How Africa Civilized Europe; How Europe is in Denial

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Greeks ‘borrowed Egyptian numbers’

By Paul Rincon
BBC Science

The astronomers, physicists and mathematicians of ancient Greece were true innovators.

But one thing it seems the ancient Greeks did not invent was the counting system on which many of their greatest thinkers based their pioneering calculations. New research suggests the Greeks borrowed their system known as alphabetic numerals from the Egyptians, and did not develop it themselves as was long believed.

Greek alphabetic numerals were favoured by the mathematician and physicist Archimedes, the scientific philosopher Aristotle and the mathematician Euclid, amongst others.

Trade explosion

An analysis by Dr Stephen Chrisomalis of McGill University in Montreal, Canada, showed striking similarities between Greek alphabetic numerals and Egyptian demotic numerals, used in Egypt from the late 8th Century BC until around AD 450.

Both systems use nine signs in each “base” so that individual units are counted 1-9, tens are counted 10-90 and so on. Both systems also lack a symbol for zero.

Dr Chrisomalis proposes that an explosion in trade between Greece and Egypt after 600 BC led to the system being adopted by the Greeks.

Greek merchants may have seen the demotic system in use in Egypt and adapted it for their own purposes.

BBC Science: Greeks ‘borrowed Egyptian numbers’

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58 thoughts on “How Africa Civilized Europe; How Europe is in Denial”

  1. “How Europe is in Denial”, huh? The very existence of this article should have discouraged that conclusion, but I suppose such a lack of intellectual sophistication is predictable from you people. As you would know if you weren’t biased, the Egyptians have never been black. So an “African” influence, yes; but a black influence, no. So don’t get so excited. Westerners have risen far beyond simple computations anyway. The Egyptians never approached rocket science or nanotechnology, or computer and internet technology, or satellite and radio technology. So where does math count more?

    1. @ Skeptic: Everyone in the Bible and ancient Egypt were black. Christ himself was as black as black can be. You are an edomite the very people God hates and will deal with upon the Messiah’s return.

    2. Hello Skeptic,
      1. Egpytians were not whites. They were Negros with all the negroid features. I suggest you do more reading. Do not look at the present Egyptian complexion to draw a conclusion of the Ancient Egyptians. Yes ancient Egypt was surrounded and threatened by white invaders such as Lybia but ancient Egyptians and their civilization were purely BLACK.
      2. I would agree that modern civilisation has been dominated by the westerner, but as every scientists or thinker will attest to that, that technology, invention and science to be precise are built on previous work. It should be well accepted that Black Africans have contributed immersely to Philosophy, Science, Medicine, Art and Music intetectually via Ancient Egyptian (black) civilsation since what we know as western adavncement is basically building on what was borrowed.
      3. Although colonization on Africa in my mind did more harm for Africa than good, I would also not excuse the present dire situation/conditions Africans or blacks find themselves in. I think Blacks should reclaim the stolen legacy, which will give them more confidence to take their own destiny in their hands and minds.

      Mr Skeptic, if you want more facts and evidence reagrding what I have written, pls contact me on I think we can have sensible debate with the intention of coming to the facts and truth about Black civilization.


    3. Zero is an Indian concept. It filtered through Arabia and was transmitted to Europe that way. It’s common knowledge. No one denies knowledge is portable.

      It’s wierd how there’s an attempt to pretend the Greeks didn’t have a moment where they were breaking new ground. I do not understand it.

    4. Huge numbers of them had to have been black. However, probably not many more or less than are in Modern Egypt. It’s hard to imagine they are very different from the current Egpytians. Sadat was black. So I imagine there were black pharoes. America is majority white but it has a black president and a politically active black population.

      However, ideas originate in the minds of innovative individuals. It’s why we have patent and copy laws today.

    5. The Egyptians weren’t black, sure lol.

      Try again.

      “Westerners have risen far beyond simple computations anyway. The Egyptians never approached rocket science or nanotechnology, or computer and internet technology, or satellite and radio technology.”

      You forget that Black Americans and Black Africans have contributed to those very subjects and findings as well.

      A gifted mathematician, Katherine Johnson joined the tracking team for manned and unmanned missions and used math and physics to calculate complex spacecraft trajectories, navigation and the orbits or spacecraft. Any error in calculations would cause astronauts to possibly not return from space.
      Katherine Johnson was a member of NASA’s historic 1961 team which calculated the flight paths of the first manned space flight in 1961 by astronaut Alan Shepard, the first manned orbit of Earth in 1962 by John Glenn, and the landing of the first man to walk on the moon by Neil Armstrong in 1969.

