 1260 – 1299

    (5) Nri – Ji?f? 1 (Agbadana) 1300 – 1390

    (6) Nri – ?malonyeso (Obeagu) 1391 –1464

    (7) Nri – Anyamata (Uru?ji) 1465 – 1511

    (8) Nri – Fenenu (Agbadana) 1512 – 1582

    (9) Nri – Ag? (Obeagu) 1583 – 1676

    (10) Nri – Apia and Nri – Alike (both from Uru?ji died the same day) 1677 – 1700

    (11) Nri – Ezimilo (Agbadana) 1701 – 1723

    (12) Nri – Enwenetem (Agbadana) 1724 – 1794

    (13) Nri – Enwelana 1 (Obeagu) 1795 – 1886

    (14) Nri – ?balike (Uru?ji) 1889 – 1936

    (15) Nri – Jiof? II Taabansi Udene (Agbadana) 1937 – 1987

    (16) Nri – Enwelana II Obidiegwu Onyeso (MFR) (Obeagu) 1988 – Present


    (1) Oliokuku between 1846 – 1854

    (2) Irunat? between 1855 – 1863

    (3) Umez?ba between 1864 – 1866

    (4) Ijele between 1867 – 1872

    (5) At? between 1873 – 1875

    (6) Ugo between 1876 – 1878

    (7) ?chokwu between 1879 – 1881

    (8) Olimgba between 1882 – 1887

    (9) Ekwueme between 1888 – 1890

    (10) Mmanenyi between 1891 – 1896

    (11) Irugo between 1897 – 1902

    (12) Iruag? between 1903 – 1905

    (13) Iruat? between 1906 – 1908

    (14) Nri buenyi between 1909 – 1911

    (15) Iruenyi between 1912 – 1914

    (16) ?kpat? between 1915 – 1917

    (17) Ifedi?ra between 1918 – 1920

    (18) Amakaekwu between 1921 – 1923

    (19) Abakar? between 1924 – 1929

    (20) Atigwe between 1927 – 1929

    (21) Akpal? between 1930 – 1932

    (22) Ak?m between 1933 – 1935

    (23) Amuoku between 1936 – 1938

    (24) ?kuan? (Omenyi) between 1939 – 1941

    (25) Udokafulukwu between 1942 – 1944

    (26) Nd?kak? between 1945 – 1947

    (27) Chikwado between 1948 – 1950

    (28) Ofuobi between 1951 – 1953

    (29) Nri Ji?f? between 1957 – 1956

    (30) Nri B? isi Igbo between 1957 – 1959

    (31) ?dinan? between 1960 – 1963

    (32) Nri bu Ofu between1964 – 1966

    (33) Nri Ezuo between 1967 – 1969

    (34) ? between 1970 – 1972

    (35) between 1973 – 1975


    Since the present monarch ascended the throne there has been peace, however after the initial wrangling in the community. The community is well-protected security – wise. The town union, Nri progress Union (NPU) has introduced a very reliable security outfit, that patrols through the community both day and night.


    The community has benefited from the Federal Government two unserviceable water boreholes. However, since the ascension to the throne by HRM. Eze Obidiegwu Onyeso (MFR) Eze – Nrienwelana 11, Anambra state Government has awarded ADB assisted water project while the federal Government has through the federal ministry of water Resources awarded three borehole projects which have been ostensibly completed but they are not functional yet. We are still begging the Federal and State Government to assist us to get these boreholes become operational, so that our water problem would be solved.


    We are gradually improving on our electricity supply in order to ensure that Nri has steady electricity supply. The Federal Government through NEPA is currently executing an enhanced electricity supply project through the installation of a 2.5kva electricity step down from Nibo sub – station to Nri. To this end the Eze – Nri in Council and the N.P.U. Executive would like to thank the Federal Government for this kind gesture to the people of Nri. With the enhanced electricity supply to Nri, our sons and daughters and other entrepreneurs can now site small-scale industries in the community so as to improve the unemployment syndrome of our youths, as well as help reduce the worsening urban drift to the metropolitan cities.


    In less than three years into the reign of HRM. Eze – Nrienwelana11, he has attracted the Anambra State Government to look into the road leading into the ancient Kingdom of Nri, The road leading to Nri to wit Enugwu – Ukwu/Nri/Agulu road as well as Nri/Agbanabo/Neni (Anaocha L.G.A Headquarters) have been award to indigenous contractors. Unfortunately road construction work stopped soon after mobilization thereby making these roads unpassable. HRM. Eze Nrienwelana 11, the Eze – Nri in – council and the N.P.U. Executive would like to use this opportunity to request Anambra State Government to see to it that these important link roads which naturally form part of the inner road through the ?ka capital territory are rehabilitated for obvious reasons. Meanwhile we must thank the Anambra state Government for completing the Nise/Eke Nri road last year in 2003. we are indeed very grateful for that gesture a singular dividend of democracy. The village and other well-meaning individuals are helping to renovate the other roads leading into the hinterland.


    His Majesty, Eze – Obidiegwu Onyesoh (MFR) Nrienwelana II, was invested with the National Honour of the Member of the Order of Federal Republic of Nigeria (MFR) by the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, Chief Olusegun Obasanjo, GCFR, on the 16th of December, 2003 at Abuja. This is the first time any indigene of Nri is bestowed with this kind of high profile honour. We must thank God of Nri, our ancestors and President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria for this good gesture unto Nri Community, the Ancestral Homeland of Ndi Igbo.

    Last year the members of Nri Progressive Union (N.P.U) USA branch, renovated the Lake City Girls Secondary School Nri, and the Ebede primary school, Nri. They also supplied the two secondary schools with educational equipment, materials and books. They also refurbished the famous ?D?NAN? MUSEUM, Nri, a joint project with University of Ibadan Institute of African studies, which has been neglected by the U.I. They have also promised to do more in the coming years of which we are very grateful.

