Original West Africans Of Ancient Greece!!! The Black (First) Europeans III

Genetic Linkages Between West Africa and Ancient Greece:

HLA genes allele distribution has been studied in Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations. Their relatedness has been tested by genetic distances, neighbour-joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses.

The population genetic relationships have been compared with the history of the classical populations living in the area. A revision of the historic postulates would have to be undertaken, particularly in the cases when genetics and history are overtly discordant. HLA genomics shows that: 1) Greeks share an important part of their genetic pool with sub-Saharan Africans (Ethiopians and west Africans) also supported by Chr 7 Markers.

The gene flow from Black Africa to Greece may have occurred in Pharaonic times or when Saharan people emigrated after the present hyperarid conditions were established (5000 years B.C.).

2) Turks (Anatolians) do not significantly differ from other Mediterraneans, indicating that while the Asians Turks carried out an invasion with cultural significance (language), it is not genetically detectable.

3) Kurds and Armenians are genetically very close to Turks and other Middle East populations.

4) There is no HLA genetic trace of the so called Aryan invasion, which has only been defined on doubtful linguistic bases.

5) Iberians, including Basques, are related to north-African Berbers.

6) Present-day Algerian and Moroccan urban and country people show an indistinguishable Berber HLA profile.

Authors:

Arnaiz-Villena A, Gomez-Casado E, Martinez-Laso J.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Tissue Antigens. 2002 Aug;60(2):111-21.

PMID: 12392505 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Article: Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective.

146 thoughts on “Original West Africans Of Ancient Greece!!! The Black (First) Europeans III”

  1. Dave

    That being so, the opinion of Prof. Hajjej expressed and accepted by the experts at the European Medical Journal of Genetics in 2006 must then prevail.

    “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56, “This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. THIS SUGGESTS that there was an ADMIXTURE between the GREEKS AND Sub-Saharans probably DURING PHARONIC PERIOD or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.””

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/s…..30c0833a25

    CASE CLOSED!!!

    Next Citation:
    “Haplotype analysis has demonstrated that the sickle cell trait in Sicily, northern Greece and western Arabia is in linkage disequilibrum with the Benin (Nigeria) haplotype in western central Africa. THIS CONSTITUTES DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR GENE FLOW linked to human migration FROM CENTRAL AFRICA TO MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE IN HISTORICAL TIMES…”

    See “Robert Sallares, M.A. Ph.D; Abigail Bouwman, MSc, PHD and Cecilia Anderung, MSc, “The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity: New Approaches to Old Problems” Med. Hist. 2004 July 1; 48(3): 311-328.
    http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g…..tid=547919

    Go read the papers Dave…you need to be schooled properly.

    JAHDEY SPEAKS: I am still waiting for a rational answer from David… 36 hours later…

  2. There is no case to close because all you do is spread misinformation, as always.

    Just like Jahdey to once again misquoting what the papers says. If you bothered to read the whole god damn report instead of spreading misinformation you would have known that the Robert Sallares, M.A. Ph.D; Abigail Bouwman, MSc, PHD and Cecilia Anderung, MSc, “The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity” study says very clearly, “that each region evolves its own mutations” SEPARATELY. You also forgot to mention the fact that in the next line after the one you posted states THERE IS EVIDENCE THAT SICKLE CELL IN SOUTHERN EUROPE/M.E./SOUTH ASIA AROSE INDEPENDENTLY MAKING THEM LOCAL ORIGIN FOUND IN LOCAL INHABITANTS THAT AROSE SEPARATE FROM THE AFRICAN ONES. – A Kulozik, J Wainscoat, G Serjeant, B Kar, B Al-Awamy, et al., ‘Geographical survey of βS-globin gene haplotypes: evidence for an independent origin of the sickle-cell mutation’, Am. J. Hum. Genet., 1986, 39: 239–44

    “Alternatively he might have been one of the local inhabitants, since there is molecular evidence for an independent origin of the sickle-cell trait in India and eastern Arabia, with a different haplotype association. The Indian variant of homozygous sickle-cell disease displays a mild clinical phenotype, associated with high levels of foetal haemoglobin which inhibits sickling.63 This could explain how the Failaka individual survived to adulthood.” – Robert Sallares, M.A. Ph.D; Abigail Bouwman, MSc, PHD and Cecilia Anderung, MSc, “The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity”

    BTW, Mr. Misinformation, the quote that you provided doesn’t speak about individuals living in Europe BUT of migrant EUROPEANS during the Hellenistic/Roman period who relocated into N. Africa and intermixed with local populations. Here is another interested piece of tibit that points to the fact that most ancient osteological evidence for thalassaemia comes from the NEAR EAST, not tropical Africa as “certain individuals” would like everyone to falsely believe:

    “The most ancient osteological evidence for thalassaemia comes from the Near East, from a skeleton excavated at the now submerged village of Atlit Yam off the coast of Israel, dating to about 10,000 years ago.55″ – Robert Sallares, M.A. Ph.D; Abigail Bouwman, MSc, PHD and Cecilia Anderung, MSc, “The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity”

    From that same paper here is more evidence that debunks Jahdey’s fallacies and states very clearly that the most frequent β-thalassaemia mutations in Mediterranean populations today ORIGINATED in Southern Europe & Anatolia, not tropical Africa:

    “One of the two most frequent β-thalassaemia mutations in Mediterranean populations today, the B + IVS nt 110 mutation (G→A), which occurs in areas of Greek colonization in Italy, attains its highest frequencies today in eastern Mediterranean countries. It is very common in Greece, and is also associated with a high level of haplotype diversity in Turkey.72 Consequently, Italian scientists suggested that this particular mutation originated in Greece or Anatolia and was spread westwards to Italy by Greek colonization from the eighth century BC onwards.73”- A Cao, M Gossens, and M Pirastu, ‘β-thalassaemia mutations in Mediterranean populations’, Br. J. Haematology,

    More evidence that debunks Jahdey’s fallacies where it states the routes taken whereby the virus found its way to Southern Europe was N. Africa in Western Europe and Near East in Eastern Europe, again no direct route from tropical Africa mention anywhere:

    “Adding up all this evidence, a picture emerges of two quite separate routes whereby malaria itself, its vector mosquitoes, and the associated human genetic mutations which give some degree of resistance to malaria, reached southern Europe in the past. One route passed from Tunisia in North Africa, via Sicily and Sardinia, to Italy. The second route commenced in the eastern Mediterranean and led from the Levant or Anatolia to Greece and then on to Italy.” – Robert Sallares, M.A. Ph.D; Abigail Bouwman, MSc, PHD and Cecilia Anderung, MSc, “The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity”

    FACTS that speak about the origins of the Mosquitos who spread the disorder into Southern Europe not only does the paper state they are different species, but they also have different geographical distributions and origins. A. labranchiae, the most important vector in central and southern Italy, originated in North Africa, while A. sacharovi, the most important vector of malaria in Greece originated in the Near East, again their place of origins are not tropical Africa:

    “Not only are they different species, but they also have different geographical distributions and origins. A. labranchiae, the most important vector in central and southern Italy, originated in North Africa. It is a non-diapausing species of mosquito which remains active throughout the year and indeed breeds all the year round in North Africa, but cannot do so in mainland Italy. It had to stay inside houses or man-made animal shelters to survive the winter in southern Europe.77 In contrast A. sacharovi, the most important vector of malaria in Greece, tends to hibernate, a useful habit for surviving southern European winters. The Near East, the centre of its geographical distribution today, was presumably its refuge during the glacial periods. The hypothesis is proposed here that A. sacharovi spread from the Near East to Greece (together with other Near Eastern vectors such as A. superpictus) a considerable time before A. labranchiae spread from North Africa to mainland Italy.” – Robert Sallares, M.A. Ph.D; Abigail Bouwman, MSc, PHD and Cecilia Anderung, MSc, “The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity”

    Another deliburate fact left out by Jahdey regarding Sickle Cell disorder is in where that same study by Robert Sallares and other scientific studies that state sickle cell is found at a very LOW frequency, of about less then 2 per cent, in Mediterranean populations. HARDLY an “overwhelming” evidence that Black Africans brought or altered the genetic makeup of Southern Europe or the N.E given less then 2% of these populations carry the virus and to the most important fact that most scientific evidence points to independent origins of the sickle-cell trait in all geographical regions.

    “Over the generations, the sickle cell trait has therefore reached high frequencies in malarious areas. THE FACTOR IN COMMON TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SICKLE CELL GENE IS THEREFORE MALARIA AND NOT AFRICAN ANCESTRY. ” – Graham R. Serjeant, MD, FRCP, The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease” – Per:Graham R. Serjeant. MRC Laboratories, University of the West Indies The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease:Opportunities for understanding its diversity

    The higher hemoglobin and lower reticulocyte counts are consistent with less hemolysis, but Greek subjects have NEITHER OF THE GENETIC FACTORS RECOGNIZED to ameliorate hemolysis IN PATIENTS OF AFRICAN ORIGINS , alpha thalassemia or high levels of HbF. Clinically, Greek SS subjects show persistence of splenomegaly, more normal body build, and less leg ulceration and priapism.” – Graham R. Serjeant, MD, FRCP, The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease” – Per:Graham R. Serjeant. MRC Laboratories, University of the West Indies The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease:Opportunities for understanding its diversity

    Science contradicts your false claims. Sickle cell disorder is not an African origin disease as you so falsely claim. In Greece the ‘highest’ frequency of the trait is found in NORTHERN Greeks who VIRTUALLY HAVE NO HAPLOGROUPS THAT ARE A TYPICAL TO THOSE FOUND IN BLACK AFRICANS.

    Jahdey, obvioulsy STILL can’t comprehend the simple fact that scientific evidence proves him wrong and misquoting research papers doesn’t help his case at all. Arniez-Villena is being mentioned because that is from where your pseudo Tunisian study because HE IS THE SOURCE FROM WHERE THE TUNISIAN STUDY takes its information regarding the Greek genetic. THE TUNISIANS DID NOT EVEN TEST ANY GREEK SUBJECTS. Keep misquoting what the facts are, science and history proves you wrong time and again.

    ‘Regarding the Arniez-Villena study, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza-probably the world’s leading expert on studies of this sort-and his colleagues stated the following, “Using results from the analysis of a single marker, particularly one likely to have undergone selection, for the purpose of reconstructing genealogies is unreliable and unacceptable practice in population genetics.”37 Greeks clustered with other European populations on genetic maps, far from the aggregation of North African and sub-Saharan groups.’- The Gene Wars: Diana Muir Appelbaum ; Paul S. Appelbaum

  3. Dave

    You are in denial! But that is fine since you are neither Greek nor African so it matters not.

    But I will still toy with you one little bit:

    DAVE SQUEAKS:
    Another deliburate fact left out by Jahdey regarding Sickle Cell disorder is in where that same study by Robert Sallares and other scientific studies that state sickle cell is found at a very LOW frequency, of about less then 2 per cent, in Mediterranean populations. HARDLY an “overwhelming” evidence that Black Africans brought or altered the genetic makeup of Southern Europe or the N.E given less then 2% of these populations carry the virus and to the most important fact that most scientific evidence points to independent origins of the sickle-cell trait in all geographical regions.

    JAHDEY ANSWERS: So now you admit the evidence. Confess then that your confusion lies in percentages so that we can clarify that for you also.
    In any event, you just admitted that 2% of the mediterranean population bear African HBS 19. That numbers millions of people.

    Those Mediterranean Africans were the original people of the Aegean Sea Islands. That is all that is left today following massacares, disenfranchisement, robberies, immigration, etc.

    DAVE SQUEAKS:
    “Over the generations, the sickle cell trait has therefore reached high frequencies in malarious areas. THE FACTOR IN COMMON TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SICKLE CELL GENE IS THEREFORE MALARIA AND NOT AFRICAN ANCESTRY. ” – Graham R. Serjeant, MD, FRCP, The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease” – Per:Graham R. Serjeant. MRC Laboratories, University of the West Indies The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease:Opportunities for understanding its diversity

    JAHDEY CLARIFIES:
    Yes, Dave, that quotation is from Dr. Graham who had already shown you that it was CONCLUSIVELY determined that HBS 19 from Benin West Africa went to Greece in historical times.

    So in this passage, you are shown that the FREQUENCY of its DISTRIBUTION is linked with malaria and not African ancestry.

    It does not contradict the fact that the ORIGIN of HBS 19 is AFRICA.

    In otherwords, HBS HAPLOTYPE 19 ORIGINATED in Africa and moved on to Greece. Therein, environmental factors like malaria contributed to ITS INCREASED FREQUENCY.

    There boy, is the misconception you have been sadly under for so long. I did not bother addressing it with you earlier because it was so pedestrain an issue it outed you as a novice, pretender wannabe in the field of genetic studies.

    You still have more to learn in genetics before attempting to reproduce lines which meaning rank above your comprehension.

    DAVE SQUEAKS:
    The higher hemoglobin and lower reticulocyte counts are consistent with less hemolysis, but Greek subjects have NEITHER OF THE GENETIC FACTORS RECOGNIZED to ameliorate hemolysis IN PATIENTS OF AFRICAN ORIGINS , alpha thalassemia or high levels of HbF. Clinically, Greek SS subjects show persistence of splenomegaly, more normal body build, and less leg ulceration and priapism.” – Graham R. Serjeant, MD, FRCP, The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease” – Per:Graham R. Serjeant. MRC Laboratories, University of the West Indies The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease:Opportunities for understanding its diversity

    JAHDEY RESPONDS:
    Dave, in your little imagination what does this passage have to do with the origin of sickle cell haplotype 19, or are you just being self-serving and distractionary? You want to pull the red herring fallacy?

    The passage talks about ameliorating factors of sickle cell disease…not SICKLE CELL GENES. Those are different things.

    Real Greeks usually have HBS 19 genes which originated from Africa.

    DAVE BITCHES:
    In Greece the ‘highest’ frequency of the trait is found in NORTHERN Greeks who VIRTUALLY HAVE NO HAPLOGROUPS THAT ARE A TYPICAL TO THOSE FOUND IN BLACK AFRICANS.

    JAHDEY ANSWERS:
    The Sickle Cell trait found in Greeks is an African haplotype.

    There is no gene that marks for colour as in Black Africans. That is your Black heart speaking lies and hatred.