      The 3-man crew aboard the flight that landed on the moon, consisted of Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module pilot.
      “The early trajectory was a parabola, and it was easy to predict where it would be at any point,” Johnson says. “Early on, when they said they wanted the capsule to come down a certain place, they were trying to compute when it should start. I said, ‘Let me do it. You tell me when you want it and where you want it to land, and I’ll do it backwards and tell you when to take off.’ That was my forte.”

      NASA would still call on her to verify the calculations even though NASA began using computers for the first time in 1962 to calculate John Glenn’s orbit around Earth.
      Katherine developed the first emergency navigation systems for astronauts by star-mapping. She also helped develop better navigational procedures for the Apollo missions by analyzing data from tracking stations around the world.

      As an integral member of the team she helped write the first textbook on space. In total she co-authored 26 scientific papers, also working on the space shuttle program and on plans for a mission to Mars.
      Katherine’s worked at Langley between 1953 and 1986. “I found what I was looking for at Langley,” she says. “This was what a research mathematician did. I went to work every day for 33 years happy. Never did I get up and say I don’t want to go to work.” Katherine retired from NASA in 1986.

      For her pioneering work in the field of navigational problems and space flight, she received numerous awards from NASA in 1971, 1980 and 1985 including the Group Achievement Award presented to NASA’s lunar space craft and operations team. Other awards include Mathematician of the Year from the National Technical Association in 1997 and an honorary doctorate of law from Farmingdale State University of New York in 1998.

      Your really are clueless, and there are millions of people like her.

    6. Thru the Dark Ages and The Renaissance the nouveau European ( caucasians that were chased out of Central Asia by the Mongol type peoples) overwhelmed the original black civilized cultures of Europe. First with genocide, then “whitenization” of all the black icons from Russia to Ireland and have been trying to do the same in Egypt for centuries. Almost perfect mimmickry. And if you don’t think it plausible take a look at North America where the Red Man was almost totally erased from the map. We could debate this all the way to kingdom come, but I have proof and truth on my side.

    7. It’s funny how they’re referred to as Egyptians to dissociate them from Africa. They were Kemites and made advances in “Alchemy” (Khemistry) Study the linguistics. And if you want to talk about advances after that, how about you check history about when Moors ruled Spain. Arabs and African Muslims. Built much of Spain and fell in 1491.their defeat funded the inquisition and Columbus’ trip. #2 black has been used to describe people of color throughout history. Even if you had a slight tan, you were referred to as black. And if you want to get slick and say the moors weren’t black, let’s look into the literature of that time. Othello by Shakespeare. How does he refer to the moors? “Black faced”… What a joke. It’s sad that people can’t accept history. Over time, you learn never to take history from those who win the war.

    8. Okay, I am officially confused! Was this a case were a bunch of people just walked nicely up to some cave dwelling europeans and said “Hi, we are here to civilize you! Things are going to be great” or was this a conquer and kill situation, and being civilized came from the most uncivilized acts?

    9. I’m not a scholar or scientist but I ask you to read what the white scholar Herodotus had to say, cause unlike you and I he actually seen them face to face and he says they all are black or rather Negroid. Shalom

    10. This is what simple minded non believing barbaric whites say when the facts stare them dead in their faces they say this bullshit. And btw simple computations you fucking idiot try to build abuilding a skys sc raper with no foundation this is the same ol tired db argument crackers make when they start to experience COGNITIVE DISSONANCE. WITHOUT AFRICAN INVENTION OF MATHEMATICS, SCIENCE, ASTROLOGY, ASTRONOMY, CARPENTRY, UNIVERSITIES, MEDICINE, LAW AND GEOMETRY, PHILOSOPHY, RELIGION, MUSIC AND A WHOLE HOST

    11. For a white person you dum as a box of rocks!! Look it up your own people even admitted to it blacks had civilization before whites even tought whites how be clean
      Blacks build Europe and Europeans destroyed Africa do your research dummy

    12. Who built the westerns states the black slaves,go and your history Mr. Skeptic first Egyptians were black.
      #dont be a asholic rasist.