    Nri people living in the Ancestral Homeland of Ndigbo are trying to re-establish positive and effective relationship with our brothers in Diaspora here in Nigeria and even outside the country. Our brothers in Diaspora outside Nigeria are Fijians, Haitians, Samoans, Some Black Communities in the USA, Eritreans, Jamaicans. Records available to us reveal that about 30% of Jamaicans today are from Nri, their progenitor being one slave boy called Aneaso as Archibald John Monteith. The most recent research work on the subject carried out by Dr. Maureen Warner Lewis of the University of west Indies Kingston Jamaica was presented in 1994, when she, the researcher visited Nri Kingdom and had stayed for several months.

    The authorities in Nri are working concertedly to re-establish effective relationship with our brothers and sisters in Diaspora in some 113 and ever growing list of identified communities in Nigeria including:

    (1) Abala ?n? (Delta State) (2) Abala (Delta State)

    (2) Abavo (Delta State) (4) Akab? Mbaukwu (Anambra State)

    (5) Akwaeze (Anambra State) (6) Akwukwu – Igbo (Delta State)

    (7) Al? (Part of it) Anambra State

    (8) Amaegu Nrobo ?kpara ?z? – ?wan? (Enugu State)

    (9) Amaezike Nkp?l?gw? Ns?ka (Enugu State)

    (10) Am?bia (Anambra State)

    (11) Am?leri Ichida (Anambra State) (12) Bebe Abbi Ns?ka (Enugu State)

    (13) Ebe Village Achina (Anambra State) (14) Ebenebe Nasa (Anambra State)

    (15) Rgbema Ozubulu (Anambra State) (16) Egumeri ?rifite (Anambra State)

    (17) Eha Al?m?na (Enugu State) (18) Ekpweri (Kwara State)

    (18) Enugu Ujaji (Enugu State) (20) Enugwu Agidi (Anambra State)

    (21) Enugwu – Ukwu (Anambra State) (22) Enugwu Abbi (Enugu State)

    (23) Ezi?nwa Oko (Delta State) (24) Ezira (Anambra State)

    (25) Igberi (Kwara state) (26) Ikot Ichie (Cross River State)

    (27) Ip?nri (Lagos State) (28) Ile – Efi Ossomari (Anambra State)

    (29) Ishiag? (Delta State) (30) Ishi Igala (Kogi State)

    (31) Isuochu (Abia State) (32) Isu Iga (33) Isu Akab? Ukwu Nnewi (Anambra State)

    (34) Isu Awa (Enugu State) (35) Isul? (Anambra State) (36) Ichi Ns?ka (Enugu State)

    (36) Ivolo ?raifite (Anambra State) (38) Iyagba ?m?dim Nnewi (Anambra State)

    (39) Mbanag? Otolo Nnewi (Anambra State) (40) Mb?si Ihiala (Anambra State)

    (41) Megeri (Kwara State) (42) Mgbudu Ichida (Anambra State)

    (43) Ndiamazu Ar?ndizu?g? (Imo State) (44) Ndianichi Ar?ndizu?g? (Imo state)

    (45) Nimbo (Enugu State) (46) Nimbo Ukpabi Uzo – ?wan? (Enugu State)

    (47) Nkwere Isu (Imo state) (48) Nn?kwa (Abnambra State) (49) Ns?ka town (Enugu State)

    (50) N?fia (Anambra State) (51) Obi?ra Nnewichi Nnewi (Anambra State)

    (52) Ofun Nrobo (Enugu State) (53) Ogbo Akp? (Anambra State)

    (54) Ogboli Isele Ukwu (Delta State). (55) Ogboli Atuma (Delta State)

    (56) Ogboli Ibusa (Delta State). (57) ?gwash? –Ukwu (Delta State)

    (58) Okpolo Amichi Nnewi (Anambra State) (59) ?kp?ra Nrobo Uzo – ?wan? (Enugu State)

    (60) Okpuneze Nnewi (Anambra State). (61) ?manenu Nkwelle Ezunaka (Anambra State)

    (62) ?manenu (River State) (63) Oraeri (Kwara State) (64) Oraeri (Anambra State)

    (65) Ute – Okpu (Delta State) (66) ?wa Oyibo (Delta State) (67) Owelle Utehi (Delta State)

    (68) Oya Affa Udi (Enugu State) (69) Part of ?kija (Anambra State) (70) ?b?l?–Ukwu (Delta State)

    (71) Ugbene (Anambra State) (72) Ukpabi (Enugu State)

    (73) ?m? Ejiof? Obeledu (Anambra State) (74) ?m? kabia Achalla (Anambra State)

    (75) ?m? Ilozumba Obeledu (Anambra State) (76) ?m?odume (Anambra State)

    (77) ?m? Okeakpukpo (78) ?m? Eme Asaba (Delta State)

    (79) ?m?achalaogu Nnobi (Anambra State) (80) ?m?ag? Oguta (Imo State) (81) ?m?akpanshi Illah

    (82) ?m?chi Ossomari Ogbaru (Anambra State) (83) ?m?chim Agulu –?z?Igbo (Anambra State)

    (84) ?m?hu ?kabia (Imo State) (85) ?m?eri Ogbunike (Anambra State)

    (86) ?m?eri-Owerri (Imo State) (87) ?m?ezedi Ifite Nteje (Anambra State)

    (88) ?m?ezedi Nteje (Anambra State) (89) ?m?nri Neni (Anambra State)

    (90) ?m?eze ?gba Nguru – Ns?ka (Enugu State) (91) ?m?isim Akpulu (Imo State)