    Genes are associated with geographical background and not with colour. Genes normally found in many areas of tropical Africa are also found in cold intemperate Europe.

    Telling by genetic profile alon, sometimes one cannot distinguish Pink-pale Europeans from Dark-Brown Africans.

    For example:
    “The Benin haplotype accounts for HbS associated chromosomes in Sicily,4 Northern Greece,10 Southern Turkey,11 and South West Saudi Arabia,6,7 suggesting that these genes had their origin in West Africa..”

    Sicily,#4 = source Ragusa A, Lombardo M, Sortino G, et al. ßs gene in Sicily is in linkage disequilibrium with the Benin haplotype: Am J Hematol 1988;27:139-41. – implications for gene flow in recent ti

    “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56, “This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. THIS SUGGESTS that there was an ADMIXTURE between the GREEKS AND Sub-Saharans probably DURING PHARONIC PERIOD or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.””

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/s…..30c0833a25

    CASE CLOSED!!!

    Next Citation:
    “Haplotype analysis has demonstrated that the sickle cell trait in Sicily, northern Greece and western Arabia is in linkage disequilibrum with the Benin (Nigeria) haplotype in western central Africa. THIS CONSTITUTES DIRECT EVIDENCE FOR GENE FLOW linked to human migration FROM CENTRAL AFRICA TO MEDITERRANEAN EUROPE IN HISTORICAL TIMES…”

    See “Robert Sallares, M.A. Ph.D; Abigail Bouwman, MSc, PHD and Cecilia Anderung, MSc, “The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity: New Approaches to Old Problems” Med. Hist. 2004 July 1; 48(3): 311-328.
    http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.g…..tid=547919

    A study by Di Giacomo et al. in 2003 found the following African haplogroups in Greeks: Haplogroup A … is highly specific to West Africa…

    David, you are now being highly irrational in your argument.

    You may want to posture like you are debating with me, but you cannot debate the European Medical Genetics Journal which provided one of the sources for the thesis that African HBS Haplotype 19 is also found in Greeks.

    European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56,

    Finally,

    This is the quotation that you have been having wet racist dreams over:

    “Over the generations, the sickle cell trait has therefore reached high frequencies in malarious areas. The factor in common to the distribution of the sickle cell gene is therefore malaria and not African ancestry….”

    Below I post the entire passage to demonstrate what a low life lieing skunk racist you really are:

    “Studies of the structure of DNA surrounding the beta globin locus reveal that the sickle cell gene is associated with several DNA structures probably representing DIFFERENT ANCESTRAL POPULATIONS. The most likely interpretation is that the sickle cell mutation is a relatively recent occurrence that has occurred independently in several different populations. Falciparum malaria then acted as a selective factor, increasing the prevalence of the gene because people inheriting the sickle cell gene from one parent and a gene for normal adult hemoglobin from the other parent (sickle cell trait) were less likely to die from malaria and so more likely to survive and pass on their genes. Over the generations, the sickle cell trait has therefore reached high frequencies in malarious areas. The factor in common to the distribution of the sickle cell gene is therefore malaria and not African ancestry……”

    There, doesn’t that give you a better context of what Dr. Graham Sergeant is driving at?

    Especially when we know this already:

    The origin of the mutation that led to the sickle cell gene was initially thought to be in the Arabian peninsula, spreading to Asia and Africa. It is now known, from evaluation of chromosome structures, that there have been at least four independent mutational events, three in Africa and a fourth in either Saudi Arabia or central India. See
    Desai, D. V.; Hiren Dhanani (2004). “Sickle Cell Disease: History And Origin”. The Internet Journal of Haematology 1 (2). ISSN 1540-2649.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sickle-cell_disease

    It has been conclusively demonstrated that HbS in Greece is mostly haplotype #19 (the one that originated in Benin, Nigeria West Africa). See, Boussiou M, Loukopoulos D, Christakis J, Fessas P.; The origin of the sickle mutation in Greece; evidence from beta S globin gene cluster polymorphisms. Unit for Prenatal Diagnosis, Laikon Hospital, Athens, Greece.

  4. Sickle cell’s root is malaria, however, it’s origin is in Benin and the only spread is through admixture. Europeans have the same sickle cell present in those of west african stock.

  5. You Jahdey, are an African, not a Greek, so trying to claim the identity and history of another people is the worst kind of thievery. That’s the difference between me and you: I don’t try to steal another cultures identity and history, you on the other hand are, based on nothing by fallacies.

    Misquotes by Jahdey once again:
    “So now you admit the evidence. Confess then that your confusion lies in percentages so that we can clarify that for you also. In any event, you just admitted that 2% of the mediterranean population bear African HBS 19. That numbers millions of people. ”

    No Mr. Misinformation that is not what is being said. What scientific studies have proven is that LESS THEN 2% OF MEDITERRANEAN POPULATIONS EVEN CARRY THE DISORDER AND THE MOST IMPORTANT FACT FROM THAT IS: MOST SCIENTIFIC EVIDENCE POINTS TO INDEPENDENT ORIGINS OF SICKLE-CELL TRAIT IN DIFFERENT GEOGRAPHICAL PEOPLE & REGIONS.

    More lies by Jahdey:
    “Those Mediterranean Africans were the original people of the Aegean Sea Islands. That is all that is left today following massacares, disenfranchisement, robberies, immigration, etc. ”

    Wrong you are again given all scientific and historical evidence shows no direct tropical African route to those regions. Those Mediterranean populations were not African at all. In fact if you bothered to read any of the papers you keep source you would have seen all scientific, historic and archeological evidence shows there was no direct route from tropical Africans to the Mediterranean or the Aegean Sea Islands, so no they were not “Mediterranean Africans” as Afrocentric like to falsely believe. Genetics has proven that their historical link is with people from Asia and the Near East and yet you don’t hear people from the Near East or Asia(who’s genetic link with Southern Europeans is much closer then tropical Africans) try to claim them as “Asians” or “Near Easterners” only you Afrocentric try to turn the whole world’s populations into “African”.

    JAHDEY MISINFORMS AGAIN:
    “Yes, Dave, that quotation is from Dr. Graham who had already shown you that it was CONCLUSIVELY determined that HBS 19 from Benin West Africa went to Greece in historical times.”

    Graham R. Serjeant very clearly states the GENE for sickle-cell is MALARIA and not AFRICAN ANCESTRY, proven you wrong once again: – “Over the generations, the sickle cell trait has therefore reached high frequencies in malarious areas. THE FACTOR IN COMMON TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SICKLE CELL GENE IS THEREFORE MALARIA AND NOT AFRICAN ANCESTRY. ” – Graham R. Serjeant, MD, FRCP, The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease” – Per:Graham R. Serjeant. MRC Laboratories, University of the West Indies The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease:Opportunities for understanding its diversity

    More Misinterpretations by JAHDEY:
    “So in this passage, you are shown that the FREQUENCY of its DISTRIBUTION is linked with malaria and not African ancestry.
    It does not contradict the fact that the ORIGIN of HBS 19 is AFRICA.
    In otherwords, HBS HAPLOTYPE 19 ORIGINATED in Africa and moved on to Greece. Therein, environmental factors like malaria contributed to ITS INCREASED FREQUENCY.”

