Ethiopia and the Origin of Civilization Part 3
Another great nation of Ethiopian origin was Elam, a country which stretched from the Tigris River to the Zagros Mountains of Persia. Its capital was the famous city of Susa, which was founded about 4,000 B.C., and flourished from that date to its destruction by Moslem invaders about the year 650 C.E. (Christian Era). In speaking of the Elamites, H. G. Wells H. H. Johnston, to have been Negroid in type. There is a strong Negroid strain in the modern people of Elam.” (Outline of History, p. 166.) Archaeological evidence favors this view. Reginald S. Poole, the English Egyptologist noted that: “There is one portrait of an Elamite (Cushite) king on a vase found at Susa; he is painted black and thus belongs to the Cushite race.” (Quoted by Professor Alfred C. Haddon, in his History of Anthropology, p. 6, London, 1934. Thinker’s Library Edition, published by Watts & Co., 5 & 6 Johnson’s Court, Fleet St., London, E. c.-4, England.)
Â We cannot devote much space to the early inhabitants of India, though they were beyond all doubt an Ethiopic ethnic type. They are described by Professor Lynn Thorndike as “short black men with almost Negro noses.” (Short History of Civilization, p. 227, New York, 1936.) Dr. Will Durant pictures these early Hindus as “a dark-skinned, broad-nosed people whom, without knowing the origin or the word, we call Dravidians.” (Short History of Civilization, Part I, p. 396, New York, 1935.) The student is advised to consult pp. 650â€“666, of the new edition of Sir John A. Hammerton’s Wonders of the Past, in which there is an instructive article, with fine illustrations, by S. G. Blaxland Stubbs, entitled: Wonder Cities of Most Ancient India. That Mr. Stubbs is a candid writer may be seen from the following excerpt:
The early Aryan literature of India, the Hymns of the Rigveda, which, it is commonly agreed, date from about 1,000 B.C., speak of the people whom the proud Aryan invaders found in India as black-skinned barbarians, Dasas or slaves. But Aryan pride of race has received something of a shock from archaeological investigations carried out by Sir John Marshall and, more recently, by Dr. E. Mackay in the valley of the Indus. Here ample evidence has been found of a race whose complex civilization and high culture were equal, and in some respects superior to those of early Mesopotamia and Egypt.
These Asiatic black men were not confined to the mainland, for we are informed by no less an authority than Sir Harry H. Johnston, that:
In former times this Asiatic Negro spread, we can scarcely explain how, unless the land connections of those days were more extended, through Eastern Australia to Tasmania, and from the Solomon Island to New Caledonia and even New Zealand, to Fiji and Hawaii. The Negroid element in Burma and Annam is, therefore, easily to be explained by supposing that in ancient times Southern Asia had a Negro population ranging from the Persian Gulf to Indo-China and the Malay Archipelago. (See An Introduction to African Civilizations, by Willis N. Huggins. Ph.D. and John G. Jackson, pp. 188â€“190, New York, 1937.)
Most readers of history know about the Celts, ancient inhabitants of Europe, whose priests were known as the Druids. It is generally thought that these Celts were Caucasoids, but Sir Godfrey Higgins, after much study came to the conclusion that they were a Negroid people. Higgins wrote a ponderous volume entitled The Celtic Druids. In the following passage from his Anacalypsis he modestly refers to it as an essay: “In my essay on the Celtic Druids, I have shown that a great nation called Celtae, of whom the Druids were the priests, spread themselves almost over the whole earth, and are to be traced in their rude gigantic monuments from India to the extremity of Britain. The religion of Buddha of India is well known to have been very ancient.” (Higgins is here referring to the first Buddha, who is supposed to have lived between 5,000 and 6,000 years ago, and not to Gautama Buddha who lived about 600 years B.C. There were at least ten Buddhas mentioned in the sacred books of India.) “Who these can have been but the early individuals of the black nation of whom we have been treating I know not, and in this opinion I am not singular. The learned Maurice says Cuthies (Cushites), i.e. Celts, built the great temples in India and Britain, and excavated the caves of the former; and the learned mathematician, Reuben Burrow, has no hesitation in pronouncing Stonehenge to be a temple of the black curly-headed Buddha.” (Anacalypsis, Vol. I, Book I, Chap. IV, New York, 1927.)
Though it is generally believed that Columbus discovered America, it is now definitely known to students of American archaeology that Columbus came late. Professor Leo Weiner has written a three volume work, Africa and the Discovery of America, in which he argues that the New World was discovered by Africans long before the time of Columbus. Professor Weiner was led to this conclusion partly from the following evidence:
African works in American Indian languages.
Vases and pipe-bowls found in the ruins of the Mound-Builders, showing Negro faces on their surfaces.
The presence of African foods in America, such the peanut and the yam.