    (92) ?m?kabi Ikeduru (Imo State) (93) ?m?kabi Mbaise (Imo State)

    (94) ?m?kabi ?kigwe (Abia State) (95) ?m?nkw? Uruag? Nnewi (Anambra State)

    (96) ?m?n?gha ?ka Etiti (Anambra State) (97) ?m?nri Ekwulu mmili (Anambra State)

    (98) ?m?nri ?raukwu (Anambra State) (99) ?m?nri Nsukwu Abatete (Anambra State)

    (100) ?m?nri Onitsha (Anambra State) (101) ?m?nri Ama Okpala (Anambra State)

    (102) ?m?nri ?m??gaze Ukpo (Anambra State)

    (103) ?m?nri Ezidike Agulu – Uzoigbo (Anambra State) (104) ?m??richi, Isukwat? (Abia State)

    (105) ?m?osineme ?ka (Anambra State) (106) ?m?ebere Dibia – Oguta (Imo State)

    (107) Uwanyama Nsukka (Enugu State) (108) ?m??haori Owere Village Akokwa (Imo State)

    (109) Ogboli Nkwerre (Imo State) (110) ?m?kabi Community Ihiala (Anambra State)

    (111) ?m? – Nri Community ?kija (Anambra State) (112) Nkpologwu Ag?ata (Anambra State)

    (113) Nnewi (some Communities) see C.N. Ugochukwu’s Isu factor in Nnewi History 2000, Tabansi Publisher.

    From the foregoing, Nri is one of the oldest established Kingdoms in Nigeria, which dates back to 900AD. There are to date 113 ?m? – Nri Communities in Diaspora within Nigeria about some score others outside Nigeria. In these communities H.M. Eze – Nri has definable functions and roles known among the Igbos as “the spiritual head and potentate”. Hence, Nri has been widely heralded as the heart of Igbo nationality “and” a kind of holy city, the Rome or Mecca of the Igbos” (Isichei 1977,10). Professor Elizabeth Isichei goes further to capture the evergreen picture of Nri in these elegant words.

    The street of the Nri family is the street of the Gods, through which all who die in other parts of Igboland pass to the land of the spirits.

    Some other notable references include Olaedo Equiano (1789), G.T. Basden (1902, 1921), A.G. Leonard (1906), M.A. Talbot (1926), Northcote Thomas (1930), C.D. Forde and G.I. Jones (1950), Professor Kenneth Dike (1956), F.K. Elechi (1971), M.D. Jeffreys (1972), A.E. Afigbo (1973), (1981), Prof. M. A. Onwuejeogwu (1981) B.I.O Odinanwa (1987, 1993), D.C. Ohadike (1975), Cardinal Arinze Francis (1970), P.J.O. Nwadirigwe (1999), Uche P. Keanyibe (1997).


    1. Rt. Hon.(Dr) Nnamdi Azikiwe, The Owelle of Onitsha.

    Former Premier of Eastern Region and first President of Nigeria

    Was bestowed with ?f? Nri in 1956.

    2. Rt. Hon. (Dr) M.I. Okpara

    Former Premier of Eastern Region

    Was bestowed with ?f? Nri in 1958.

    3. General Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu.

    As the Biafran head of State

    ?f? Nri was bestowed on him on 1967.

    4. Rt. Hon. (Dr) Jim. Nwobodo

    Was bestowed with ?f? Nri in 1979.

    5. Rt. Hon. Sen. Dr. Chuba Okadigbo

    Was bestowed with ?f? Nri in 1979

    6. H.E. Dr. Chimaroke Nnamani

    Governor of Enugu State

    Was bestowed with ?f? Nri in 2001.


    H.E. Dr. Sam Egwu

    Executive Governor of Ebonyi State

    Shall be conferred with a chieftaincy title of

    DIKE ORA of Igbo land.

    H.E. Senator Adolphus Wabara

    Senate President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

    Shall be presented with ?f? Nri

    H.E. Dr. Chris Nwabueze Ngige OON

    Executive Governor of Anambra State

    Host Governor.

    Senator David Mark

    Senator of the Federal Republic of Nigeria

    Chairman Senate Committee on Police Affairs.

    Shall be honoured with chieftaincy

    Title of DIKE MBA of NRI

    Engr. Emma Okonkwo,

    Assistant General Manager, NEPA H/Q Abuja

    Shall be honoured with CERTIFICATE MERIT

    With its paraphernalia.

    Conferment of Certificate of Honour as well as certificate of Merit to deserving Nri Indigenes.


    Otunba Mike Niyi Adenuga Jnr. OON.

    Chairman, Global Com. Ltd

    1004th ?g? Ar? Ndigbo 2003Ad

    Recipient OF A Chieftaincy Title of Omefulu Ora Of Nri.

    Chief Dr. Anieze Chinwuba PhD.

    Former Chairman Nitel Plc Abuja

    1004th ?g? Ar? Ndigbo 2003AD

    Recipient Of A Chieftaincy Title

    Of Ikeora Ndigbo

    Chief Barr. (Dr.) Mrs. Josephine N. Anenih

    Iyom Nri Nwachinemelu

    National Woman Leader, People’s Democratic Party.

    Chief Mrs. Uche Ekwunife

    Prof. Miriam Ikejani Clark

    Iyom Ada Eji Eje Mba. Of Nri.

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  12. Ede is a crop that grows in Igboland. Igbo people use Ede to make all sorts of soup, particularly Onugbu soup–bitter leaves soup. The leaves of Ede is dark green, heart shaped, and big enough to cover an adult human nakedness.

