The First (Black) Europeans: The Original Africans Of Europe – By – Oguejiofo Annu

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF PHYSICAL ANTHROPOLOGISTS MEETING:

European Skin Turned Pale Only Recently, Gene Suggests
Ann Gibbons

PHILADELPHIA, PENNSYLVANIA–At the American Association of Physical Anthropologists meeting, held here from 28 to 31 March, a new report on the evolution of a gene for skin color suggested that Europeans acquired pale skin quite recently, perhaps only 6000 to 12,000 years ago.

Science 20 April 2007:
Vol. 316. no. 5823, p. 364
DOI: 10.1126/science.316.5823.364a

http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/short/316/5823/364a
Comments on the recent genetic studies:

This research conducted by Europeans descendants seeking the roots of their origin supports the view that the first pale-skin European was born 6,000 years ago. In 2005, researchers linked the paleness of the modern European skin to a mutation in gene SLC 24A5. Its implication is immense if fully comprehended. The “whites” or Caucasians are not native to Europe as noted by Sokal. Haak et al (2006)

1.5 million years ago when human beings first began to evolve in Africa, they had Black skin. 100,000 years ago when anatomically modern humans evolved in Africa, they gave rise to the Black man and woman.

They lived in Africa as Black people, some of these people left Africa, 50,000 years ago as Black people, entered Europe as Black people, and they settled and lived in Europe as Black people until 6,000 years ago when the mutation that gave rise to the pale-skin arose.

Rogers posits that all people having descendants today had exactly the receptor protein of today’s Africans; their skin was black, and the intense sun killed off the progeny with any whiter skin that resulted from mutational variation in the receptor protein (Rogers 2004:107).

Nina Jablonski claims that dark skin evolved pari passu with the loss of body hair and was the original state for the genus Homo.

Furthermore, it is generally accepted as argued by Rogers that the descendants of any people who migrate North from Africa will mutate to become white over time because the evolutionary constraint that keeps Africans’ skin black generation after generation decreases generally the further North a people migrates (Rogers 2004).

However the surprise is that this mutation only occurred after more than 45,000 years in which only Black-skinned African people lived in Europe as its original human aboriginals. It cannot be over-emphasized that it was only in the last 6,000 years that the pale-skin (aka whiteman) first appeared.

The mutation gene must have spread gradually (as often occurs with new mutation) from that time but it surely would have taken another two or three thousand years down the line before it would become the dominant European profile. That makes it just three thousand years ago.

It was only three thousand years ago that whiteman became the dominant type in an African-owned Europe! Before that it was Black-skinned African. For more than 48,000 years Black-skinned Africans would have been the only Europeans!!! Europe was discovered and mapped by Black skin Africans. Europe of yesterday, today and tomorrow will ever remain Africa’s heritage.
Osteological Evidence:

In 2006, Brace a leading authority in anthropology conducted osteological analysis on several skeletal remains dating from neolithic Europe.

According to Brace:

“Many human craniofacial dimensions are largely of neutral adaptive significance, and an analysis of their variation can serve as an indication of the extent to which any given population is genetically related to or differs from any other.

When 24 craniofacial measurements of a series of human populations are used to generate neighbor-joining dendrograms, it is no surprise that all modern European groups, ranging all of the way from Scandinavia to eastern Europe and throughout the Mediterranean to the Middle East, show that they are closely related to each other.

The surprise is that the Neolithic peoples of Europe and their Bronze Age successors are not closely related to the modern inhabitants, although the prehistoric/modern ties are somewhat more apparent in southern Europe.

It is a further surprise that the Epipalaeolithic Natufian of Israel from whom the Neolithic realm was assumed to arise has a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa.

……………………..

The data treated here support the idea that the Neolithic (i.e. Natufians with a clear link to Sub-Saharan Africa) moved out of the Near East into the circum-Mediterranean areas and Europe by a process of demic diffusion but that subsequently the in situ residents of those areas, derived from the Late Pleistocene inhabitants, absorbed both the agricultural life way and the people who had brought it.