    That is not what the passage says, there “boy”, you once again left out several crucial elements from your misinformation: The Sickle Cell GENE is therefore MALARIA and not AFRICAN ANCESTRY. The passage clearly states that those who have sickle-cell do not get it through your phantom ” AFRICAN ANCESTRY”, they get it through the GENE that causes MALARIA and Graham R. Serjeant clearly states this GENE does not imply AFRICAN ANCESTRY.

    JAHDEY Lies again:
    “Real Greeks usually have HBS 19 genes which originated from Africa.
    The Sickle Cell trait found in Greeks is an African haplotype.”

    Wrong once again, Jahdey, real Greeks genetically are linked to Eurasians. There are less then 2% of Greeks who test for the sickle cell trait and these Greeks carry haplotypes that are not found in tropical Africans, further proof that sickle-cell originated in different populations, different geographical areas, different historic times and different origins.

    Jahdey misnformation:
    “There is no gene that marks for colour as in Black Africans. That is your Black heart speaking lies and hatred.”

    You are the one who is trying to steal a peoples identity, history and culture by turning them into West Africans ‘sub-saharan’ blacks, as this fallacy of an article clearly states at the top page. So don’t sit there and try to tell us Afrocentric like you are not trying to turn world’s populations into ‘black Africans’.

    Jahdey lies:
    “Genes are associated with geographical background and not with colour. Genes normally found in many areas of tropical Africa are also found in cold intemperate Europe.”

    There you go again, trying to turn people who are not Africans into “Africans”, your agenda in all this can be seen very clearly. Instead of stealing other peoples identity, history and culture I suggest you concentrate on your own.

    Jahdey lies again:
    “The Benin haplotype accounts for HbS associated chromosomes in Sicily,4 Northern Greece,10 Southern Turkey,11 and South West Saudi Arabia,6,7 suggesting that these genes had their origin in West Africa..” Sicily,#4 = source Ragusa A, Lombardo M, Sortino G, et al. ßs gene in Sicily is in linkage disequilibrium with the Benin haplotype: Am J Hematol 1988;27:139-41. – implications for gene flow in recent ti

    Even the Mosquitos who brought sickle-cell disorder to Southern Europe are not of tropical African origins:
    “Not only are they different species, but they also have different geographical distributions and origins. A. labranchiae, the most important vector in central and southern Italy, originated in North Africa. It is a non-diapausing species of mosquito which remains active throughout the year and indeed breeds all the year round in North Africa, but cannot do so in mainland Italy. It had to stay inside houses or man-made animal shelters to survive the winter in southern Europe.77 In contrast A. sacharovi, the most important vector of malaria in Greece, tends to hibernate, a useful habit for surviving southern European winters. The Near East, the centre of its geographical distribution today, was presumably its refuge during the glacial periods. The hypothesis is proposed here that A. sacharovi spread from the Near East to Greece (together with other Near Eastern vectors such as A. superpictus) a considerable time before A. labranchiae spread from North Africa to mainland Italy.” – Robert Sallares, M.A. Ph.D; Abigail Bouwman, MSc, PHD and Cecilia Anderung, MSc, “The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity”

    The Tunisian pseudo study that uses the Arniez-Villena study as its source:
    “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56, “This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. THIS SUGGESTS that there was an ADMIXTURE between the GREEKS AND Sub-Saharans probably DURING PHARONIC PERIOD or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.””

    ‘Regarding the Arniez-Villena study, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza-probably the world’s leading expert on studies of this sort-and his colleagues stated the following, “Using results from the analysis of a single marker, particularly one likely to have undergone selection, for the purpose of reconstructing genealogies is unreliable and unacceptable practice in population genetics.”37 Greeks clustered with other European populations on genetic maps, far from the aggregation of North African and sub-Saharan groups.’- The Gene Wars: Diana Muir Appelbaum ; Paul S. Appelbaum

    More misinformation by Jahdey:
    “You may want to posture like you are debating with me, but you cannot debate the European Medical Genetics Journal which provided one of the sources for the thesis that African HBS Haplotype 19 is also found in Greeks.”

    Those are the same European Medical Genetics Journals that you misinterpret for your personal agendas. Sickle-Cell found in the Southern Europe has its origins in the Near East, not tropical Africa:
    “One of the two most frequent β-thalassaemia mutations in Mediterranean populations today, the B + IVS nt 110 mutation (G→A), which occurs in areas of Greek colonization in Italy, attains its highest frequencies today in eastern Mediterranean countries. It is very common in Greece, and is also associated with a high level of haplotype diversity in Turkey.72 Consequently, Italian scientists suggested that this particular mutation originated in Greece or Anatolia and was spread westwards to Italy by Greek colonization from the eighth century BC onwards.73”- A Cao, M Gossens, and M Pirastu, ‘β-thalassaemia mutations in Mediterranean populations’, Br. J. Haematology,

    Misinformed Jahdey still can’t comprehend what is being said in that passage by Dr. Graham Sergeant:
    ‘Below I post the entire passage to demonstrate what a low life lieing skunk racist you really are:
    “Studies of the structure of DNA surrounding the beta globin locus reveal that the sickle cell gene is associated with several DNA structures probably representing DIFFERENT ANCESTRAL POPULATIONS. The most likely interpretation is that the sickle cell mutation is a relatively recent occurrence that has occurred independently in several different populations. Falciparum malaria then acted as a selective factor, increasing the prevalence of the gene because people inheriting the sickle cell gene from one parent and a gene for normal adult hemoglobin from the other parent (sickle cell trait) were less likely to die from malaria and so more likely to survive and pass on their genes. Over the generations, the sickle cell trait has therefore reached high frequencies in malarious areas. The factor in common to the distribution of the sickle cell gene is therefore malaria and not African ancestry……”

    How pathetic. That passage debunks your myth about African origins for sickle cell found through out the world and you continue to misinterpret its meaning. It states very clearly that the beta globin locus represents DIFFERENT ANCESTRAL POPULATIONS(do you even know what these three words mean? They clearly debunk your fallacies about sickle-cell coming from ONE & THE SAME ancestral origins). Goes on to state: “The most likely interpretation is that the sickle cell mutation is a relatively recent occurrence that has occurred INDEPENDENTLY in several DIFFERENT populations.” Look up the words “OCCURED” and “INDEPENDENTLY” and “several DIFFERENT populations” mean since you don’t have a clue.

  6. Dave

    You are an unmitigated ignoramus.

    Listen to your self:

    Dave squeaks:
    Graham R. Serjeant very clearly states the GENE for sickle-cell is MALARIA and not AFRICAN ANCESTRY, proven you wrong once again:

    JAHDEY HELPS OUT:
    Sickle cell is not caused by malaria Dave. Sickle cell is not a virus. Mosquitos do not give sickle cell, mosquitos only carry malaria parasites.

    Sickle cell gene is a DNA protein found on the chromosomes. Those genes cause sickle cell.

    Dave Squeaks more nonsense:
    The Sickle Cell GENE is therefore MALARIA and not AFRICAN ANCESTRY.

    JAHDEY HELPS OUT:
    Dave, I am embarrassed for you. Sickle cell gene is not malaria. Malaria is a disease caused by parasites (malaria plasmodium). Sickle cell gene is part of the human DNA which codes for red blood cells. Now, it is clear I am arguing with a grade 5 drop-out.