    I suspect that the garden of Eden mention in the Christian Bible and the Torah is really garden of Ede. The Europeans are fond of deception and concealment. For instance, instead of Awaii, they wrote Hawaii, a deliberate attempt to conceal Hawaiian people relation to Igbo people. Anybody paying attention could see that Awaii is the root of Hawaii. All they did was add “H” in front of Awaii as a disguise. Similarly, they added “N” at the end of Ede, an Igbo crop, to make it Eden. Ede crop does not grow in the Middle East and no town in the Middle East is named garden of Eden or Ede. I think that the garden of Ede/Eden if it did exist, existed in Igboland because Ede is a crop that is commonly grown in Biafra. AND WHY NOT? AFTER ALL, AFRICA INVENTED HUMAN BEINGS. Since all human beings originated from Africa, it makes sense to think that garden of Eden was located in Africa and that garden of Ede is really garden of Eden.

  13. Igbo Hebrew

    Igbo Worship and its Paraphernalia

    God and Idols

    It first must be stated that the Igbos believe in one, all-powerful , all-knowing, pre-existing, indescribable, unseen, invisible God and Creator who is called Chukwu (The Great God) or Chineke (The God Who Creates). A compound name of Chukwu is Chukwu Abiama which means, “The God of Abraham.” Is this not also the description of YHWH God of the Jews and Christians?

    There are images missionaries found in Igboland which have been mistaken for idols, when in actuality they were images of ancestors, such as Eri, etc. But there were no images found designated as Chukwu or Chineke. Igbo Nri preists have confirmed this by first deeming there is no God but Chukwu Abiama and that the images represent the Igbo ancestors because before the white man, there was no photography and the carved image was the way the Igbo preserved the image and memory of their ancestors. Today, images are not used, because of the advent of photography; photos have now taken the place of carved images in obi’s (Igbo shrines). This is similar to the board of names with a light bulb beside each name found in Jewish synagogues today. It is believed that Chukwu heeds those who honor and respect their ancestors who have gone on before to be with Him. Sadly, this has been mistaken by missionaries and anthropologists as idol worship or at best ancestral worship.

    Some have mistook the word “Chi,” equivalent to the Hebrew word “El” meaning “God,” to be one’s “personal deity” instead of recognizing that “Chi” means that Chi/Chukwu is personable to them. It literally means “My God.” So in other words, Chi means that each Igbo person has a personal relationship with Chukwu.

    Chi also brings the connotation of “life” or “life force” and is very much like the Hebrew word for life which is Chai.

    True, paganism and false gods have been found among the Igbo but only as a result of being influenced by other tribes which were their neighbors. Even this should cause us to connect the Igbo to Israel because why was Israel exiled out of the Land in the first place? Because of their inclination toward idolatry.

    I should also mention here what is in Igboland is called the Ikenga which is liken unto the angels on the Ark of the Covenant or one’s own guardian angel. In Judaism, as in Igbo culture, one’s home (obi) is considered a temple, modelled after the Tabernacle or Temple in Jerusalem; it is not uncommon to see replicas of what is found in the Tabernacle/Temple such as Menorahs or even images of angels. Angels were in the Temple, In the Igbo obi there is an image called the Ikenga and it is a type of guardian angel mistaken by outsiders as one’s personal household deity.

    The angels in the Jerusalem Temple were made of aromatic cedar overlaid with gold. The Ikenga is usually made from the ogirisi tree, sacred to the Igbo, which is an aromatic evergreen tree. The Ogirisi are also used as grave markers.
    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    The Ofo is a staff of authority carried by Heads of family and clans as well as elders, leaders and or ruling authorities in Igboland, which is likened to Moses’ staff which was used to render judgment upon the people or call down curses upon Israel’s enemies.


    The formulation of Jewish prayer and the prayers of the Igbo are strikingly similar. In Judaism a standard opening for prayer, especially in the prayers called the “Amidah” is; “Blessed are you Oh Lord our God, God of our Forefathers, God of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob…” In Igboland it is common to open certain prayers with, “Chukwu, Chi nke nna nna anyi ha…” which translates to, “Great God, God of our forefathers…”

    It should also be a note of interest that Igbos prayed with their heads covered as does the Jews, prior to the coming of the white man and the advent of Christianity. As in Israel, So in Igboland.

    Special Times, Holy Days and Festivals

    I will be brief and general in my description of these events as all Igbos have such festivals but they are called by slightly different names and have slightly differing traditions accompanying them in various parts of Igboland.

    Leviticus 23 gives us a rundown of the High Holydays of Israel and as one shall see, The Igbos also has their version of these Holy Days and festivals.


    Exd. 16:23, 23:12, 31:15-17, 35:2-3, Lev. 23:3

    Igbo’s have an 8 day weekly cycle which “Eke Ukwu” is the rest day. Some have speculated that the 8 day cycle came from Jeroboams decrees which would mean Igbo’s are more Israelite than Judean, seeing as Jeroboam rules the 10 Tribes of the Northern Kingdom.

    Before the white man came, the Igbo day as the Jewish day is from sunset to sunset.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    New Moon

    Num. 10:10, 28:11, I Sam. 20:5, II Kings 4:22-23, Psalm 81:3, Ezek. 46:1, Isa. 66.23, Col. 2:16

    Igbos has kept a Lunar Calendar much like that of Israel with set days for feasts and celebrations which mirror one another as the reader will soon see. However, due to the Influence of the Christian West observing the Lunar Calendar is not practiced as it once was.

    Exd. 12:1, 16:1, 19:1

    Along with the New moon is the sanctification of the new month as well. Just as pre-Babylonian Jews had no names for the months, so too Igbos count and not name their months. This testifies to the fact that a wave of Israelites came to Nigeria prior to the Babylonian and Assyrian captivities.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    And they shall eat the flesh in that night, roast with fire, and unleavened bread; and with bitter herbs they shall eat it. – Exd. 12:8

    The Olite Festival in Igboland is very similar to Passover among the Jews. Animals are slaughtered and eaten with bitter leaves and yam. This too shows that despite there being a Pre-Exodus-Exodus of Gadites that settled Igboland, many Israelites came Post Egyptian Exodus to be with their brothers and carried the tradition of Passover with them.