    13. Rejecting African influence in the development of the West is rejecting your very own existence.
      Where did the raw materials come frome for your technologies?
      Where did the manpower come from for your ”sophisticated ideologies”?

    14. Honestly, you sound idiotic. 1. anyone with sense knows there were dark ass Egyptians lol 2. In Europe, no matter your country if you’re in Europe you’re European and Non-Hispanic Europeans laid claim (as in included) their advancement that contributed to Overall. Soooooo why can’t an Ethiopian lay claim to Egypt’s Advancements since their all African? Lol that’s a little hypocritical, isn’t it? Europeans can lay claim as a whole but Africans can’t? also if you want to know who really brought Europe up like that then go research what the Moors brought into Europe. Thank me later, or hate me later if you dislike the truth lol. He might seem bias but so do you.

    15. How!? Talking about sophistication stop it! You’re literally an idiot.. the country of Egypt is in fucking Africa! Like how stupid are you look at a map.. talking about you people.. YOU people so dumb that u would believe u are the superior race when we out do you in everything besides raping incest and genocide. Egypt is in Africa and guess what type of people live in Africa? I assure you it wasn’t white. You people are mind boggeling your denial is so outrageous it’s funny you say white people were Egyptian only because if you admit they were “Negroes” then you would have to also admit that they built the pyramids and you then would have to admit that niggers built a civilization and its structure so perfectly Precise that you can’t even figure out how they did it when today u can’t duplicate the pyramids. That’s why when u find out blacks lived in Egypt that must mean aliens constructed the pyramids.. please go back to your moms basement

    16. Your so full of it, there was no single person who invented mathematics. Mathematics was used, and technically invented, by many cultures around the world. These cultures used their own form of mathematics, which could be considered ‘math’ in their time and how they used it. These cultures include the Mayans, Indians, Greeks, and Chinese, India and Greece. NO Africans.

    17. The country was called Kemet and Ethiopia was the mother egypt..Ethiopia comes from the Greek word ethiops which means sun-burnt face

    18. You sound so ignorant African and black are one in the same. black people were stolen from Africa. Egyptians were also African. And Europeans are in denial because they refuse to believe that they not only stole knowledge from Africa and tried to make it seem like they are the originators but they also tried to erase our face from history and add their own. Example A white woman portrayed as Cleopatra or Jesus being white.

  2. Sceptic

    You sound angry and confused.  That one article must have surely deflated your ignorant hubris.

    And ignorantly you have asked, what has Maths got to do with it. Like a complete innumerate goy that you are.

    Maths is the key to it all.  He who founded Maths, founded it all.


  3. Africa is certainly in crisis today. But it is racist to assume that since the creation of the world Africa has not contributed to science nor influenced Europe. Aristotle, Plato, and Cicero thought of the rest of Europeans as barbarians. Chauvinism aside, Europe or the West is leading the world today because since the renaissance they borrowed from China, and the rest of the world. In ancient times, Greeks borrowed from Egypt, Mesopotamia, etc. What is Japan without China or Western influence. NOUS SOMMES TOUS DES METIS CULTURELS. By the Way China and India are rising up. Good luck Europe!
    As for the blackness of Egyptians, this debate is over. Egyptians were clearly not British, German or French.

  4. Well, thank you Mutombo for a breath of sanity between those bursts of jingoism. Egypt certainly WAS black, as archaeologists now recognize: Egyptian civilization formed from a mixture of Saharan (African Aquatic, the ancestors of modern W Africans) and Nubian-derived Neolithic Nile Valley farmers. And Greek was unique, not an imitation of Egypt, not a theft.

    Métis sommes nous! Indeed that is true. All peoples have contributed. I continue to learn from peoples of many varied ancestries and cultural traditions. I don’t see why all these traditions and peoples have to be set against each other in an endless racialist competition. This is madness! Stop it!

  5. Wow I think you guys got horribly side tracked by turning this discovery into a race war. Some of you are using big words to sound smart and others are just contradicting theselves. Just relax and learn something

  6. My two cents.

    The Egyptians of antiquity were with out a doubt Black/Negroid. 3 words Cheik Anta Diop, look this name up and read.

    Here is a question that Dr. Cheik Anta Diop Left me with. Why do we know whites come from Europe and Yellows comes from Asia, yet Blacks don’t have a home land? Hmmm

    Everyone agrees that the birth place of mankind is in western Africa so why do we not continue this obvious linear track?

