Mainstream feminist writings on African women are a site within which the inability to understand even while observing and listening intently becomes clear. These works tend to portray African women as confused, powerless and unable to determine for themselves both the changes needed in their lives and the means to construct these changes. Thus, Western feminists, acting like superiors who hand down valuable knowledge, define the relevant issues for African women, how these issues ought to be promoted and pursued and what the end result should be. In this sense, Western feminist discourse on African women, which is characterized by what I call reformist feminist evangelism, replicates the missionary evangelism exhibited by the seventeenth-, eighteenth-, and nineteenth-century colonialists, missionaries, anthropologists, and sundry adventurers when they explored, brutally "pacified", Christianized, and colonized Africa.

The focus of this paper is on the constraints and possibilities that shape the environment of Nigerian women and either enable them to surmount the problems arising from discrimination or limit their ability to do so. The central thesis is that discrimination against women in particular societies takes different forms, and thus requires the utilization of differential strategies in different historical epochs and societies. Discrimination against women will then continue to be a problem until all the factors responsible for its existence, maintenance and institutionalization are understood and eradicated.

After opposing the participation of muslim women at international fora, Abdullahi Doki then turned round to express fake concern that muslim women were unable to influence "the draft resolution on women's rights based on secular values now being adopted at the international level." International opinion cannot be influenced by confining one's views to the pedestrian level and taking hysterical ambushes at muslim women who dared to organise and speak up. How can we be influential when our voices are muffled because we are few due to opposition from people like Abdullahi Doki?

AKE, Claude.

(list of publications under development)

EKEH, Peter P.

Edited (with Peter P., Patrick Dele Cole, and Gabriel O. Olusanya). Nigeria Since Independence. The First Twenty-Five Years. Volume V: Politics and Constitutions. Ibadan: Heinemann Educational Books, 1989.

Ed. Wilberforce Conference on Nigerian Federalism. Buffalo: Association of Nigerian Scholars for Dialogue, 1997.

AKANDE, Jadesola, O.

Laws and Customs Affecting Women's Status in Nigeria. Lagos, Nigeria: International Federation of Women Lawyers, Nigeria, 1979.

EZE, Osita C.

Human Rights In Africa: Some Selected Problems. Lagos, Nigeria: Nigerian Institute of International Affairs & Macmillan. Undated.


"Household Energy Supply and Women's Work in Ghana," Different Places, Different Voices, eds., J. Momsen and V. Kinnaird (Routledge, 1993).


[Principal with co-authors] A. P. Hoffmeister, and R. A. Chrisfield, Cyclical distribution of dispersed organic matter and dinocysts, ODP Site 959 (Early Oligocene-Early Miocene, Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin), Palynology, (forthcoming 1999, in press).

[Co-authors] M. Moullade, D. K. Watkins, J. P. Bellier, E. Masure, A.E.L. Holbourne, J. Erbacher, W. Kuhnt, T. Pletsch, M. A. Kaminski, R. Rauscher, S. Shafik, O. Yepes, J. Dejax, J. M. Gregg, I. C. Shin, and M. Schuler, ODP Leg 159, Equatorial Atlantic: Mesozoic biostratigraphic, paleoenvironmental and paleobiogeographic synthesis. Proceedings of the Ocean Drilling Program, Scientific Results, vol. 159 (1998), 481-490.

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