    The Oriri Achicha festival in Igboland is celebrated by eating unleavened dried bread made from cocoyam and is the same as the Jewish Feast of Unleavened Bread. Like Passover this feast takes place in the evening, a long walk takes place in the bush with priests and elders taking the lead, this is like a re-enactment of the Exodus from Egypt.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    First Fruits

    Deut. 18:4, 26:2, 10, Lev. 23:10-22

    The New Yam Festival (Emume Iri Ji) is also much like the Festival of First Fruits (Exd. 23:16) which one is not to appear empty handed before the YHWH/Chukwu respectively. In Igboland the best of the first fruits is dug up and presented and after which a blood sacrifice is made (usually a chicken) and then the feasting can begin.

    Also no one is permitted to eat the first fruits in Igboland until after the Iwaji, ifejioku festival which is similar to the harvest festival and sacrificial rituals as seen in Leviticus 23.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Blowing the Ram’s Horn (Shofar)

    Exd. 19:16, Lev. 23:24, 25:9, Num. 10:1-9, Josh. 6:4, Hos. 5:8-9, Isa. 27:13, Psa. 81:3-4, I Cor. 15:52

    Igbos use a ram’s horn that the Jews call a Shofar, or even an elephant tusk (usually only Igbo Rulers) to call the village together for various kinds of meetings.

    There is a festival in parts of Igboland known as Ilo Mmuo (Reconciling with God) is similar to the Biblical festival of Yom Teruah (Feast of Trumpets) more popularly known as Rosh HaShannah.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Lev. 16:6, 23:26-33, Deut. 21:6-8

    As in Israel, so in Igboland; a blood sacrifice is required for atonement.

    Lev. 16:7-10, 21-22, 26

    Israelites and Igbos also share the concept and custom of the scapegoat as seen in the passages above. In many parts of Igboland the sins of the clan is pronounced over a he-goat after which it is let loose.

    In Igbo land the Festival of Iba Nzu, Isu Osisi and Ikwa Akuto is like Rosh HaShannah (New Year) and Yom Kippur (Day of Atonements). Iba Nzu is a six day dfestival, the first three days, elders cover themselves in white chalk and seclude themselves in their homes for three days with no contact with anyone and the last three days they come out and are seen about the community and on the seventh day is Isu Osisi and at the end of this day the elder men and women go to the home of the chief priest for a feast. Next comes Ikwa Akuto where the women of the community gather at dawn and call down death curses upon the evil doers of the community and petition Chukwu Abiama to forgive the community of their sins. After which broken vessels are thrown into the forest, the women go home and take a ritual bath, this constitutes the end of the Igbo year.

    In Jewish practice there are ten days, five of which a person reconciles with God, the other five days a person reconciles with his fellow man. It is also traditional to wear garments of white during this time. This corresponds to the three days of seclusion and the three days of being seen in public. The covering of white chalk is like the Jewish wearing of white clothes during this time.

    In Judaism one last meal is eaten before the fast of Yom Kippur (Day of Atonements), the next day, one takes a mikvah (ritual bath) and is a day of confession of sins and a call for justice with the tearing of garments before the day ends, when it is considered that the books of judgement are closed for the year in heaven and everyone’s fate is sealed till next year. This is very much like the Igbos Ikwa Akuto ceremony. One can obviously see the striking parallels.

    Also pertinent to the concept of atonement is that of purification which in Igboland is called Ikpu Aru Na Ana Igbo. This takes place when odd happenings, great misfortunes and strange unexplained negative occurrences such as crop failures, untimely deaths, miscarriages, plagues, etc., happen that causes the Igbo elders to take notice and declare that some “Aru” (abomination) has brought such things about. The abomination is made known through consultation of Chukwu by the Nri priests and then a purification and or atoning ritual takes place.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Feast of Tabernacles – Sukkot

    Lev. 23:33-39, Num. 29:12, Deut. 16:13

    This festival is called in Igboland, “Ima ntu” or “Ima Igu” in Aguleri and it is called by other names in other parts of Igboland, but the festivals are all essentially the same. During this festival the Igbos reside in a tent or temporary shelter (usually of palm fronds, branches and other indigenous foliage) for 7-8 days, sometimes longer.

    The Ijele is a type of booth or shrine made in Igboland which to me resembles a Sukkah/Booth. It has “images” surrounding it which as stated earlier we know to be representory of ancestors and not idols. This is especially pertinent because during Sukkot it is traditional to invite the Patriarchs and ones deceased ancestors into the Sukkah to participate in the festivities.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    7th Year

    Exd. 23:10-11

    The Sabbatical or Shmita year as it is known in Judaism the Igbos practice as well. They farm the land for six years and let it lay fallow the 7th year. Some places in Igboland cultivate for 4 years and allows the land to rest on the 5th year.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    50th Year – Jubilee

    Lev. 25:8-10

    This 50 year celebration is still observed all over Igboland and is called by various names in different parts of Igboland, but the celebration is essentially the same everywhere you go.

    Closely tied with Jubilee is the redemption of land found in Lev. 25:23-28 and Igbos too do this as did the ancient Israelites. Igbos also practices the concept of land which is not redeemable as if found in Lev. 25:30.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Priesthood and Sacrifices

    High/Chief Priests and Priests

    Leviticus 8:12-13; 21:1

    The Levites filled this role in Israel; the Nri priests do so in Igboland and are thought to have a Levitical linage.

    As In Israel, so in Igboland.