  7. If B.S were currency,Skeptic could bail out the entire economy.
    Bigotry is the triumph of the imagination over both fact and common sense.
    The truth hurts!

  8. I have heard a lot this is a comment! since the earth have ever been created people was united and shared all their possessions in communion. Africa, Europe and Asia were the only continents existed at that period. People had good intetions towards each other the only things which cause us today to be arguing about Africans, Europeans and Asians were brought up by some extremists people who din’t care about others and most of this world we live in today have the same mentality of segregation and lying instead. We know clearly that every part of this world had it own civilizations and we connot just compare those who lived on the 1st Century and us today. Invasions take time even if we may say that we now living in the modern world it’s ok but imagine we won’t be the same as those who will come after; maybe they will discover other precious things which in our days we did not think of, they won’t lament us. In the years 250 for example people who lived during this period would not create a computer or a plane everything takes time. I believe before the computer exist there were other means of writing which helped them in their days. Let support each other there is nothing important here on earth, we are not gonna live here for ages let treat each other with mercy, love and each and everyone tell the truth but not the nonsence which will linger to nothing but will only teach, conduct and corrupt the new generation to come to hate each other. Remember we are all going somewhere none will inherit this earth forever.

  9. With all that has been said Yesterday is gone!!! today is here ……(and look out, tomorrow is yet to come)… we Have learned to exist in a world that is ran by complete supremacy… we won’t say to much more then that… however what we now know, was not invented yesterday??? therefore Africa, Black, Roman, Blue or green we all know that tomorrows leaders are not selling for the OKIEDOKE… WE WANT THE TRUTH!! ????Will we be sucessful… i guess will have to see>>> just wait till tomorrow. REligion, WAr, Economics, SEx, EDUCATION, etc… the WAKE Up and resurrection of HUMANITY has Arise… … So Please prepare for the compensation of the compensated…. ( all GReek and Latin Words) LOL

  10. Well, if we did a little research we would find that the so called African (a relatively new word) is depicted on most of the OLDEST european coats of arms and throughout european culture. These facts give evidence of the stature the copper hued(known as Moors) people had back then. It’s not that hard to find, all you need is a little bravery and honesty. For starters, research the origins of Scotland, Ireland, Germany and England. Who was Scotland named after?, What is St Patrick’s day really about? Who was St. Maurice? And Who were the original druids? I think the past is very relevant. If you don’t know the truth about the past people can and will tell you anything they want about the past and who you are. Like… we brought MILLIONs of Africans to North America in boats that only hold less than 300 people(yes by the same people that thought the world was flat and got lost all the time) or Egyptians were not black even though it’s in so called Africa or George Washington was the first president.(See John Hanson) That’s just silly. But a lack of knowledge will allow some to fall for this type of MIS or DIS-information. We know the people of Egypt (yet another new word.Whose true name is Kemaat) had hot and cold running water, electric light bulbs and many other advanced technologies which inspire our way of life still. We know they were copper hued because their names and ancient hieroglyphs tell us so. So yeah its relevant. With proper study we would trace back to a factual historic time when the land mass was one (undivided Mu, Asia etc) before the big quake. Cnn and the NY Times both did stories recently about the mother of civilization (Eve) being a copper hued woman. So that means the copper hued people not only have been around for a long time but were already the indigenous to all the lands. The point is it doesn’t matter how one distorts history, the evidence is there to support the fact that copper hued people were/are the original founders of civilization including but not limited to Greek, Egyptian, American cultures. Outside of the US most people know the truth of true history it is just people in the US that are in denial.
    Peace and love to all.
    P.S. Yes I did say Moors. No they were not just arabs (research). It’s not about who’s there now it’s about who was there during these historical periods. EX.: Harlem NY has many new europeans moving and living there but that doesn’t mean that they were involved with the Harlem renaissance of the early 1900’s. Therefor they can not take the place of those who were there during that time. Different people but still considered New Yorkers. GET IT?

  11. It is common knowledge that the numerical system first originated in the Indus valley and was developed by the Vedic and Sanskrit people.
    Hindus taught the Arabs, who passed the knowledge to the Greeks who then founded a civilization in North Africa.
    Egypt was basically a third world colony of Greece and Rome, ruled by the Greco-Macedonian elite, using the natives as slaves to build the architecture that we now call ancient Egypt.

    As for civilizations in Africa….there is only one. Its called the Republic of South Africa.

