It's also complicated. In his essay in "Dark Matter" titled "Racism and Science Fiction," Delany writes about how race constricts black writers. He describes being paired with Hopkinson during a book signing at Readercon in 1998, and how grouping blacks together can affect how they're perceived. "One of [racism's] strongest manifestations is as a socio-visual system in which people become used to always seeing blacks with other blacks and so -- because people are used to it -- being uncomfortable whenever they see blacks mixed in, at whatever proportion, with whites," he wrote.

And then, among other things, they discovered "the tunnel." Levin, the archaeologist, points out a muddy patch to the crowd, but it requires imagination to see it. Most likely it was a passageway used by servants and slaves to move about without being seen. This wasn't just a matter of hiding slaves and servants from view, but also part of standard practice in the 18th-century operation of a household. Perhaps even more disturbing than Washington's lie was his very vigorous pursuit of slaves who escaped his service. When Ona Judge, a slave who tended primarily to Martha Washington, carefully planned and successfully executed an escape to New Hampshire, Washington was furious and attempted to use his prestige to pressure a federal official to help recapture her.

British banking, insurance and shipping companies may face legal battles as campaigners take encouragement from a decision made in the US courts last December, when a senior judge gave leave to Deadria Farmer-Paellmann, a descendant of slaves in the States and a legal expert, to sue some of the biggest names on Wall Street. This law prompted JP Morgan Chase to confess that it owned thousands of slaves and loaned substantial sums to slave traders. JP Morgan Chase subsequently paid $5m into an education charity. Earlier this year Barclays Bank conceded that companies it bought over the years may have been involved in the slave trade.

Sammy Sosa, a Spanish-speaking black man born in the Dominican Republic and raised in poverty by his widowed mother, shining shoes for a living in his teens, represents something altogether different. Of course there’s a classic American tale here too, of the kid from the wrong side of the tracks who fashioned his first baseball mitt out of an old milk carton rising through talent and determination to command a $4.5 million contract in the major leagues. If Sosa makes the record his own, this is the narrative that will guide his plaudits. But there’s more to it, and the beery white guys and Latinos who confront each other warily in the bleachers rooting for their particular champion know it. Sosa’s charge after the hallowed record once owned by Babe Ruth is but the latest sign of a trend that white male America can no longer ignore – baseball is fast becoming dominated by Latinos in the way that basketball is by African-Americans.

But Ace was a double victim of apartheid: He was oppressed as a black person with no rights, living the same reality those ruled by far-off European countries in the colonial era — except that the rulers were a stone’s throw away. Black people were effectively excluded from all power, and forced to contend with a legal structure that deemed them fit to live in the white-dominated urban space only to the extent that they were able to serve the needs of white people. And when they challenged those power arrangements, they were viciously suppressed — most graphically during the Soweto uprising of 1976.

As I stated earlier, I thought I had gotten to a level in which I had jumped through most of the hoops that I'd face in my career because the glass ceiling is a given. Because it's glass it's easy for me to ignore. I happen to work in a department mostly inhabited by males with a sprinkle of female co-workers. This is the environment that I chose and have grown accustomed to for obvious reasons the gossip, jealousy, pettiness, and hormonal imbalances are at a minimum. Now I've never made the mistake to forget that I am a black woman, from the West Coast, working and living in the South. I don't forget my "place" regarding the mind state of white people. To them I'm a cool "negra" until I fuck up. I was careful not to forget the cardinal rule of engagement in the workplace - Don't (engage that is). Tell them what you must and keep that shit to a minimum. In the last few months I have found myself at odds with the department Barbie Doll. She's well educated, totally secure in her position that management was nice enough to tailor specifically for her, and married with the 3 carat Tiffany ring, etc.

The whole halftime show was about sex but so is most of network television & entertainment, as it has been for some time now, including commercials full of crass humor and lewd innuendo, not to mention commercials for 3 separate drugs for male sexual dysfunction - how appropriate for such a sexually dysfunctional society. Remember models with triple-D cup bras do get soaking wet & wrestle over whether a beer "taste great or is less filling" because it's all about sex, violence, . "and ….and those twins". This bullcrap "scandal" is probably as much a veiled way of punishing Janet's accused child molester brother, Michael, as it is anything else. Using Luther Vandross' health as an excuse, the Grammy's tells Janet she won't be able to present an award as planned, yet they still have her accomplice, Timberlake, scheduled to perform as well as R.Kelly whose actions are on videotape (even though he has not yet gone on trial). You have to love the consistency of the moral Gestapo.

Knowledge Project

Africa Knowledge Project is an academic resource that offers journals and databases. Check them out.

 Upcoming Deadlines



LivewireRasta Livewire is a leading blog that provides in-depth viewpoints from Rastas in Africa and African Diaspora.

Africa Knowledge Project (AKP) publishes peer-reviewed journals and academic databases.

Ojedi is an online retailer of fine art and exceptional handcrafted pieces from around the world.

Africa House is an Africa and Diasporian gallery. Africa House accepts proposals for submission on a rolling basis.

African Event Posters show posters of events at Africa House.

African Gourmet Dinners shows images of African gourmet dishes.