    In Judaism Prophets are called Nevi’im and prophesying among the Igbo is called Ibu Amuma. Like in Judaism a man or a woman can be a prophet in Igboland. Chukwu can speak to an Igbo in a vision or dream. A Prophet will go about the clan announcing that Chukwu has revealed something to him/her and in the evening the clan leaders goes to the shrine of Chukwu in which the Prophet operates from and it is there that the Prophet reveals the prophecy to the people. Depending upon the nature of the prophecy, the leaders will decide on how to act upon what was said, such as if a communal sacrifice may be in order. This is why the Pentecostal and or Charismatic Christianity tend to thrive among the Igbos.

    Earthen Altar

    Exodus 20:24

    In the Torah we read of the Patriarchs building altars of earth and natural stone to sacrifice unto YHWH. Such altars in Igboland are common and are called “Okwu Ani.” They are maintained by hand and not tool is permitted to be used on them. Most other altars in pagan religious use hew stone where as Jews and Igbos use natural uncut earth and stone to construct their altars.

    A 12 stone altar exists in the middle of the Niger River in Aguleri where Eri, son of Gad is said to have crossed and it can be seen during the dry season when the water levels are lowest. Recall in Joshua 4 where a 12 stone memorial altar was erected in the middle of the Jordan.

    Leviticus goes into great detail regarding various offerings, drink offerings, peace offerings, sin offerings, all of which are practiced to some degree among the Igbo.

    As In Israel, so in Igboland.

    Removal of Morning Ashes

    Leviticus 6:4

    Though this deals with the responsibilities of the Levitical priesthood, Israel was considered a nation of priests and so common Israelites voluntarily took upon themselves priestly rituals in daily living. This is an example of but one of them that the Igbo practices as well.

    Igbo’s consider it an obligation, mandatory to remove ashes from the previous days fire before one kindles a new one. If not, the holiness or purity of whatever is cooked on the old ashes is thrown into question.

    As In Israel, so in Igboland.


    Leviticus 18:24-30 “Defile not ye yourselves in any of these things: for in all these the nations are defiled which I cast out before you: And the land is defiled: therefore I do visit the iniquity thereof upon it, and the land itself vomiteth out her inhabitants. Ye shall therefore keep my statutes and my judgments, and shall not commit any of these abominations; neither any of your own nation, nor any stranger that sojourneth among you: (For all these abominations have the men of the land done, which were before you, and the land is defiled;) That the land spue not you out also, when ye defile it, as it spued out the nations that were before you. For whosoever shall commit any of these abominations, even the souls that commit them shall be cut off from among their people. Therefore shall ye keep mine ordinance, that ye commit not any one of these abominable customs, which were committed before you, and that ye defile not yourselves therein: I am the Lord your God.”

    Such commands as stated above, the Igbo observe just as Israel held their land as holy and sacred and would not do anything considered an abomination to defile it, as In Israel, so in Igboland.

    The Land to Israel and Igbo alike is so holy, it is said of both that upon death in a foreign land and in the resurrection, the body too will make its way back to the Land, even if it has to roll underground to get there!

    Purification of the Land

    Exd. 20:24, Lev. 1-7. Num. 15:1-13, 28:3-8

    Just as Israel has various offerings, sacrifices and libations, some of which are used in purification ceremonies of the Land, so too in Igboland for the Igbo.

    Holy Ground

    Exd. 3:5, Josh. 5:15

    When I entered the Shrine at Obu-Gad in Aguleri which contains the stone throne with paleo-Hebrew inscription at the foot of it in cowry shells that reveals that the throne is dedicated to Eri’s father Gad. I had to remove my shoes before entering. There are many other places in Igboland such as this.


    Lev. 27:30-32, Num. 18:24, Deut. 14:22-29

    Caliben I.O. Michael in his book “Our Roots: Igbo Israel Heritage” p. 43 says,

    “This is an old Igbo practice that is seldom done now… When Igbos were practicing these in line with the commandment they had no beggars among them but with the neglect of this commandment there is now insurgence of beggars in Igboland…”

    Igbos tithe from their livestock and fields, and those who acted as priests take a portion of the tithe brought to Chukwu Abiama and distributed among the less fortunate in the community.

    It has been noted that Igbos who follow and respect Omenana believe it so closely resembles Torah, Judaism that Igbos have one of the lowest rates of poverty and crime among the surrounding peoples in Nigeria.

    Castrated animals

    Lev. 22:24

    It is an abomination to offer up such an animal in Igboland, for it will not be accepted by the priests for sacrifice, EVER!

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  14. Igbo Hebrew

    Other Miscellaneous Laws and Customs

    Deut. 19:15, 17:6, Num. 15:33

    As in Israel, so in Igboland. Any legal matters in Igboland requires at least two or three witnesses to establish or resolve a matter.

    Making a Covenant

    Gen. 31

    Like Jacob and Laban calling upon God and promising not to harm each other and making a covenant of peace, this very thing is practiced among the Igbos as well.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Custodian of Neighbors Property

    Exd. 22:9-12

    As in Israel, so in Igboland, this law also has been practiced among the Igbo, long before missionaries came.

    Widow and the Orphan

    Exd. 22:22-24

    I have also witnessed firsthand, publically, Igbos coming to the defense of a widow or orphan being ill-treated or harassed by others. I have even witnessed a lame Igbo rise to the defense of a poor woman whose antagonist was a large healthy young male.

    Life’s Blood

    Lev. 4:20, 17:14, Deut. 12:23, Matt. 26:28, Heb. 9:22

    Jews and Igbos believe in the sanctity of life and that life is in the blood and without a sacrificial shedding of a sacrificial substitute one for another, there is no remission.