The totemic organization of the Amerindians tribes, very similar to African totemism. (Totemism is a sort of primitive theory of evolution. For instance, certain tribes are divided into clans, and each clan is, as a rule named after some species of animal. Let us suppose a tribe is divided into four clans, bearing the following names: (1) eagle, (2) Bear, (3) Crow and (4) Wolf. A member of the Bear Clan will consider himself as descended from bears, a member of the Wolf Clan will tell you that he is a wolf and that all of his ancestors were wolves, and so on; this clan ancestor being known as the Totem. There are numerous definitions of totemism, the best I have come across being the following one by Professor A. VB. Haddon: “Totemism, as Dr. Frazer and I understand it in its fully developed condition, implies the division of a people into several totem kins, or as they are usually termed, totem clans, each of which has one or sometimes more that one totem. The totem is usually a species of animal, sometimes a species of plant, occasionally a natural object or phenomenon, very rarely a manufactured article. â€¦ The totems are regarded as kinsfolk or protectors of the kinsmen, who respect them and refrain from killing and eating them. There is thus a recognition of mutual rights and obligations between the members of the kin and their totem. The totem is the crest of symbol of the Kin.” We see vestiges of totemism in our political organizations; for example, the Democratic DONKEY and the republican ELEPHANT. Baseball clubs present an even better example of totemistic atavism; for instance, who has not heard of baseball teams bearing such names as: TIGERS, CARDINALS, BEARS, BEES, BISONS, etc.) Weiner’s theories have not been kindly received by his colleagues. Professor H. J. Spinden sneers sarcastically in the following condensed extract from Culture, the Diffusion Controversy, pp. 53â€“54, New York, 1927:
“Professor Weiner solves the riddle of old American civilizations with an Arabico-Mandingo lexicon and derives everything of importance in the New World from the highly civilized coast of Gambia and Sierra Leone. From brightest Africa came the principal American food plants, the Mayan calendar and the Mexican religion. It may be added that Professor Weiner swarms his Negroes across the Atlantic in no less than fifty voyages before Columbus.”
The Indian was not the original American. Professor Ales Hrdlicka of the Smithsonian Institution, as authority on the Amerinds, contends that the ancestors of the Indians came from Asia via Bering Strait 10,000 years ago. American civilization is older than that. The ruins of Tiahuanaco, in Bolivia, according to Dr. Rudolph Muller, a noted German astronomer, are between 10,000 and 14,000 years old. The remains of this ancient city show that it was inhabited by a highly civilized people. (See an article entitled “The Oldest City in the World,” by A. H. Verrill, in the N. Y. Herald-Tribune Magazine, July 31, 1932.) Excavations in Mexico have produced equally startling results. Dr. Maximus Neumayer, a distinguished Brazilian archaeologist, in cooperation with a group of Mexican archaeologists, has made a very thorough study of the pyramids and monuments in the vicinity of Mexico City. He estimates the monument of Cuicuilco to be about 13,000 years old. An interesting feature of this structure is that it resembles the Assyrio-Babylonian type of architecture, bearing a striking resemblance to the Tower of Babel as it has been restored by the Assyriologists. Dr. Neumayer also examined the pyramids of Teotihuacan, which he estimates to be 4,500 years of age. He thinks that these pyramids were built by a people akin to the Egyptians; and from their arrangement, suggests that they form a sort of model of the solar system, with a pedestal in the center, representing the sun. We must also mention the discoveries of Professor Ramon Mena, Curator of the Department of Archaeology of the Mexican Government. This scientist explored the ruins of the great city of Palenque, and concluded that the ancient metropolis was built over 10,000 years ago. He also found that the inhabitants of the city were familiar with the manufacture and use of Stucco. The celebrated French archaeologist, Desiree Charnay, unearthed statues around Mexico City, more than fifty years ago, with faces showing Negroid features. Pictures of some of them may be seen in Ignatius Donelley’s Atlantis, pp. 174-175. Donnelly also has illustrations of two similar statues, one from Palenque and the other from Vera Cruz. Finding that the Indians show both Mongoloid and Negroid ethnic traces, Charnay justly concluded that the Amerinds were a mixed race of both Asiatic and African ancestry. (See The Ancient Cities of the New World, by Desiree Charnay.) We have perfectly reliable proof of the presence of men of the Ethiopian race in pre-Columbian America. Father Roman, one of he first Catholic missionaries to arrive in the New World, records that a tribe of black men came from the south and landed in Haiti, and that they were armed with darts of guanin (a composition of gold, silver and copper), and were known as the black Guaninis. “These might have been the Negroes of Quareca, mentioned by Peter Martyr d’Angleria, or some other American Negro nation,” asserts De Roo, “the like of which there were many, as we may see in Rafinesque’s Account of the Ancient Black Nations of America. Such are the Charruas of Brazil, the black Carabees of St. Vincent in the Gulf of Mexico, the Jamassi of Florida, the dark complexioned Californians who are perhaps the dark men mentioned in the Quiche traditions and by some old Spanish adventures. Such, again, is the tribe of which Balboa saw some representatives in his passage of the Isthmus of Darien in the year 1513. It would seem from the expressions made use of by Gomara, that these were Negroes.” (History of America Before Columbus, pp.306â€“307, by P. De Roo, Philadelphia and London, 1900.) Spanish and Portugese explorers found colonies of black men on the eastern coasts of South and Central America, and in Yucatan and Nicaragua. De Roo quotes John T. Short, author of The North Americans of Antiquity, New York, 1880, on the similarity of African and American languages, as followsâ€””It is worthy of note that several eminent scholars have observed the remarkable similarity of grammatical structure between the Central American and certain transatlantic languages, especially the Basque and some of the languages of Western Africa.” (History of America Before Columbus, pp. 164â€“165.)