    More Dave garbarge:
    Even the Mosquitos who brought sickle-cell disorder to Southern Europe are not of tropical African origins:

    JAHDEY HELPS OUT:
    Dave, I am embarrassed for you. Sickle cell gene is not malaria. Malaria is a disease caused by parasites (malaria plasmodium). Sickle cell gene is part of the human DNA which codes for red blood cells. Now, it is clear I am arguing with a grade 5 drop-out.

    Wretched Dave unmasks himself:
    Sickle-Cell found in the Southern Europe has its origins in the Near East, not tropical Africa:
    “One of the two most frequent β-thalassaemia mutations in Mediterranean populations today, the B + IVS nt 110 mutation (G→A), which occurs in areas of Greek colonization in Italy, attains its highest frequencies today in eastern Mediterranean countries.

    JAHDEY CRIES FOR DAVE’S STUPENDOUS IGNORANCE:
    No Boy, Sickle cell gene haplotype 19 originates from West Africa. Sickle cell has four origins, one in India, and three in Africa. The sickle cell gene in Greece comes from Africa.

    But most tragically, Dave begins to talk of Thalassemia. Thalassemia is not sickle cell. Thalassemia is a disease cause by thalassemia genes. Whereas, sickle cell is caused by sickle cell genes. Two different things, two different diseases…this very conflation exposes you as some wretched wanna be scholar.

    That is it for you now. I have no more time for a someone who lacks the foundation and depth on a topic too senior for him.

    Go learn to read, write and spell. Go back to Grade 5 boy, hurry, before everyone begins to laugh at you…

    Goodbye Dave aka Mr.”Sickle cell is malaria” ….LOL!!! I trust you will not start running off your ignorant hogwash next time without doing sufficient research.

    Goo

  7. Dave did Dr. Graves make this claim in a peer reviewed journal like European Genetics Journal or American Genetics Journal? If so, kindly provide us with the journal citations:

    Dave Wrongs himself again:
    “Contrary to popular belief, sickle cell anemia is not a black disease nor did it originate in West Africa. The gene responsible for sickle cell provides protection against malaria, so it is present wherever we find malaria. That includes Southern Europe, Yemen, India, East and West Africa and the Middle East, where it originated. The only reason we think of it as a black disease in America is because the slaves came from West Africa. If the slaves who worked the cotton fields of America had come from Yemen or Southern European, then we would have seen it as a Yemeni or a Southern European disease.-Joseph Graves, Ph.D.of Evolutionary Biology

    This is what Graves stated actually:

    Contrary to popular belief, sickle cell anemia is not a black disease nor did it originate in West Africa. The gene responsible for sickle cell provides protection against malaria, so it is present wherever we find malaria. That includes Greece, Yemen, India, East and West Africa and the

    Middle East, where it originated. The only reason we think of it as a black disease in America is because the slaves came from West Africa. If the slaves who worked the cotton fields of America had come from Yemen or Greece, then we would have seen it as a Yemeni or a Greek disease.

    SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEWED JOURNALS STATE:

    The origin of the mutation that led to the sickle cell gene was initially thought to be in the Arabian peninsula, spreading to Asia and Africa. It is now known, from evaluation of chromosome structures, that there have been at least four independent mutational events, three in Africa and a fourth in either Saudi Arabia or central India. See Desai, D. V.; Hiren Dhanani (2004). “Sickle Cell Disease: History And Origin”. The Internet Journal of Haematology 1 (2). ISSN 1540-2649.

    JAHDEY SPEAKS:

    But ofcourse the fact that sickle cell has four independent occurence proves that it is not a Black disease and noone said it was a black disease. Genes that code for colour is the melanin.

    Sickle cell affects Indians, Greeks, West Africans, Arabs, so how could it be a Black disease.

    But Haplotype HBS 19 ( a very definite haplotype) which codes for sickle cell genes first arose in Africa. This Haplotype 19 has been identified in Greeks proving that Haplotype 19 made its way from Africa to Greece.

    The other haplotypes of sickle cell are: Indian haplotype; Cameroon Haplotype; Senegal Haplotype, and the Nigerian Haplotype 19 (aka Benin haplotype).

    Setting up a straw man’s argument is like hiding your head in the sand. Don’t pursue a point no-one made here. You began arguments about your black disease or not. Pinks like you sometimes have sickle cell genes but an analysis of its mutation will demonstrate if it is from India or Africa.

    The origin of the mutation that led to the sickle cell gene was initially thought to be in the Arabian peninsula, spreading to Asia and Africa. It is now known, from evaluation of chromosome structures, that there have been at least four independent mutational events, three in Africa and a fourth in either Saudi Arabia or central India. See Desai, D. V.; Hiren Dhanani (2004). “Sickle Cell Disease: History And Origin”. The Internet Journal of Haematology 1 (2). ISSN 1540-2649.

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sickle-cell_disease

    It has been conclusively demonstrated that HbS in Greece is mostly haplotype #19 (the one that originated in Benin, Nigeria West Africa). See, Boussiou M, Loukopoulos D, Christakis J, Fessas P.; The origin of the sickle mutation in Greece; evidence from beta S globin gene cluster polymorphisms. Unit for Prenatal Diagnosis, Laikon Hospital, Athens, Greece.

    What is the claim here:

    Haplotype 19 is a gene that codes for the red blood cell.

    HAPLOTYPE 19 originates from Africa – Benin Nigeria. Why, because it is most prevalent there…standard method for deducing a gene’s origin.

    Haplotype 19 is found in thousands of Greeks (in addition to other haplogroups that Greeks share in similarity with Africans)

    And thanks for finally admitting that you are neither GREEK nor African, but a meddlesome Pinkie from Northwest jealous of the antiquated histories of Black and Brown peoples of Africa and Europe. You cannot lie about origins cause we told you already where you come from:

    The cold caves of Europe.

  8. Jahdey I’m embarrassed for you that by the mere fact that you can’t comprehend what is being spelled out for anyone with some intelligence to understood. Jahdey I’m embarrassed for you that by the mere fact that you can’t comprehend what is being spelled out for anyone with some intelligence to understood.
    You make it clear to everyone that you don’t understand what the Medical Genetics Journals are stating because you make so little sense in your arguments. Over millennia, scattered groups developed distinct, they adaptive traits such as skin color and facial characteristics, they even produce maladies such as sickle-cell anemia. Different populations often take advantage of different alleles, which occur at random, to respond to evolutionary pressure, as has happened in the emergence of genetic defenses against malaria(sickle-cell) which are different in Mediterranean populations from those found in African populations. Its too bad you can’t comprehend simple human evolution concept.