    Covering Blood with Earth

    Lev. 17:13

    Whether hunting or sacrificing, blood spilt on the ground is covered up with dirt. As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Exd. 21:1-2, Lev. 25:39-43, Deut. 15:12-14

    This has always been a practice in Igboland and in recent history too! Right after the Biafra War and it help many Igbo to survive and get back on their feet.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Escaped Slave

    Deut. 23:15-16, Philemon

    A well-known practice among Igbos that a guest or someone seeking a sort of protection or asylum under an Igbo will be safe; an enemy could only obtain such as one under protection literally over the Igbo’s dead body.

    As have traveled abroad in Igboland, I have personally witnessed the seriousness and dedication in which an Igbo will care for and protect his guest.

    Sanctuary or Asylum for Accidental Homicide

    Exd. 21:13, Num. 35:9, Deut. 4:41-42

    Just as there were cities of refuge in the Land of Israel where priests dwell, so too there are towns such as; Aguleri, Agukwo, Nri and Arochukwu are considered cities of refuge one who takes refuge there must reside in for seven years.

    Again, Prof. Achebe in his book, “Things Fall Apart” draws this to the reader attention when the main character Okonkwo sought refuge in his mother’s hometown and returned after seven years.

    There is even a saying in Igboland regarding the city of refuge of Arochukwu, “Adi ejie rao na anya oma.” Which translated means, “Those who go to Arochukwu, do so under emergency.”

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Deut. 21:23, Matt. 27:3-10

    Chinua Achebe in his world remount novel, “Things Fall Apart” built his story on true Igbo customs, he made none of it up and his book tells of a suicide of a character whose body was not to be touched by kin and by committing suicide forfeit honorable funeral rites because suicide is seen as an abomination that must be atoned for through sacrifices so that the Land does not become contaminated. A victim of suicide in Igboland is buried by strangers in the forest. This is uncannily similar to our Scripture passages.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Exd. 21:12, Num. 35:16-21

    There is no refuge for one who intentionally commits murder, he is fair game to be hunted down and killed by the victim’s relatives. Prior to colonial rule in Igboland this practice was adhered to.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Lev. 20:2, 24:16

    As in Israel, so in Igboland. This was a dominate form of capital punishment in Igboland until the colonialization by the West.


    Deut. 24:7

    Kidnapping people for ransom, especially white westerners is a real danger in Nigeria and is rarely heard of among the Igbo, as far as them participating in it.

    G.T. Basden, Anglican Missionary to the Igbos noted in his book “Niger Igbos:”

    “From Deuteronomy 24:7 we learn that it was forbidden for an Israelite to steal or sell one of his brethren. It is so with the Ibos.”

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Josh. 2:1

    Scouting expeditions sent ahead of the tribe and or clan was a common practice prior to the Igbos settling down in the land and establishing cities.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Lev. 19:9-10, Deut. 24:19-25, Book of Ruth

    God commanded this as a sort of welfare system for the poor to be able to glean edges of leftovers from a field so as to provide for their family without having to beg and loose ones dignity. In Igboland this practice is called “Mkpa ji na Mkpa ede” where one is permitted to glean leftovers from a neighbor’s farm. Another similar custom is called, “Ije kpo ube, mango, udala na oloma” where one is allowed to pick fallen fruit from an orchard not their own. This is similar to when Yeshua (Jesus) and his disciples plucked handfuls of grain on sabbath in order to satisfy their hunger. They were permitted to do so under Levitical Law but the Pharisees who enacted laws on top of Torah forbad this practice and called it work (Luke 6:1-5). What Yeshua and His disciples who were Jews and followed Jewish Law did and this too is what the Igbo’s do.

    “Igbo custom allows someone to pluck small quantities of Anara leaves, Anara fruit, orange (oloma), pears (ube), maize for his or her consumption from someone elses farm, but does not allow him or her large quantity for sale.

    Igbos say “kpara Akwu, kpara Akwu, ewelu nkata je obulu ori” meaning; you can take for your consumption but if you go with a basket it is stealing.” – Caliben O.I. Micheal “Our Roots: Igbo Israel Heritage” P. 51

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Mixing Crops

    Lev.19:19, Deut. 22:9

    Israel has very stringent rules regarding farming of the land which Igbos also observes. Like Israel, Igbos only plant one thing in a field at a time and do not mix crops with another while the peoples around them mixed seeds and crops.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Property Markers

    Deut. 19:14, 27:17

    This is taken so seriously in Igboland that an offender could be fined or even excommunicated.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Designated Areas

    Josh. 2:18, 21

    It appears that the spies who came to Rahab and cut a deal with her used the sign of the scarlet cord to mark her place as off limits. In Igboland a scarlet cord is used to partition off restricted areas.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Lev. 13:43-46, 14:1-8, Deut. 24:8

    Igbos too, for health, safety and sanctity of the community would quarantine their skin afflicted sick outside the village, this was until the white men came.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Straying Animals

    Deut. 22:1-4

    Igboland one who loses an animal that strayed will go to a hill or other elevated place and announce in the evening regarding the missing animal. Those who hear and has the animal in question in their care will reply and the owner will leave with the caretaker to retrieve his animal.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    Damage Caused by Livestock

    Exd. 22:5

    This law in Igboland only differs in that retribution is monetary in nature and not in produce of the Land.