Most of us are familiar with the Mayan civilization of Yucatan and Central America, since American archaeologists have devoted many years of intensive research to these territories. Among the speculations concerning the origin of this culture, those of LePlongeon and Raquena are the most valuable. Professor Rafael Requena, a Venezuelan archaeologist, holds that there was once an island in the Atlantic Ocean, of continental dimensions, known to the ancients as Atlantis, that this island was settled by Egyptians, who in turn established colonies in America before the submergence of Atlantis. The findings of Professor Augustus LePlongeon are of great interest. This Franco-American archaeologist discovered the ruins of a palace in Chichen Itza in 1874. He found in this structure, known as Prince Coh’s Palace, pictographs and inscriptions which he was able to decipher. The story, as unraveled by LePlongeon, may be read by the student in Queen Moo and the Egyptian Sphinx, where the professor gives his interpretation of the inscriptions and reproductions of the pictographs. Mrs. LePlongeon’s work, Queen Moo’s Talisman, might also be consulted. The story runs roughly as follows:
About 11,000 years ago, two brothers Princes of Yucatan, sought the hand of the ruling monarch of the land, Queen Moo, in marriage. The brothers were named Coh and Aac, respectively. Prince Coh was the successful suitor; which so enraged Prince Aac that he stabbed his brother through the heart with a stone knife, which, needless to say, caused his death. Then Aac attempted to force Queen Moo to wed him. The Queen, rather than submit, decided to flee to Atlantis. On reaching the coast she learned that great earthquakes had submerged Atlantis beneath the sea; so she sailed for Africa instead, and ended her journey in Egypt. There she was hailed as Queen, and erected the Sphinx as a memorial to her slain husband.
The foregoing story sounds like a fable, but there is probably a core of fact in it. If the Sphinx, with its Ethiopian face, is a memorial to an ancient Mayan prince, it shows that the Mayas were of African origin.
Where flows the river Nile,
The queen found rest;
There once again her days
With peace were blessed.
Did Moo a giant Sphinx from
Out of the ground
Cause to arise, and
Thus Coh’s fame renew?
Did she immortalize
Her consort true?”
(Queen Moo’s Talisman, p. 65, by Alice D. LePlongeon.)
That Atlantis was connected with the history of ancient Ethiopia there can be little doubt. The Greek philosopher, Proclus, stated in his works that he could present evidence that Atlantis at one time actually existed. He cited as his authority The Ethiopian History of Marcellus. In referring to Ethiopian history to prove the existence of Atlantis, Proclus plainly infers that Atlantis was a part of Ethiopia. (See Cory’s Ancient Fragments of the Phoenician, Carthaginian, Babylonian, Egyptian and Other Authors, London, 1876. See also, Maynard Shipley’s New Light on Prehistoric Cultures and Bramwell’s Lost Atlantis.) Although there is scientific evidence that an island of continental dimensions once existed in what is now the middle of the Atlantic Ocean, many students of the problem of Atlantis have located it in other parts of the globe, particularly in Central America and Africa. Count deProrok ways that Atlantis, in the dimness of antiquity, covered the region now occupied by the Sahara Desert. Kirchmaier placed it in South Africa and Froebenius in West Africa. In reviewing James Bramwell’s Lost Atlantis, Mr. Lewis Gannett states that: “The German anthropologist Frobenius definitely locates it in Nigeria, whose ancient civilization he relates to that of the Etruscans and the Assyrians.” (New York Herald-Tribune, Mar. 3, 1938.) Doctor Froebenius found ruins of palaces, terra cotta fragments and beautiful statuary in Jorubaland, a district in Nigeria between the Niger River and the Atlantic Ocean; and he heard among the Jorubians legends of an ancient royal city and its palace with walls of gold, which in the long ago had sunk beneath the waves. The German scholar, Eugen Georg, is a keen student of the Atlantis question, and the following remarks of his are worthy of our attention:
The new age that began after the disappearance of Atlantis was marked at first by the world-wide dominance of Ethiopian representatives of the black race. They were supreme in Africa and Asia â€¦ and they even infiltrated through Southern Europe. â€¦ During the present eraâ€”that is the last 10,000 yearsâ€”the white raceâ€¦has come to possess the world. According to the occult tradition, Semitic peoples developed wherever the immigrating white colonists from the north were subjugated by the black ruling class, and inter-mixture occurred, as in oldest Egypt, Chaldea, Arabia and Phoenicia.” (The Adventure of Mankind, by Eugen Georg, pp. 121â€“122, New York, 1931.)
John G. Jackson (1939)Â
To Be Continued….