    1. You sound like a RACIST BIGOT and IGNORANT EUROCLOWN.
      Read Ruins Of Empire —-by Count Volney,Herotudus and Abbe Emile Amelineau.
      There is no need to respond to PSYCHOPATHIC RACIST FOOL LIKE YOU.
      Europeans are simply Destroyers and Thieves,claiming what’s not theirs.
      Live in your fools paradise.

      When Egyptians built pyramids between 3000 and 2000 BC, homer, socrates, pericles, alexander the great where not yet even conceived in the mind of the creator. The golden age of what is known as Greek civilization took place between 700 and 400 BC. Egypt collapsed in 525 BC at the hands of persians (after more than 2000 years of brilliant civilization), then the Greek conquered Egypt in 332 BC. The Romans came around 30 BC, and the Arab Muslims conquered Egypt in 640 after Christ. So if you do not know history, go back to high school and do not waist people’s time. Let us have meaningful conversation in our common “global village”, but not this blablabla of nauseating ignorance

    3. Where did you find that bullshit? Civilizations was all over Africa still have the remains from when the British and Portuguese came through and destroyed them you should do your research and stop going by things you’ve heard

  12. The original Egyptians were African and Asiatic people who lived on the shores of the Nile River. They were people of dark olive to light olive complexions. As time progressed, people of Europe and the Nubians resided in the land of Egypt. The slave trade by the Arabs also caused the complexions of the Egyptians to change to very light olive to white.
    The Egyptians taught Aristotle and other Fathers of Greece how to set up a political system for their people in Greece. The Egyptians were the most intelligent people in the known world.

    1. Aristotle’s dogma probably retarded scientific progress btw. It required experimental methodolgy to actual get to the Empirical fact based science of the modern age.

      Classical civilization was a deadend.

  13. hey,you better believe and stop bamboozling your selves,AFRICA and THE BLACK COLOR is the genesis of creation,do not be fooled just read far and wide,there are hidden truths,we need to tell the next generation the truth so they will not run from it.AFRICA BELONGS TO AFRICANS ,THEY ARE OUR STUDENTS ,WE TAUGHT THEM MANY THINGS…………Jah arise and all African enemies scatter……..just get to my site for more facts…

  14. BLACK TO THE FUTURE,CAGOTS on their way out taking their lies wit them.The Black gene can create BLACK just like the creator that made us in their image brown,red,yellow the lightest, then you have the outcast cursed to be white as snow.The original had to be black in color a hue.All things started Black just like creation. The apple don’t fall far from the tree,but mutant albinos came from a different tree.We are the original created, not made up. It’s too late for so-called whites to get it together,we have always had that priviledge we are the real that the creator gave the earth to,all these misconceptions will be corrected,his-story will be corrected.Our HUEMAN children will be the inheirtors of the land only we can pass down through the family.Knowledge is power.2013 year 1, we had B.C AND A.D that’s when the Cagots STOLE OUR BIRTHRIGHT so 2013 must be B.B the year BACK BLACK Or should it be Fear of a BLACK nation is here. But we must be willin to kill to regain our lands and knowledge for our greatest treasure,our only treasure, our seed,and inheritor of this world.Our civilizations spanded 6000 years,all along the whites were in the caves.In less than 500 years those mutants have destroyed our motherland and mother’s children with their CAGOT lies & philosophy gathered from a non melanined mind.We knew then what we know now.We can never live in harmony with a non-HUEMAN.TOO EVIL.Satan is their father,they have no mother, at least we won’t be claiming them. But no worry the battle has already been won,mother nature is getting them pay back for Katrina & Rita, the only thing Jah true chillin’ can do is get out the way our mother is helping us out sending a warning via Afrika.She travels the same path as the ships that the CAGOTS brought our people over here,that was a blessing us Indians, MOORS, were damn near wiped out by the disease of leprosy.Cursed white as snow,frequent visits from masser. Our Black enriched brothers & Sisters put the black back in us,curing the disease of leprosy our cave dwellers tried to inflict on the true children of the creator.They know we taught them and saved them since we first laid eyes on them.nOW THE TIDES ARE TURNING the lands they stole are cursed,the lies are out.How they set themselves up to be us the creators children created not made.Peace only for ourselves me say war.

    1. Are you blaming outsiders for Congo being a charnel house?

      Or the anarchy in Somalia?