    Let me put this to you in more simpler terms given you low level of comprehensive skills: Those pseudo studies you keep referencing such as that by Arniez-Villena from where the Tunisian study took its data, used a tissue antigen gene (HLA) for their study, not the highly regarded mtDNA or Y-chromosome markers. Autosomal DNA that is subject to population selection should never be used for making inferences about population ancestry. The use of this gene marker for inferring population history has been subsequently highly criticised by reputable genetic researchers (eg. L. Luca Cavalli-Sforza). Those pseudo studies were trying to falsely assert that Greek tissue antigen genes were like the sub-Saharan African tissue antigen genes, and quite unlike the tissue antigen genes found in Europeans, which is contrary to what all reputable genetic researchers have shown in their studies(i.e. that Greeks cluster with Europeans & other Caucasian populations and farther from tropical African populations). The authors of the paper also make some very naïve claims about the history of the populations they are talking about. Unfortunately, this faulty research has subsequently been used by groups and individuals(from Afrocentric to Supremacists and Nationalist interest groups) as “evidence” for their own political agendas, all of which have some very bizarre claims. The actual mtDNA and Y-chromosome data show that Greek haplotype frequencies are typically Mediterranean/Caucasian. Greek mtDNA haplotypes are the same as those found in typical European and Near Eastern populations as proven by the date found in the Supplementary data from Richards et al. (2000)-“tracing founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA pool” Overall the Greek Y-chromosome haplotype frequencies are roughly intermediate between typical western European populations and Near Eastern populations. Oh and here is another little tibit that you might want to make yourself familiar with: that Arniez-Villena paper from where the Tunisian study took its data from was refereed to by tissue scientists that were ignorant of the fact that the use of the marker was highly inappropriate for population studies.

  9. Correction for you, ‘boy’, Greeks were never part of your ‘black/brown’ people so that makes you the worst thieve in trying to steal their identity, culture and history.

    Those same SCIENTIFIC PEER REVIEWED JOURNALS STATE also state sickle-cell does not imply African heritage but your level of understanding such things is obvioulsy very low. Btw, you did not disprove anything by posting Joseph Graves, Ph.D. Evolutionary Biology who very clearly states: “Contrary to popular belief, sickle cell anemia is not a black disease nor did it originate in West Africa. The gene responsible for sickle cell provides protection against malaria, so it is present wherever we find malaria. That includes Southern Europe, Yemen, India, East and West Africa and the Middle East, where it originated. The only reason we think of it as a black disease in America is because the slaves came from West Africa.”

  10. Dave begins to bitch and bellyache:
    Greeks were never part of your ‘black/brown’ people …

    JAHDEY SPEAKS: Ancient Greeks did not see themselves as pink-pale people. Greek origin mythology holds that Greeks are Africans and one can understand that when you consider the brown skin and curly hair of most real Greeks (compared to the mulatto children of Africans). See: http://www.africaresource.com/rasta/sesostris-the-great-the-egyptian-hercules/black-african-origin-of-the-ancient-greeks-part-3-by-anu-mauro/

    They believed all Pink pale peoples of the Germanic tribes were Barbarians.

    Greek cities were mostly centered in Africa and Near East.

    It is only in this modern times when all the old certainities have been turned up side down that we hear Pinkies like you associate themselves with the Greek civilization.

    Greek civilization was centered in Asia Minor, Near East, Egypt – Africa, Ethiopia – Africa, Maghreb – Africa.

    There were no Greek cities in England, nor in France, nor in Sweden or Holland or Germania.

    As an African descendant, I have more claims on Greece than you would ever have. Since Greeks considered themselves more kin to Africans (civilized people) than the uncivilized barbarians whom they so detested.

    So, boy…now you know.

    According to mis-educated David:

    “The gene responsible for sickle cell provides protection against malaria, so it is present wherever we find malaria. That includes Southern Europe, Yemenites, Indians, East and West Africa and the Middle East, where it originated.”

    All the people mentioned above are people of colour. Connected people with proven African ancestry. ((Moorish) Black and Mulatto Southern Europe, Black (Moorish) Yemenites, Black (Moorish) Indians, Black (Moorish) East and West Africa and the Moorish Middle East

    Here is why:

    Your own words:
    “The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in Arabia and subsequently split into HAPLOGROUP E THAT SPREAD to EUROPE and AFRICA……..”

    Al-Jahiz:

    “The Ethiopians, the Berbers, the Copts, the Nubians, the Zaghawa, the Moors, the people of Sind, the Hindus, the Qamar, the Dabila, the Chinese, and those beyond them…the islands in the seas…are full of blacks…up to Hindustan and China.”
    –Al-Jahiz, Book of the Glory of the Blacks Over the Whites

    Arab Yemenis/Himyarites: Black as the night and magnificient…

    http://www.hansrossel.com/foto…..ye_s27.htm

    http://www.hansrossel.com/foto…..ye_s25.htm

    http://www.hansrossel.com/foto…..ye_s29.htm

    http://www.blackjadeworld.com/

    Arab Omanis: Black as the night and magnificient…

    http://www.omanet.om/english/c…..Fold15.JPG

    http://www.foodmuseum.com/images/siffomanicook.jpg

    http://www.collectorsprints.co…..s_arab.jpg

    Arab Iranians (from the Ethnic Arab provinces of Iran): Black as the night and magnificient

    Iranians from the Region of Bandar Abbas

    http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio3/wo…..iran21.jpg

    http://pr.sv.net/aw/2005/March…..Pagea3.jpg

    http://www.payvand.com/news/07…..Abbas1.jpg

    Baluchistan and Sistan Province: Black as the night and magnificient

    http://www.persiatours.com/wom…..h-iran.jpg

    Black iranian from Chabahar Province: Black as the night and magnificient

    http://www.moezsoft.com/images/chabahar.jpg

  11. A comedy of Errors:

    Dave whines on February 19, 2006 at 10:28 pm see above

    There is no black African genetic link found between you black Africans and white Greeks either in modern times or ancient. Stop living in a delusional bubble of misconceptions and lies. HBS haplogroup 19 is not found in any Greeks,

    February 20th, 2008 at 6:04 pm Dave eats his own vomit:

    If you actually read Segearnt article and not any old misinformation found on dubious online sites you would have known that he provides sources for Sicily, NORTHERN Greece…….

    Jahdey doesn’t even provide the correct sentence …but I will:

    “The Benin haplotype (HBS Haplotype 19) accounts for HbS associated chromosomes in Sicily,4 Northern Greece,10 Southern Turkey,11 and South West Saudi Arabia,6,7 suggesting that these genes had their origin in West Africa..”

    Sicily,#4 = source Ragusa A, Lombardo M, Sortino G, et al. ßs gene in Sicily is in linkage disequilibrium with the Benin haplotype: Am J Hematol 1988;27:139-41. – implications for gene flow in recent times through North Africa.

    Southern Turkey,#11 = source Aluoch JR, Kilinç Y, Aksoy M, et al. Sickle cell anaemia among Eti-Turks: haematological, clinical and genetic observations. Br J Haematol 1986;64:45-55.

    David aka Mr “Sickle Cell is caused by Malaria” whines:
    Feb 21, 2008 at 3:41 pm:

    “Everybody came out of Africa…”

    Dave rants:

    “The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in Arabia and subsequently split into HAPLOGROUP E THAT SPREAD to EUROPE and AFRICA……..”

    Dave’s totally flips:

    ….the Mosquitos … brought sickle-cell disorder to Southern Europe are not of tropical African origins…

    The mouse that squeaked:
    Dave squeaks:

    Graham R. Serjeant very clearly states the GENE for sickle-cell is MALARIA and not AFRICAN ANCESTRY, proven you wrong once again…

    The Grade five drop-out:
    David Replied Feb 21, 2008 at 9:57 am:

    …E-M78β and E-M78γ show only modest levels of gene flow (from northern Africa to Europe and from eastern to northern Africa, respectively)…

    JAHDEY SPEAKS:

    Make up your mind boy. David (aka Mr.”Sicklecell is a Malaria Virus”) are you proposing or are you opposing or are you just moronic???