    Exd. 22:2

    In the past thieves in Igboland if caught were burned or stoned to death.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Exd. 22:10-12

    This law is followed in Igboland, but in more recent times, likely due to the westernization of Nigeria, verbal apologies suffices in some situations.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    I Chron. 21:1-8, II Sam. 24:1-10

    Igbos too do not like or participate voluntary in census’.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    I Samuel 8

    There is a saying among the Igbo, “Igbo enwe eze.” Which means, “The Igbo have no king.” Some take this to mean Igbo’s never had kings and that the concept of Kings were either adopted by influence of surrounding tribes or it was introduced by the coming of the white men. But I believe this to mean that they have no greater King than Chukwu Abiama (The God of Abraham), for it is clear that Igbo kingly dynasties are recorded to go back all the way to Eri’s sons and this is long before the white men came to Nigeria as I have listed earlier in this book. As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Lev. 20:27

    Witches in Igboland were excommunicated or stoned to death in Igboland. As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Deut. 19:18-21

    In both Israel and Igboland it is understood that an “eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth” is an idiomatic term referring to monetary compensation.

    Case in point, let us say that a man hit another man in the eye producing 80% vision loss in his right eye. How then can it be guaranteed that the injured man if allowed to hit the other man in the right eye will be able to do so at the very same trajectory and velocity which caused the 80% blindness in his own eye!? You can’t, this is why the above passage and its concept in Judaism and in Igboland is understood regarding monetary compensation of medical bills, wages lost, etc.

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.


    Lev. 19:16 Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people: neither shalt thou stand against the blood of thy neighbour; I am the Lord.

    Gossip is called “LaShone Hara” in Hebrew which is translated the “Evil Tongue.” Gossip in Hebraic and Igbo culture is greatly looked down upon and gossip such as that is called or deemed as “character assassination” is looked upon as gravely as that of physical murder.

    Unfortunately the influence Western culture upon the Igbo seems to have watered the gravity of gossip down from a serious offense to that of a minor one.

    Calling Heaven and Earth as Witnesses

    Deut. 4:26, 30:19

    In Igboland this is a very common saying “Enu na Ana gba aka ebe or osi ali.” Which says, “Heaven and earth should bear witness.”

    As in Israel, so in Igboland.

    They (ones enemies) Shall be our Food

    Num. 14:9 “… for they are bread for us…”

    Amazingly the Igbo also say this regarding their enemies:

    “Ha bu nni anyi.”
    “Ofe niacha.”
    “Ofe nkupu.”

    Limited Knowledge – Limited List

    I am sure to some this seems like a fairly comprehensive list, but in actuality, because I am not an indigenous Igboman and because I was not raised in Igboland among and Igbo family or in Igbo culture my observations as an outsider is limited to what is obvious to me in light of my own Hebraic culture and the not so obvious is dependent upon the research I read of Igbo scholars and others. I am sure an Igbo person would be able to come up with a more exhaustive list and keener observations regarding the Igbo Omenana as compared to the Jewish/Hebraic custom and tradition. But suffice it to say, I believe what we have here is nonetheless a most compelling case based on culture alone that bears the facts that the Igbo people are Jews, Hebrews and Israelites, portions of the Lost tribes of Israel and thus deserve to be officially recognized as such. Even if this is not achieved in the here and now, we KNOW it will be recognized when Messiah returns and sets up His Kingdom.

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  15. Look here! I am tired of people who are lost talking about who they are and who they are not. If Onitsha people are not Igbo in the Macro sense, what are the names of your ancestors? If these names are not Igbo tell us what they are and give us their meanings. You may be Egyptians as you claim, but the names of your fathers are not Egyptian. The word “On” has nothing to do with Onitsha. “On” should translated as “Enu” (Heaven or exalted). The word Ra should be rendered as “Ora,” the name of God as the All, or “people from one origin as one.” The word “Pharaoh” properly rendered as (“Phara-oh” or “Opara oha”) means “the first born of God or the gods as manifestations of God.” I am from Oraifite in Anambra State and my ancestor “Odu” hails from Ida (Judah) in Igala. I am a Levite Priest by birth and my Mother’s village in Oraifite is called Ezi Meshi, the same as the Biblical city of Beth-Shemesh (Beth) means Ezi and Shemesh is Nshi menshi shortened for Meshi (Menri. Please stop these arrogance of unnecessary division. Thanks. Eugene Chukwuedo Akannam. 314-805 2751.

  16. FYI, Solomon is only spelled that way in English, is Shlomo in Hebrew and Sulaiman in Arabic, and no, the – an in Sulaiman does not have any etymological connection with the word “On.”

    This is like saying that Israel is really Is-Ra-El, which is deceptive. First it’s actually Yisrel, so the Is is not short for Isis, which is a Hellenization of the goddess-wife-sister of Azar (Osiris), known by many names, Inaana, Anat, Ishtar, and taking into consideration the fact that Ra is the word for evil in Hebrew, obviously this is bogus theory.

    Which can be said for much of what you wrote. I too, though European by descent, despise the alterations to history made by European academics to support their Eurocentric Indo-Aryan (now called Indo-European but still a total fabrication designed to be a way of claiming that Europeans didn’t borrow words from Sanskrit, but that Indians and Europeans have a common root language that was literally made up about 100 years ago as a hypothesis and has never had any evidence to support it’s actual existence as a language, culture, basically there is no such thing as an Indo European… anything, but the pride of the European will not allow for the obvious fact that the Greeks learned everything from and taught nothing to, the people of Asia.

    What you are doing is the same thing, in revenge. Learn your history, but don’t sully other’s in the process by claiming that because Solomon is spelled (in a language that did not exist in his life) with the suffix “On” that this connects him to the city of On, which is mentioned frequently in the Bible, is Heliopolis in Greek, a language that frequently employed the suffix on (Apocryph-on, Evangelion, etc), yet didn’t see fit to call Solomon Solomhelio-polis.


  17. Pharoah obviously is connected with the word Pyre, which is from where we get the word fire, ie, a pyr-amid is a fire-(whatever) mid, it probably should be pronounced Phyramid, but either way the etymology connection is super obvious.

    Far-on is how you say it in Arabic. Just saying.

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