C. Loring Brace: The questionable contribution of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age to European craniofacial form; PNAS | January 3, 2006 | vol. 103 | no. 1 | 242-247

There are no ancient skeletons of the Caucasian type. The findings of Brace et al make it clear that there were no whites in ancient Europe. There were only Black Africans living there until the coming of the Europeans as noted by DuBois, Diop and Boule & Vallois.

Again another piece of incontrovertible scientific evidence that the Paleolithic Europeans were Blacks. The skeletal remains of these people as noted by Boule and Vallois recalled the tropical African type.

“So striking” writes Professor Elliot Smith, “is the family likeness between the early Neolithic peoples of the British Isles and the Mediterranean and the bulk of the population, both ancient and modern, of Egypt and East Africa, that the description of the bones of an Early Briton of that remote epoch might apply in all essential details to an inhabitant of Somaliland. (The Ancient Egyptians, p. 58.)

Geneticist Peter Underhill refines the facts:
About 80 percent of Europeans arose from primitive hunters who arrived about 35,000 years ago, endured the long ice age and then expanded rapidly to dominate the continent, a new study shows.

Researchers analyzing the Y chromosome taken from 1,007 men from 25 different locations in Europe found a pattern that suggests four out of five of the men shared a common male ancestor about 40,000 years ago.

The basic pattern had some changes that apparently developed among people who once shared a common ancestor and then were isolated for many generations.

This scenario supports other studies about the Paleolithic European groups.

Those studies suggest that a primitive, stone-age human came to Europe, probably from Central Asia and the Middle East, in two waves of migration beginning about 35,000 years ago.

Their numbers were small and they lived by hunting animals and gathering plant food. They used crudely sharpened stones and fire.

“About 24,000 years ago, the last ice age began, with mountain-sized glaciers moving across most of Europe.

The Paleolithic Europeans retreated before the ice, finding refuge for hundreds of generations in three areas: what is now Spain, the Balkans and the Ukraine.

“When the glaciers melted, about 16,000 years ago, the Paleolithic tribes resettled the rest of Europe. Y chromosome mutations occurred among people in each of the ice age refuges.

About 8,000 years ago a more advanced people, the Neolithic, migrated to Europe from the Middle East, bringing with them a new Y chromosome pattern and a new way of life – agriculture. About 20 percent of Europeans now have the Y chromosome pattern from this migration [African Y chromosome E3b and SouthWest Asian J].

Ogu Eji Ofo Annu
July 11, 2007

16 thoughts on “The First (Black) Europeans: The Original Africans Of Europe – By – Oguejiofo Annu”

  1. First of all a race does not just pop up. We evolve. You said their were no caucasian type skeletons. Were there any African skeletons? No. Homo neanderthalensis, homo floresiensis, homo sapiens, etc. You contradicted yourself aslo in saying, “Nina Jablonski claims that dark skin evolved pari passu with the loss of body hair and was the original state for the genus Homo.” But you said “1.5 million years ago when human beings first began to evolve in Africa, they had Black skin.” If they alread had black skin then why would you say black skin evolved from loss of body hair. OOPS. So they started off with black skin but then somehow grew more body hair but then lost it and became dark? What??
    And also I was thinking since you say Africans are the oldest race wouldnt that mean theyre the least evolved? Since you say caucasians are a new race wouldnt that mean theyre more evolved?

    Also you said, “a more advanced people, the Neolithic, migrated to Europe from the Middle East” the middle east is not Africa. People did not wake up one day and were white and had blonde hair and blue eyes its called evolution.

  2. Funai, you are confused. Don’t take on a topic unless you’re prepared to argue it sensibly. Funai Says:

    September 25th, 2008 at 6:39 pm
    First of all a race does not just pop up. We evolve.

    NO, HUMANS EVOLVE. RACE IS A POLITCAL TERM RECENTLY INVENTED TO REPLACE THE TERM “VARIETY” TO IDENTIFY HUMANS WITH VARIED PHENOTYPES. TO EVOLVE ISN’T ALWAYS A “GOOD” OR “BETTER” THING. BACTERIA AND VIRUSES EVOLVE.

