Original West Africans Of Ancient Greece!!! The Black (First) Europeans III

Genetic Linkages Between West Africa and Ancient Greece:

HLA genes allele distribution has been studied in Mediterranean and sub-Saharan populations. Their relatedness has been tested by genetic distances, neighbour-joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses.

The population genetic relationships have been compared with the history of the classical populations living in the area. A revision of the historic postulates would have to be undertaken, particularly in the cases when genetics and history are overtly discordant. HLA genomics shows that: 1) Greeks share an important part of their genetic pool with sub-Saharan Africans (Ethiopians and west Africans) also supported by Chr 7 Markers.

The gene flow from Black Africa to Greece may have occurred in Pharaonic times or when Saharan people emigrated after the present hyperarid conditions were established (5000 years B.C.).

2) Turks (Anatolians) do not significantly differ from other Mediterraneans, indicating that while the Asians Turks carried out an invasion with cultural significance (language), it is not genetically detectable.

3) Kurds and Armenians are genetically very close to Turks and other Middle East populations.

4) There is no HLA genetic trace of the so called Aryan invasion, which has only been defined on doubtful linguistic bases.

5) Iberians, including Basques, are related to north-African Berbers.

6) Present-day Algerian and Moroccan urban and country people show an indistinguishable Berber HLA profile.

Authors:

Arnaiz-Villena A, Gomez-Casado E, Martinez-Laso J.

Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Universidad Complutense, Madrid, Spain.

Tissue Antigens. 2002 Aug;60(2):111-21.

PMID: 12392505 [PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

Article: Population genetic relationships between Mediterranean populations determined by HLA allele distribution and a historic perspective.

146 thoughts on “Original West Africans Of Ancient Greece!!! The Black (First) Europeans III”

  1. Dave I quote your own words for you:

    Dave whines:
    February 19, 2006 at 10:28 pm (see above)

    There is no black African genetic link found between you black Africans and white Greeks either in modern times or ancient….

    Stop living in a delusional bubble of misconceptions and lies. HBS haplogroup 19 is not found in any Greeks,

    Dave eats his own vomit:
    February 20th, 2008 at 6:04 pm (See above)

    “David provides corrections again:

    If you actually read Segearnt article and not any old misinformation found on dubious online sites you would have known that he provides sources for Sicily, NORTHERN Greece(so what happended, it leeped frogged the rest of Greece? – …….

    Jahdey doesn’t even provide the correct sentence that includes the numeric sources for these countries found in the official study but I will:

    “The BENIN HAPLOTYPE accounts for HbS associated chromosomes in Sicily,4 NORTHERN GREECE,10 Southern Turkey,11 and South West Saudi Arabia,6,7 suggesting that THESE GENES had their ORIGIN IN WEST AFRICA…”

    CASE DONE!!!

    JAHDEY SPEAKS: Now do you want me to also list other shared genes between Greeks, Nigerians Kenyans, Somalis, and Ethiopians?

    Y-Haplogroup: E3A, E3B, A, K2, J2, DE, etc.

    Autosomnal genes: G6PD, Thalassemia alpha, Thalassemia beta, HBS Haplotype 19 aka the Nigerian Haplotype.

    Thanks for visiting Rastalivewire.

    Jahdey

  2. More lies and misinformation by Jahdey.

    Corrections by David:

    For one the Y Haplogroups found in Greeks are that of Caucasian genes, not of Sub-Saharan black Africans, as you so falsely stated:

    Haplogroup DE is found in very small % in male populations of Nigeria which proves to be that of a much LATER MUTATION introduced INTO that African regions’ population not from it as you so falsely state. The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in Arabia and subsequently split into haplogroup E that spread to Europe and Africa and haplogroup D represents a great coastal migration along southern Asia, from Arabia to Southeast Asia.

    As far as E3B goes, this Hg can be found through out most of Europe and it is best that one states clearly which sub-group of the E3B (E-M78a – which is not found in black africans but it is found in lower frequencies outside the Balkans and marks migrations from the Balkan areas not into it) is found in Caucasian Europeans like the Greeks. BTW, E-M78a that Greeks and other Europeans share chromosomes belong to cluster α, denoting gene flow from mainland Europe. The alpha cluster is a mutation that arose in the Balkan peninsula of Europe from an earlier marker with a Near Eastern origin, according to Cruciani et al. 2004 :

