African Religions in Western Scholarship (Nairobi: East African Literature Bureau, 1970)

PEARCE, Carol.

"African Philosophy and the Sociological Thesis," Philosophy of the Social Sciences 22/4 (December 1992): 440-460.


"Understanding Alien Belief-Systems," British Journal of Sociology 20 (1969): 69-84.

PRATT, Vernon.

"Science and Traditional African Religion: A Discussion of Some of Robin Horton's Views," Second Order 1/1 (1972): 7-20.


(works related to Africa)

"The Wisdom of African Sages," New Political Science Special Issue, The Dimensions of African Philosophy: Ethics, Politics, and Culture, vol. 21, no. 1 (1999): 89-102.

"Akan-Chiefs und Königsmütter im heutigen Ghana. Beispiele für Demokratie und verantwortliche Autoritäten? (Akan Chiefs and Queen Mothers in Contemporary Ghana: Examples of Democracy, or accountable authority?") Polylog: Zeitschrift für interkulturelles Philosophieren, vol. 1, no. 2 (1998): 43-57.

"Criticisms of Multiparty Democracy: Parallels Between Wamba-dia-Wamba and Arendt." New Political Science, vol. 20, no. 1 (1998): 35-52.

"Critics of Boers or Africans? Arendt's Treatment of South Africa in The Origins of Totalitarianism," Postcolonial African Philosophy: A Critical Reader, ed. Emmanuel C. Eze. (Oxford: Blackwell, 1997), 162-180.

"Is Elijah Masinde a Sage-Philosopher? The Dispute Between H. Odera Oruka and Chaungo Barasa," Sagacious Reasoning: Henry Odera Oruka in memoriam, eds. Kai Kresse and Anke Graness (Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1997), 195-209.

"Who Counts as a Sage? Problems in the Further Implementation of Sage Philosophy," Quest: Philosophical Discussions, vol. 11, nos. 1/2 (1997): 53-65.

"Zur Praxis der afrikanischen 'Weisen'. H. Odera Orukas Herausforderung an die Selbstbeschrankung akademischer Philosophen (African Sage-Philosophers in Action: H. Odera Oruka's Challenges to The Narrowly Academic Role of the Philosopher)." Translated from English by Jadwiga Adamiak. Widerspruch - Zeitschrift fur Philosophie, Munich, Germany. May 1997, 74-93.

"Ways in Which Oral Philosophy is Superior to Written Philosophy: A Look at Odera Oruka's Rural Sages," APA Newsletter on Philosophy and the Black Experience (Fall 1996): 6-10.

"African Sage-Philosophers in Action: H. Odera Oruka's Challenges to The Narrowly Academic Role of the Philosopher," Essence: An International Journal of Philosophy (Nigeria), vol. 1, no. 1 (June 1996): 29-41.

"Fanon on the Role of Violence in Liberation: A Comparison to Gandhi and Mandela," Frantz Fanon: A Critical Reader, eds. Lewis Gordon, T. Denean Sharpley-Whiting and Renee White (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996), 282-296.


Word and Object (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1960).

"Phoneme's Long Shadow," in T. Headland, K. Pike and M. Harris (eds.) Emics and Etics: the Insider/Outsider Debate. Frontiers of Anthropology, Vol. 7. (Newbury Park, Calif.: Sage Publications, 1990), 164-167.

RANGER, T. and Kimambo, I. (eds.)

The Historical Study of African Religion(London: Heinemann, 19--).


"La notion de liberte chez les Malgaches," Annales de l'universite de Madagascar vol. 7 (Tanarive 1967): 45-61.

RAY, Benjamin.

"Performative Utterances in African Rituals," History of Religions vol. 13, no. 1 (Chicago 1973): 16-35.


"African Systems of Thought: an Anglo-French Dialogue," Man vol. 2, no. 2 (London 1967): 286-298.

RUCH, E.A. and Anyanwu, K.C.

African Philosophy: An Introduction to the Main Philosophical Trends in Contemporary Africa (Rome: Catholic Book Agency, 1981).

SAPINA (Society for African Philosophy in North America)

Bulletin Special Tenth Anniversary Issue: An African Practice of Philosophy 10/2 (1997).


"African Philosophy," Philosophy 58 (1983): 535-538.