    You said their were no caucasian type skeletons. Were there any African skeletons? No. Homo neanderthalensis, homo floresiensis, homo sapiens, etc. ….IF IT IS A GIVEN BY MAINSTEAM SCIENCE, AND IT IS, THAT ALL HUMANS ORIGINATED IN AFRICA AND MIGRATED BACK AND FORTH OUT OF AFRICA, AND AFRICAN MITOCHONDRIA, BY ALL GENETIC STUDIES DONE, DEMONSTRATES THE POINT OF ANCESTRAL ORIGINS, IT WOULD ONLY FOLLOW THAT THE FURTHER BACK YOU GO IN TIME, THE LESS LIKELY YOU ARE TO HAVE WHITE PRESENCE SINCE THE ALLELE THAT CODES FOR WHITE SKIN HAS BEEN PROVEN BY WHITE SCIENTISTS TO BE RECENT AS 5-6,000 YEARS. SO NO, THERE WOULD NOT HAVE BEEN ANY CAUCASIAN SKELETONS SINCE THEY DIDN’T EXIST THEN.

    You contradicted yourself aslo in saying, “Nina Jablonski claims that dark skin evolved pari passu with the loss of body hair and was the original state for the genus Homo.” But you said “1.5 million years ago when human beings first began to evolve in Africa, they had Black skin.” If they alread had black skin then why would you say black skin evolved from loss of body hair. OOPS. So they started off with black skin but then somehow grew more body hair but then lost it and became dark? What??

    YOU ARE REACHING. HE QUOTED ANOTHER AUTHOR WHO BASICALLY IS TALKING ABOUT MAN EVOLVING FROM AN APE LIKE STATE TO HUMAN. LOSING THE ANIMAL HAIR, WALKING UPRIGHT, ETC. THE SKIN WOULD HAVE BEEN NATURALLY DARK BECAUSE OF CLIMATE. YOU ARE SO ANGRY AT THE TRUTH OF YOUR ORIGINS YOU ARE REACHING DOWN TO THE ABSURD AND RIDICULOUS.

    And also I was thinking since you say Africans are the oldest race wouldnt that mean theyre the least evolved? Since you say caucasians are a new race wouldnt that mean theyre more evolved?

    THE PYRAMID IS OLDER THAN THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING. WE CAN DUPLICATE THE EMPIRE STATE BUILDING AND HAVE MANY TIMES. NO ONE YET HAS DUPLICATED THE TECHNOLOGY THAT WENT INTO THE BUILDING THE PYRAMID. YOUR PARENTS ARE OLDER THAN YOU. ARE YOU BETTER THAN THEY ARE BECAUSE YOU ARE THE LATEST MODEL? GROW UP AND GROW A BRAIN.

    Also you said, “a more advanced people, the Neolithic, migrated to Europe from the Middle East” the middle east is not Africa. People did not wake up one day and were white and had blonde hair and blue eyes its called evolution.

    AFRICANS LEFT AFRICA AS HAPLOGROUPS “M” AND “N” INDICATES, THAT IS MAJOR HAPLOGROUP L3, AND WENT ALL POINTS NORTH, EAST AND WEST. BLACK AFRICANS SETTLED THE MEDITERRANEAN, EUROPE ASIA AND POINTS WEST TO THE AMERICAS. THIS HAS BEEN PROVEN BY GENETIC TESTING TIME AND AGAIN. BACK AND FORTH MIGRATION TO THE LAST GLACIAL MAXIMUM AND FOLLOWING ITS THAW, IS THE REASON FOR THE DIVERSITY IN PHENOTYPES. MANY BLACKS GOT CAUGHT IN THE LAST ICE AGE WHICH AFFECTED EUROPE MOSTLY AND PARTS OF ASIA. WHILE THERE, THEY UNDERWENT A SEVERE MUTATION. THIS IS THE GENE VARIANT THAT MR ANNU WAS TALKING ABOUT. IT REVERSED PIGMENTATION, A NATURAL STATE OF HUMANS. THIS EVIDENCE IS INDISPUTED BY ANYONE INTELLIGENT ENOUGH TO DO RESEARCH. YOU MAY SIMPLY DO A BLOOD TEST. MTDNA. THEN COME BACK AND LET’S DISCUSS THIS SOME MORE.