  12. JAHDEY SPEAKS nonsense once post more dubious links again:
    “Ancient Greeks did not see themselves as Pink pale people.”

    David replies correctly:
    Ancient Greeks view themselves as a Caucasian European people, not Black Ethiopians=a Greek word that means Burned faced(African) people.

    More nonsense from JAHDEY:
    “They believed all Pink pale peoples of the Germanic tribes were Barbarians.”

    David’s corrections once again:
    Hate to break it to you but they viewed Black Africans as black Barbarians too.

    Wrong assumptions by Jahdey:
    “Greek cities were mostly centered in Africa and Near East.”

    David’s corrections again:
    Wrong, Greek cities were not in Africa, they were in Egypt, the Near East and Eurasian regions but given you know nothing about ancient history so your false assumption do not surprise me.

    Jibberish by Jahdey:
    “It is only in this modern times when all the old certainities have been turned up side down that we hear Pinkies like you associate themselves with the Greek civilization.”

    David’s answer:
    Its revisionist Afrocentric like yourself trying to steal the history and culture of a people that you have nothing in common with which is turning everything upside.

    More jibberish by Jahdey:
    “Greek civilization was centered in Asia Minor, Near East, Egypt – Africa, Ethiopia – Africa, Maghreb – Africa. There were no greek cities in England, nor in France, nor in Sweden or Holland or Germania.”

    Well Mr. Misinformed, Greeks never set foot in Ethiopia or Tropical Africa either. In fact the few Greeks who had any contact with black Africans they mistook for a “tribe of chimps”. That was the Greeks extent of contack with black Africans who they viewed different from themselves. There were not Greek cities in Ethiopia or tropical Africa. BTW nice try in trying to claim Maghreb as “black African” how pathetic you are.

    False assumption by Jahdey:
    “As an African descendant, I have more claims on Greece than you would ever have. Since Greeks considered themselves more kin to Africans (civilized people) than the uncivilized barbarians whom they so detested.”

    David’s answer:
    You have zero claim to Greece and Greek culture given Greeks never considered themselves a kin to Africans either in ancient times or modern times whom they called “burned faces”. They also viewed you as much as uncivilized barbarians as they did us. It is obvious you have not read any of the Greek works such as Plato, Aristotle, etc. whose theories of slavery were littered with essential anti-black prejudice ingredients that are found in both late European and Arab thought.

    More jibberish by un-educated Jahdey:
    “All the people mentioned above are people of colour. Connected people with proven African ancestry.”

    David’s repsonse:
    Sorry misinformed one but Southern Europeans, Asians and Near Easterners are not ‘people of colour’ nor do they consider themselves as black Africans or having any historic lineage to tropical Africans other then that “Out of Africa” theory which states every single human came from Africa including Northern Europeans. The out of Africa theory does not mean, as you so falsely have been claiming, that none black African people in the world have any culture or identity to you black Africans. Afrocentric like you are the worst thieves out there, trying to steal the history, culture and identity of people that you have no claim to. Not only that but you are a hypocrite, first you claim ‘skin color’ does not imply ones ancestry then post all these pseudo sites that show “black” Chinese, Arabs, Berbers, Hindus, Iranians. A total hypocrite.

  13. A more recent study that contradicts the fallacies posted by Jahdey yet again. The study conducted confirms that the earliest Neolithic farmers who settled in Southern Europe migrated from the Near East; these farmers lived for thousands of years in the NE, millenniums after humans started to migrate out of Africa:

    Volume 72 Issue 2 Page 205-214, March 2008
    The earliest Neolithic sites of Europe are located in Crete and mainland Greece. A debate persists concerning whether these farmers originated in neighboring Anatolia and the role of maritime colonization. To address these issues 171 samples were collected from areas near three known early Neolithic settlements in Greece together with 193 samples from Crete. An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups determined that the samples from the Greek Neolithic sites showed strong affinity to Balkan data, while Crete shows affinity with Anatolian.” – R. J. King, S. S. Özcan, T. Carter, E. KalfoÄŸlu, S. Atasoy, C. Triantaphyllidis, A. Kouvatsi, A. A. Lin, C-E. T. Chow, L. A. Zhivotovsky, M. Michalodimitrakis, P. A. Underhill (2008) Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic; *Corresponding author: Peter A. Underhill, Department of Genetics, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5120, Fax: 650 725 1534. phone: 650 723-5805. E-mail: under@stanford.edu

    “Haplogroup J2b-M12(Davids notes:Haplogroup J is believed to have arisen 31,700 years ago in the Near East; Haplogroup J2 is associated with the spread of agriculture from the northern Fertile Crescent, the Levant, and Anatolia) was frequent in Thessaly and Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410(Davids notes:supports the theory that the Minoans of Crete were Eurasians, btw) and a low frequency of J2b-M12. This dichotomy parallels archaeobotanical evidence, specifically that while bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is known from Neolithic Anatolia, Crete and southern Italy; it is absent from earliest Neolithic Greece. The expansion time of YSTR variation for haplogroup E3b1a2-V13, in the Peloponnese was consistent with an indigenous Mesolithic presence. In turn, two distinctive haplogroups, J2a1h-M319 and J2a1b1-M92, have demographic properties consistent with Bronze Age expansions in Crete, arguably from NW/W Anatolia and Syro-Palestine, while a later mainland (Mycenaean) contribution to Crete is indicated by relative frequencies of V13.” – R. J. King, S. S. Özcan, T. Carter, E. KalfoÄŸlu, S. Atasoy, C. Triantaphyllidis, A. Kouvatsi, A. A. Lin, C-E. T. Chow, L. A. Zhivotovsky, M. Michalodimitrakis, P. A. Underhill (2008) Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic; *Corresponding author: Peter A. Underhill, Department of Genetics, 300 Pasteur Drive, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 94305-5120, Fax: 650 725 1534. phone: 650 723-5805. E-mail: under@stanford.edu

  14. Dave’s totally flips:

    ….the Mosquitos … brought sickle-cell disorder to Southern Europe … not of tropical African origins…

    February 20th, 2008 at 6:04 pm Dave eats his own vomit:
    “If you actually read Segearnt article and not any old misinformation found on dubious online sites you would have known that he provides sources for Sicily, NORTHERN Greece…….

    Jahdey doesn’t even provide the correct sentence …but I will:

    “The Benin haplotype (HBS Haplotype 19) accounts for HbS associated chromosomes in Sicily,4 Northern Greece,10 Southern Turkey,11 and South West Saudi Arabia,6,7 suggesting that these genes had their origin in West Africa..”

    Sicily,#4 = source Ragusa A, Lombardo M, Sortino G, et al. ßs gene in Sicily is in linkage disequilibrium with the Benin haplotype: Am J Hematol 1988;27:139-41. – implications for gene flow in recent times through North Africa.”

    JAHDEY SPEAKS: Whatever David. Whatever…LOL…itz the mosquitoes, they are bugging your head crazy….