"The Traditional Chagga Concept of Afterlife," Byaruhanga 19 (Paper No. 201) ??.


The Hermeneutics of African Philosophy (London: Routledge, 1994).

"The African Liberation Struggle: A Hermeneutic Exploration of an African Historico-Political Horizon," Ultimate Reality and Meaning vol. 14, no. 1 (1991).

"The Idea of Colonialism in Hegel's Philosophy of Right," International Philosophical Quarterly vol. 29, no. 3 (19--): 301-318.

SHELTON, Austin J.

"Causality in African Thought: Igbo and Others," Practical Anthropology vol. 15, no. 4 (Tarrytown, NY): (1968): 157-169.


Symbol and Theory (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967).


"Le Concept fondamental de l'ontologie Bantu." Texte inedit du Pere Placide Tempels. Melanges de philosophie africaine 3 (1978):149-180. Kinshasa: Faculte de Theologie Catholique.

SMITH, Pierre.

"Principes de la personne et categories sociales," also in La Notion de Personne en Afrique Noire, 1970.


"Notes on the Concept of Cause and Chance in Yoruba Traditional Thought," Second Order vol. 2, no. 2 (1973): 12-20.


Foundations of African Philosophy: a Definitive Analysis of Conceptual Issues in African Thought (Ibadan, Nigeria: University of Ibadan Press, 1993).

"Universal Prescriptivism and Racial Discrimination," Second Order 10/1-2 (1981): 80-90.

"Options in African Philosophy," Philosophy 65 (1990): 39-52.


La Conception de 'vie' chez les Fons (Cotonou: Editions du Benin, 1975).


Myth, Literature and the African World (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976).

SUMNER, Claude.

Ethiopian Philosophy: Vol. 1: The Book of the Wise Philosophers; Vol. 2-3: The Treatise of Zara Yaeqob and of Walda Heywat; Vol. 4: The Life and Maxims of Skendes; Vol. 5. Addis Ababa: Central Printing Press (Vol. 1); Addis Ababa: Commercial Printing Press (Vol. 2-3); Addis Ababa: Commercial Printing Press (Vol. 4) all 1974.

Ed. African Philosophy (Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: Chamber Printing House and Addis Ababa University, 1980). (A)

Classical Ethiopian Philosophy (Addis Ababa: Commercial Printing Press, 1985).

The Source of African Philosophy: The Ethiopian Philosophy of Man (Stuttgart: F. Steiner Verlag Wiesbaden, 1986).

TAIWO, Olufemi.

"The Rule of Law: The New Leviathan?" Canadian Journal of Law and Jurisprudence, vol. 12, no. 1 (1999): 151-168

"Cabral," Companion to the Philosophers, ed. Robert Arrington (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999)

"Fanon," Companion to the Philosophers, ed. Robert Arrington (Oxford: Blackwell, 1999)

"Exorcising Hegel's Ghost: Africa's Challenge to Philosophy," African Studies Quarterly, special issue on Religion and Philosophy in Africa, vol. 1, Issue 4 (1998) [http://web.africa.ufl.edu/asq/v1/v1_i4.htm].

Legal Naturalism: A Marxist Theory of Law (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1996)

"On the Misadventures of National Consciousness: A Retrospect on Frantz Fanon's Gift of Prophecy," Frantz Fanon: A Critical Reader, eds., Lewis Gordon, Tracy Sharpley-Whiting, and Renee T. White (Oxford: Blackwell, 1996), 255-270.

"Political Obligation and Military Rule," The Philosophical Forum vol. 27, no. 2 (Winter 1996): 161-193.

"Appropriating Africa: An Essay on New Africanist Schools," Issue: A Journal of Opinion vol. 23, no. 1 (1995) 39-45.

"An African Voice," Being a contribution to the Roundtable on "Global Order, National Identity, and the Responsibility of Philosophers," sponsored by APA's Committee on International Cooperation, Eastern Division Meetings, Atlanta, Ga., December 1993. "Issues in the Profession," Proceedings and Addresses of the APA, vol. 67, no. 6, (June 1994): 78-80

"On Diversifying the Philosophy Curriculum," Teaching Philosophy vol. 16, no. 4 (1993): 287-299

"Colonialism and Its Aftermath: The Crisis of Knowledge Production," Callaloo: A Journal of African American and African Arts and Letters 16, 4 (1993a): 891-908 [Contribution to a special issue on "Post-Colonial Discourse".]