  3. Science 20 April 2007:
    Vol. 316. no. 5823, p. 364

    European Skin Turned Pale Only Recently, Gene Suggests

    Researchers have disagreed for decades about an issue that is only skin-deep: How quickly did the first modern humans who swept into Europe acquire pale skin? Now a new report on the evolution of a gene for skin color suggests that Europeans lightened up quite recently, perhaps only 6000 to 12,000 years ago. This contradicts a long-standing hypothesis that modern humans in Europe grew paler about 40,000 years ago, as soon as they migrated into northern latitudes. Under darker skies, pale skin absorbs more sunlight than dark skin, allowing ultraviolet rays to produce more vitamin D for bone growth and calcium absorption. “The [evolution of] light skin occurred long after the arrival of modern humans in Europe,” molecular anthropologist Heather Norton of the University of Arizona, Tucson, said in her talk.

    The genetic origin of the spectrum of human skin colors has been one of the big puzzles of biology. Researchers made a major breakthrough in 2005 by discovering a gene, SLC24A5, that apparently causes pale skin in many Europeans, but not in Asians.

    A team led by geneticist Keith Cheng of Pennsylvania State University (PSU) College of Medicine in Hershey found two variants of the gene that differed by just one amino acid. Nearly all Africans and East Asians had one allele, whereas 98% of the 120 Europeans they studied had the other (Science, 28 October 2005, p. 601).

    Norton, who worked on the Cheng study as a graduate student, decided to find out when that mutation swept through Europeans.

    Working as a postdoc with geneticist Michael Hammer at the University of Arizona, she sequenced 9300 base pairs of DNA in the SLC24A5 gene in 41 Europeans, Africans, Asians, and American Indians.

    Using variations in the gene that did not cause paling, she calculated the background mutation rate of SLC24A5 and thereby determined that 18,000 years had passed since the light-skin allele was fixed in Europeans. But the error margins were large, so she also analyzed variation in the DNA flanking the gene. She found that Europeans with the allele had a “striking lack of diversity” in this flanking DNA—a sign of very recent genetic change, because not enough time has passed for new mutations to arise. The data suggest that the selective sweep occurred 5300 to 6000 years ago, but given the imprecision of method, the real date could be as far back as 12,000 years ago, Norton said. She added that other, unknown, genes probably also cause paling in Europeans.

    Either way, the implication is that our European ancestors were brown-skinned for tens of thousands of years—a suggestion made 30 years ago by Stanford University geneticist L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza. He argued that the early immigrants to Europe, who were hunter-gatherers, herders, and fishers, survived on ready-made sources of vitamin D in their diet. But when farming spread in the past 6000 years, he argued, Europeans had fewer sources of vitamin D in their food and needed to absorb more sunlight to produce the vitamin in their skin. Cultural factors such as heavier clothing might also have favored increased absorption of sunlight on the few exposed areas of skin, such as hands and faces, says paleoanthropologist Nina Jablonski of PSU in State College.

    Such recent changes in skin color show that humans are still evolving, says molecular anthropologist Henry Harpending of the University of Utah, Salt Lake City: “We have all tacitly assumed for years that modern humans showed up 45,000 years ago and have not changed much since, while this and other work shows that we continue to change, often at a very fast rate.”

    1. all of you are wrong try created of the dust of the earth as the bible suggested now tell me how can something of nothing evolve into something with a thought process unless it was created by a higher power with a greater imagination accept it for what it is truth!!!
      as for u melanika whatever the name is, no it does not mean that blacks are the least evolved, all of it is wrong read the bible god the first man was black and if god made woman of the mans rib and shaped her, then that would mean the fist woman was white, how could white be the most evolved being the most recessive genetically? Black man black woman dominant black man white woman dominant black woman white man dominant white man white woman recessive now tell me how are u so evolved!

  4. All humans come from another place that all of you wouldn’t understand if it was right at your finger tips. ALL RESEARCH IS WRONG. re·search……………………! If you don’t get this you never will.

  5. If it only takes about 6,000 years for a “mutation”of a people to occur,and create the white races.And if the sun in Africa is what caused the black Africans to stay black,then wouldnt,that mean that during the 8,ooo years of the ice age,that every one on the planet would be white.or did the ice age miss Africa altogether?next theory please…..