  15. Typical useless dribble of Mr. Misinformation Jahdey to misquote what the medical journals state. As usual since he didn’t bother to read all of the study from top to bottom he can’t understand the simple fact that what those studies say is that HbS haplotype found in less then 10 percent of some European populations does not mean that ten percent have sub-Saharan ancestry; what that means is it may simply be that many of those lacking the trait in the past died without progeny due to malaria since none of those European subjects who test for the trait do not carry any of the haplotypes that are typical markers for tropical Africans. HIV is also supposed to have its origins in Africa, your going to sit there and tell us all humans around the world who have the virus are of sub-Saharan ancestry? Pathetic. And don’t you dare say HIV isn’t a genetic virus given just like sickle-cell it can be passed down from parent to child.

  16. DNA sheds light on Minoans

    Crete’s fabled Minoan civilization was built by people from Anatolia, according to a new study by Greek and foreign scientists that disputes an earlier theory that said the Minoans’ forefathers had come from Africa.

    The new study – a collaboration by experts in Greece, the USA, Canada, Russia and Turkey – drew its conclusions from the DNA analysis of 193 men from Crete and another 171 from former neolithic colonies in central and northern Greece.

    The results show that the country’s neolithic population came to Greece by sea from Anatolia – modern-day Iran, Iraq and Syria – and not from Africa as maintained by US scholar Martin Bernal.

    The DNA analysis indicates that the arrival of neolithic man in Greece from Anatolia coincided with the social and cultural upsurge that led to the birth of the Minoan civilization, Constantinos Triantafyllidis of Thessaloniki’s Aristotle University told Kathimerini.

    “Until now we only had the archaeological evidence – now we have genetic data too and we can date the DNA,” he said.

  17. Ophesus squeaks: The results show that the country’s neolithic population came to Greece by sea from Anatolia – modern-day Iran, Iraq and Syria – and not from Africa as maintained by US scholar Martin Bernal….etc etc…

    Jahdey Speaks:

    Ophesus, you are such a boor. Ancient Africa extended all the way to ancient Anatolia. Which is why the Arabs declare that the first man to build a civilization on the Mesopotamia was Nimrod the Cushite…the African!

    Syria, Turkey and Iraq have a very high percentage of African genes such as Y-Haplogroup E3A, E3B; HLA antigen; and autosomnal sickle cell haplotype 19 from Nigeria Africa. This is in addition to the profusion of African mtDNA genetic material, such as M1 etc. There is so much Afro blood in Anatolia and the Near East that right now, genetists agree that the ancient residents of these places were African Diaspora.

    You need to keep your research holistic. Not running around with piece meal bits of ignorance.

    Jahdey

    BTW Please post a link for your cut and paste next time.

  18. Incorrect as usual is Jahdey.

    *Published Y-chromosome data showed almost all compound haplotypes found in Europe were found in smaller Near Eastern samples

    *Similar result with mtDNA haplogrp J (Paleolithic but introduced to Europe during Neolithic)

    *Therefore, these groups differentiated in the Near East then migrated into Europe.

    *NEOLITHIC FARMERS!! Not black Africans.

  19. Pink Dave

    No African is physically black. Black is a cultural designation not skin colour. Africans are dark brown in colour. You and your people are pink in colour. Take note of that and correct your psuedo racist presumptions.

    Besides, you are babbling as usual. Your point is not clear. If by your quotation you mean to make a citation then cite the Journal or book or web-site. We will take you to the cleaners as usual..be my guest.

    Jahdey

  20. Incorrect Jahdey as usual trying to claim the world’s populations as “sub-Saharan black Africans” based on nothing but dribble. No geneticists has ever claimed the ancient residents of the Middle East as “African Diaspora”. That only exists in the minds of Afrocentric.

  21. David aka Mr “Sickle Cell is caused by Malaria virus” whines:
    Feb 21, 2008 at 3:41 pm:

    ….Everybody came out of Africa…”

    # Dave repudiates his claim on April 8th, 2008 at 7:38 pm:

    ….Jahdey as usual trying to claim the world’s populations as “sub-Saharan black Africans” based on nothing but dribble.

    Jahdey Speaks

    Pink Davey, you once claimed that everyone come from Africa on Feb 21, 2008 at 3:41 pm. Original Africans will always be a dark brown people due to the glorious hot Sun of Africa which burns pinkeys to death.

    I told you that maybe lots of people are Africans in origin but you are one pink ass from the pale cold caves of the Russian Steeps. Have you confirmed your origin yet?

    Why have you got pink skin whereas the rest of the world is light brown to dark brown? Even the Inuits who lived longer than your ancestors in the cold regions of the world are brown.

    Why are you so pink and angry???

    Food for thought!

    Jahdey

  22. Jahdey ‘who is clueless on what sickle cell is’ speaks nonsense once again:

    What you told me and what are the facts are two different things. Your fallacies can be seen for what they are: pseudo science fiction. A person’s pigmentation does not mean everyone who is ‘dark’ has sub-Saharan African origins. Your knowledge in genetic is laughable. Humans have evolved many times over since their emergence from Africa, so trying to claim populations in the world who you claim are ‘dark’ as ‘original Africans’ is ridiculous on your part. Russian Steeps is not is not only region that people have pink skin, all of Europeans do as do many Eurasians and Orientals have pale skin. I suggest you stop trying to turn people who are not Africans in origin from around the wold into “Africans” just so you can claim a part of their historic identity.

  23. Dave aka “Mr Sickle cell is caused by Malaria virus”

    Africa south of the Sahara was only occupied by the so called Bantus (those whom you target your hate) starting from 1000 BC. Prior to that only the San and the Khoi Khoi lived there. The so called Bantus (your so called sub-saharans) acutally derive from the Northern and central saharan regions. The great Bantu migrations which commenced around 1000 BC saw the settling of that area. This again exposes your limited knowledge, your uncouth nastiness and the pathetic situation of your world view. Go read about the great Bantu migrations…search google for that subject and enrich your empty mind with the precious teachings you are getting from Jahdey.

    BTW you did not answer my question.

    Why have you got pink skin whereas the rest of the world is light brown to dark brown? Even the Inuits who lived longer than your ancestors in the cold regions of the world are brown.

    Why are you so pink and angry???

    Food for thought!

    Jahdey

  24. Jahdey “Mr. delusional when it comes to Sickle cell”

    Same reason as to why all Europeans, most Eurasians and Orientals have pink pale skin. In fact pale skin is the common factor in all Europeans from North to South and East to West. But you wouldn’t know that or why, given your naive attempt at trying to turn every civilization into “African” even the ones who aren’t.

    I suggest you look at the countries considered part of Sub-Sahara. ;-p
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:SubSaharanAfrica.svg
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub-Saharan_Africa#List_of_countries

    So now you are trying to turn the Inuits into “Africans”? LOL! The nonsense never stops with you.

  25. How sad it still is, that we continue to be so narrow-minded and misguided. The information we seek is clearly written in history and the sciences. We as a human race have a long way to go when it comes to understanding where we come from, and how we all connect. It is the bigotry that prevents us from realizing that our ethnic beginnings are all tied together. My lineage goes as far back as Roman occupied Greece and Egypt. My ancestors can be traced to a long royal line that merged with African, Portuguese, India and English. Please read your history before spouting meanness. We have enough of that already in the world.

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