      The genocides in Sierra Leone and Liberia?


  15. Just so we are clear here. If there were no black people white people wouldn’t exist. All white people are born abominations aka freaks of nature. You are the recessive genes of black people. This is why scientists use albino rats to test drugs on because it closely matches your genetic make up. The very people no one wants to give a place in this world are responsible for your very existence. We need to stop hating one another and reach out to everyone. No one needs to talk of killing. Only God can free an enslaved mind not us. We just need to keep telling the truth.

  16. “Time is the Space between” Black and White, and Time is cyclical. As our Father Sun heats up, where will the inheritors of our melanocytes, but not our melanin take refuge? Back to their caves? If we’re allowed to stick around we may be lucky enough to observe the Neotenous aspects of creation.

  17. Classical civilization collapsed because it did not invent the experimental model. Had they conducted scientific observations with single variables they probably would have continued undisturbed to get to the moon 500 years ago. Experiments that could be considered modern really only got going 500 hundred years ago, largely in France, Italy and England. Most of classical civilization required slaves. Modern civiliations are different in that they use machines. Arguing about the authorship of Aristotle and Plato is like arguing about the authorship of Augustine or St Paul.

    It describes another bygone era.

  18. Excuse me, but does anyone recall a rather controversial documenary a few years ago which aired in the U.S. that stirred up the racist riff because the advertisement for the program claimed that the genetic ‘Mother’ of all current populations was a black woman?
    A salient point was that the genome project ‘proved’ that we all decended from a bottleneck population of around only 4 thousand Africans, after a large extinction event approximately 75 thousand years ago. I can’t recall exactly if the program indicated that these last humans were in Ethiopia or Nigeria.

    One point of the story claimed that archeological evidence suggested that the remaining human population of 4000 split up to various points of the compass. The demographic climate changes eventually caused genetic evolutions which permanently changed pigmentation in the skin and eventually accounted for the European-Nordic white, and asian populations we have today. Those that remained in Africa maintained the original skin pigmentation.

    Needless to say the racist redneck bigot crowd went wild over the program, and it was never aired subsequently to its original presentation. And everyone went about their usually delusional business. You can take the cognitively decedent to the well of life giving enlightenment…but you can’t make them drink.

  19. Why are you trying to deny the Egyptians civilisation their rightful place in history. The Egyptians laid the foundation for the future science, computer, internet technology satelite and radio. If this is not true, then WHY are they still digging in the sands of Egypt to this day an forever.

    1. No, it was the Moors who sparked it in Europe. Asians, Africans, and Arabs I know for sure were way advanced and civilized than Europe. I wrote I comment but I’ll copy it and paste it here so you can see it easier. Moors (mostly Africans and some Arab) went to 99% Europe including royalty) 711 AD. Moors brought to Europe mathematics, philosophy, universal education, Fashion and Hygiene, Cuisine, Urban Utilities: Street lights, Hospitals and Public Baths, Medicine, Human Flight (yes I said that lol research it), Advance Agriculture Techniques, Paper Making, 3 of the greatest thinkers of the middle ages came from Moorish Spain, astronomy, concept of zero, astronomical instruments and compiled tables of longitude and latitude, knowledge of irrigation, sophisticated metal working, weaving techniques,


    How is it humanly possible for WHITES/CAUCASOID/CAUCASIANS to have created any Civilizations in Africa when CIVILIZATION existed among Africans(ANCIENT ETHIOPIAN(AETHIOP) CIVILIZATIONS OF CUSH & EGYPT ) thousands of yrs before the BIOLOGICAL & HISTORICAL EXISTENCE of a single LIGHT/BRIGHT/PALE/WHITE/CAUCASOID/CAUCASIAN?

  21. This article was loosely put together. I have things you can look up and learn if you don’t believe me. Moors (mostly Africans and some Arab) went to 99% Europe including royalty) 711 AD. Moors brought to Europe mathematics, philosophy, universal education, Fashion and Hygiene, Cuisine, Urban Utilities: Street lights, Hospitals and Public Baths, Medicine, Human Flight (yes I said that lol research it), Advance Agriculture Techniques, Paper Making, 3 of the greatest thinkers of the middle ages came from Moorish Spain, astronomy, concept of zero, astronomical instruments and compiled tables of longitude and latitude, knowledge of irrigation, sophisticated metal working, weaving techniques,

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