    1. It’s cold in Alaska but the Eskimos are still dark. Melanin aids in protection from uv radiation not heat. Same theory please.

  6. WE THE PEOPLE IN ORDER TO FORM A MUUR PERFECT UNION THERE ARE FIVE ICE AGES unfortunately this type of AFRICA argument starts civilization in the east ,it also lies bout what africa is 8000 years ago cause that was america today ,, now that we are in the right place africa 6000 -8000 years ago was not in the east .so the arguments like black n white never end in anything but confusion wwhich is the classic chaos magic being practiced by zionist like camels eye treaty .i will beak down ice age i akebulan but the one ur talking about is america ,an there was plenty ice here 8000 YEARS AGO also still iin canada alaska an we didnt turn pale because of it ,is an eskimo pale no ,,the ice age itself is a theory from ,they say there were 5 five which one do u mean ,the ice age theory began with pierre martel visiting swiss alps ,shamefully listed in wikopedia an the origin of the ice age theory ,we know they givve a guess as if they know ,the public is not to be shown ,the karoo ice age in south africa or akebulan or america was 360 -260 million years ago,thee is no discussion of aalbions existing at this time annywhere in the world ,,huronian [like great lake huron],cyrogerian,andean saharan[south america today an akebulan ],karoo ice age an quatermary,,, look aat the codes in those names ,remember the leters the alphabet are to hide the numbers ,you have to place the 8000 year old ace age 8000 years ago ,the pilocine quater mary is oly 2.58 million years old an doesnt deal with the area south america or akebulan ,,,where ever u see snow on top of mountains there is evidence ,,south africa has snow capped mountains today america south america .but the word black is misused abused again by ,,we were born dark because our blood stays so close to our skin if not them u would turn black to by standing in sun ,we came on the planet this way from space ,carbon called melanin like planet elanin or comet elanin ,its whats inside of me an not u that makes me dark not whats outside of me ,,,the mankind supremacist world look at people they conquered from the outside in instead of from the human inside out to lie an say they wight/white ,,,WATCH MOVIE ALIEN VS PREDATOR SOUTH POLE WAS IN HABITABLE AN PEOPLE USED TO LIVE THERE ,THE EARTH IS HOLLOW AT NORTH POLE HAS CITES SHAMBALLAH AN AGARTHA .THERE IS ONLY ONE WHITE RACE THE BLUE EYED ARYAN ALL OTHER SKIN WITH BROWN GREEN EYES ARE MUURS OR WERE MUURS .THE AKEBULINIANS STAYED DARK as dID THE MUURS FROM WEST LIKE ME CAuSE WE ARE THe NIGHT TIME SKY NOT CAuSE THE SUN COOKED US TO BLACK..IF WE WaS THE SAME inside WE WOULD PEEL LIKE SNAKES .its ur insides not outside that deals with the shade or clear pale red ruddy amazon skin that uses the sun to get tan dark cause thats the only way the albion can do it,thats all i am is tan not blakkk .tanning lotion is melanin oil for recessive skin not to burn so its what is insid of me that absorbs the sun an ur skin rejects it like a white shirt ,,thats why when its hot out side they tell u wear light clothing cause anyting dark absorbs the sun anyting to light rejects it llike albino ,,the story of yacoub is available to the public as is jacob in the bible for albions ,,,,the black history africa argument is chaos ,,,now where is ur 8000 years , locate the geography an was there an ice age by the equator in the ttime u are stating ,,what years are these 8000 years between .cvilizaton began n the west not in the east .thats the missing info u are lookig for not argung black n white theories of old .in south africa who is the white man now the one they called blak 25 years ago ,,the ice age an the aryan being created 7400 year ago doesnt collide in yucatan peninsula..the foundation of the origin being in west must be restablished to be able to restor what has been deleted,,,,,,so we the murs i up;ofting fallen humannity must reveal all deleted evidence as i just have though u may no see t in uisiry books its there in codes if u know them an also if u catch one lie its connect to the trail of many others to the first one .the kkk supported obama cause bush lied ,,, the nation of islam has albion members now ,,,,after listening to us color cannot exist for us to exist ,,the most vicious muslims were the ottoman empire,,watch the sidney poitier movie the long ship or the long boat 1964 an look at the muurs in that movie he is the king of ,,they all look like u an he is their ruler ,europeans masons funded that movie to let u know