A Review of I. M. Lewis, ed. Nationalism and Self-Determination in the Horn of AfricaCanadian Review of Studies in Nationalism vol. 19, nos. 1-2 (1992): 169-174

"Unity in Diversity?: Obafemi Awolowo and the National Question in Nigeria," Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism, XVIII, 1-2 (1991): 43-59

Co-authored (with O. B. Lawuyi), "Towards an Indigenous African Sociological Tradition: A Rejoinder," Globalization, Knowledge and Society, eds., Martin Albrow and Elizabeth King (London: SAGE Publications in association with International Sociological Association, 1990),135-151. Also published in International Sociology, vol. 5, no. 1 (March 1990): 57-73. [For a reply to this article see, Akinsola A. Akiwowo, "Responses to Makinde/Lawuyi and Taiwo," International Sociology, vol. 6, no. 2 (June 1991): 243-251]

"Women's Studies and Methodologies," Women's Studies in Nigeria and Canada: A Comparative Approach, Proceedings of the Initial Workshop for the Canadian-Nigerian Linkage in Women's Studies, January 1988 (Halifax: Institute for the Study of Women, Mount Saint Vincent University, 1989) 26-37. [This paper elicited a response from Gloria Thomas-Emeagwali titled "Methodological Considerations in Women's Studies in Nigeria," reprinted in the same collection, 43-51]

"Obafemi Awolowo's Socialism: A Politico-Conceptual Assessment," Obafemi Awolowo: The End of an Era? Eds., Olasope Oyelaran, M. Okoye, Toyin Falola, and Adewale Thompson (Ile-Ife: Obafemi Awolowo University Press, 1987), 207-237

"The Political Thought of Obafemi Awolowo," Nigerian Journal of Philosophy vol. 6, nos. 1-2 (1986): 11-33

"Legal Positivism and the African Legal Tradition: A Reply," International Philosophical Quarterly, vol. 25, 2 (1985a): 197-200 [This paper has elicited a response from P. C. Nwakeze titled 'A Critique of Olufemi Taiwo's Criticism of "Legal Positivism and African Legal Tradition,"' International Philosophical Quarterly vol. 27 (March 1987): 101-105]

"An Example of Analytical Dependency: A Reply to Howard Woodhouse' Interchange vol. 16, no. 4 (1985b): 57-60 [This was part of an interchange set up by the editor of the journal. Dr. Martin Mclean of the University of London was also part of it. For Woodhouse's response, see "Knowledge and Educational Dependency--A Reply to McLean and Taiwo," Interchange vol. 16,  no. 4 (1985): 61ff.]

"On Some So-called Refutations of Ethical Egoism" Cogito vol. 2, no. 4 (1984): 103-121

"How Not to Write About Ethics in Nigerian Culture', A Review of Elechi Amadi, Ethics in Nigerian Culture, (Lagos: Heinemann), Ufahamu vol. 14, no. 1 (1984): 133-139.


"Time in Traditional African Thought," Journal of Religion vol. 7, no. 2 (London 1977): 117-126.


"Concepts of God in Africa," Journal of Modern African Studies vol. 12, no. 2 (1974): 326.

TEMPELS, Placide.

Bantu Philosophy (Paris: Presence Africaine, 1959).

Le Concept Fondamental de l'Ontologie Bantu. Translated by A.J. Smet. Kinshasa: University of Zaire, 1977.

THOMPSON, Robert Farris.

"Yoruba Artistic Criticism" in W. L. d'Azevedo (ed.) The Traditional Artist in African Societies (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973), 19-61.

Flash of the Spirit: African and Afro-American Art and Philosophy(New York: ? 1983).


"Langues bantu et philosophie. Le cas de ciluba," La Philosophie africaine I (1973): 147-158. (Kinshasa: Faculte de Theologie Catholique).

TURNER, Victor.

The Forest of Symbols Ithaca (N.Y.: Cornell University Press 1967).

TYLER, Stephen A.

"Introduction" to S. Tyler (ed.) Cognitive Anthropology. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1969), 1-23.