It is assumed that early Europeans were derived exclusively from the middle Paleolithic modern humans, expanding through southwestern Asia and then westward across Europe at about 41 000 years ago. However, there are numerous craniofacial, dental, and postcranial traits in European early humans that are unlikely to have come from middle Paleolithic modern humans; many of these traits are distinctly Neanderthal.

The information presented above suggests that African born blacks residing in western countries as a group possess IQs that are between 5 points and a full standard deviation (15 IQ points) above that of whites living in these countries. So that the median IQ for African blacks residing in the west should be about 110, if one accepts that research suggesting direct casual relationships between academic attainment levels and IQ (e.g. Gottfredson, 1998; Ostrowsky, 1999)!

Research also shows that when African Americans are matched as to linguistic behavior (e.g. black vs. standard English), literacy levels and to the comprehension of sayings requiring specific knowledge, that African Americans perform as well or better than do Whites on IQ tests.

The pineal gland is responsible for the production of melatonin, a hormone that is secreted in response to darkness, and is also the site in the brain where the highest levels of Serotonin can be found (Sun et al, 2001). In the pineal, 5-HT (Serotonin) concentration displays a remarkable diurnal pattern, with day levels much higher than night levels. Serotonin plays an important role in sleep, perception, memory, cardiovascular activity, respiratory activity, motor output, sensory and neuroendocrine function.

The major proportion of the intercontinental FST (FST is the proportion of the total genetic variance contained in a subpopulation) value is contributed by the African populations. The between-population variance for all E. Asian, Indian, and European populations is relatively low and not significantly different from the between-population variance within Africa alone – that is, Africa alone has about as much genetic variation as the rest of the world combined.
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