  7. nothing can be based on evolution ,graftinfg is hidden cause it would sow higher inteligence then the europen an he alays hid who we wer but wore our crown we gave him , you may not see it in your history books but its their in codes,it hides grafting an try to tell all they come from monkeys apes from east i dont come from that nor do muurs miscalled negro colored black dark skin gets scaly or ashy like a fish out of water an we are born in 9 moths of water ,,,you tube the us niggr industry taj tarik bey

  8. i will go back into latin origin as proof again cause who were u before u could speak an we are the people who spoke latin first so who taught europe to be civilizzed the muurs an tok them out the dark ages ,study prince uriel bey an u will find when ur bloodline came to speak

  9. Dear Brother,

    In the tragic tumult of modern human relations, many have become fixated on skin color as a mark of human righteousness (dark skin) and of human vilification (light skin.) “Race” is a modern construct to which many people defer their intellects; many people use this imaginary and fantastical notion as a justification to cause harm to others. In order to dislodge ignorance on this topic from the human mind, I understand that we must speak directly to the limited understanding of those people whose minds are biased, and to address this topic by first deconstructing the myth. Eg: educate the world about the superior Sub-Saharan civilizations of previous centuries, the great intelligence of their societal structures, the unprecedented and far-reaching technologies that they derived, the great works they created, and the humanitarian theologies they espoused. This knowledge must be fed to ignorant minds in order to help them correct their inhumane and dangerous belief systems. However, let us refrain from judging any human’s rightness or worth based on skin color.
    You mention that the original inhabitants of Europe were black- very good, and that the “whiteman” did not appear until much later. Over time, skin color pigmentation lightened due to mutations. How then do you consider “whitemen” a different race? You are essentially saying that the descendants of Africans (children, great-great to the 100th power grandchildren) are a different people. In addition, it seems that one small set of genetic factors (those involved in skin color) changes a people’s “race.” This is quite superficial in both the literal and metaphorical sense. Let us ask, how many of the genes of European humans remained the same? The genes of The genes of African peoples have also mutated over the centuries, yet they retain their righteous superiority because skin tones have altered less dramatically than in parts of Europe, Asia, the Middle East, and the Americas? Well, many, many genes have mutated on the African continent as well; does this disqualify people in Africa from the inheritance of their ancestors and change them into a different “race?” Furthermore, European populations contain some of the original genetic markers of humanity, passed down from the first humans in Afica, while some African populations have lost these same markers.
    Why fixate on skin color to drive a wedge between the various groups in the human family? Europeans and Asians are the children of Africa, but oops, sorry, since their skin color has changed, they are now “whitement” and thus less than human? Will you disown your children because they have lighter skin than you? The best way to fight racism is to stop thinking like a racist: fixating on human skin color as a determinate of human worth is a MODERN idea and is essentially the definition of modern racism. Please step outside of that thought structure, because if we can’t do this, we are following in the footsteps of cruel human beings who have INVENTED the skin color dogma to convince other people that they are justified in taking advantage of their human sisters and brothers. Skin color is the intellectual provinance of the ignorant. We are better than that: we are human, with the attendant intellectual and spiritual powers to understand greater truths. It is better to speak in real terms: what specifically have various groups/ individuals done at various times in history, various places on the planet, and operating under what drives and belief systems? The truth does not fit nicely into a box, it might be difficult for many minds to understand, but neither does it paint expansive and imperfect generalizations onto large groups of people, thus polarizing the human family into “righteous” and “unrighteous” factions. And most importantly, the truth does not add fuel to the fire of racism through the extension of animosity and the division of the human family.
    With respect for your committed and excellent work to right the wrongs of history and to correct the wrongly recorded story of the human journey on this planet, I thank you for your time and consideration. Much good luck to you in the future. Blessings to you, blessings to your sacred human life. Namste’
    Anne

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