    “Although E-M78β and E-M78γ show only modest levels of gene flow (from northern Africa to Europe and from eastern to northern Africa, respectively), the clinal frequency distribution of E-M78α within Europe testifies to important dispersal(s), most likely Neolithic or post-Neolithic. These took place from the Balkans, where the highest frequencies are observed, in all directions, as far as Iberia to the west and, most likely, also to Turkey to the southeast. Thus, it appears that, in Europe, the overall frequency pattern of the haplogroup E-M78a, the most frequent E3b haplogroup in this region, is mostly contributed by a new molecular type that distinguishes it from the aboriginal E3b chromosomes from the Near East. These data are hard to reconcile with the hypothesis of a uniform spread of a single Near Eastern gene pool into southeastern Europe”. – Am J Hum Genet. 2004 May; 74(5): 1014–1022. Published online 2004 March 24.

    The African connection to European and Near East people is as distant as that of E-M81. And indeed, E-M78α is not found at all in the Horn of Africa. To try and claim southern Europeans, Middle Easterners, etc. as “black Africans” NOW because e3b came out of Africa, is a slippery slope to genetic evolution and goes against all scientific logic. Everybody came out of Africa. There are significant and distinct stages in phenotype and genotype that lead to the different founding populations of the world since people left Africa. Ancient and modern Greeks are genetically further apart from black Africans as most other Europeans are.

    “Over the generations, the sickle cell trait has therefore reached high frequencies in malarious areas. THE FACTOR IN COMMON TO THE DISTRIBUTION OF THE SICKLE CELL GENE IS THEREFORE MALARIA AND NOT AFRICAN ANCESTRY.

    The higher hemoglobin and lower reticulocyte counts are consistent with less hemolysis, but Greek subjects have NEITHER OF THE GENETIC FACTORS RECOGNIZED to ameliorate hemolysis IN PATIENTS OF AFRICAN ORIGINS , alpha thalassemia or high levels of HbF. Clinically, Greek SS subjects show persistence of splenomegaly, more normal body build, and less leg ulceration and priapism.” – Graham R. Serjeant, MD, FRCP, The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease” – Per:Graham R. Serjeant. MRC Laboratories, University of the West Indies The Geography Of Sickle Cell Disease:Opportunities for understanding its diversity

    Science contradicts your false claims. Sickle cell disorder is not an African origin disease as you so falsely claim. In Greece the ‘highest’ frequency of the trait is found in NORTHERN Greeks who VIRTUALLY HAVE NO HAPLOGROUPS THAT ARE A TYPICAL TO THOSE FOUND IN BLACK AFRICANS. Period. The answer for this has been provided already by many scientists: sickle cell is not an African origins decease, its origins anc common marker is MALARIA.

  3. February 21, 2008
    Dave cries:
    “Corrections by David:

    For one the Y Haplogroups found in Greeks are that of Caucasian genes, not of Sub-Saharan black Africans, as you so falsely stated…” (Please, Provide citations.)

    Then in the next breath David reveals his complete ignorance by this conflicted admission:

    ……“Although E-M78β and E-M78γ show only modest levels of gene flow (…..from eastern to northern Africa, … and from northern Africa to Europe respectively),

    … the clinal frequency distribution of E-M78α within Europe testifies to important dispersal(s), most likely Neolithic or POST-NEOLITHIC. ”

    CASE DONE!!! From the Horse’s mouth!!!

    REAL SCIENTISTS RESPOND:

    (1) According to the Arniaz study, …..Greeks are found to have a substantial relatedness to sub-Saharan (Ethiopian) people, which separate them from other Mediterranean groups. Both Greeks and Ethiopians share quasi-specific DRB1 alleles, such as *0305, *0307, *0411, *0413, *0416, *0417, *0420, *1110, *1112, *1304 and *1310. Genetic distances are closer between Greeks and Ethiopian/sub-Saharan groups than to any other Mediterranean group and finally Greeks cluster with Ethiopians/sub-Saharans in both neighbour joining dendrograms and correspondence analyses. The time period when these relationships might have occurred was ancient but uncertain and might be related to the displacement of Egyptian-Ethiopian people living in pharaonic Egypt. See Arnaiz-Villena A,et.al: HLA genes in Macedonians and the sub-Saharan origin of the Greeks. Tissue Antigens. 2001 Feb;57(2):118-27

    (2) High-resolution Y-chromosome haplotyping and particular microsatellite associations reveal … an East Africa homeland for E-M78.Origin. See Ornella Semino, Chiara Magri, et al “Diffusion, and Differentiation of Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J: Inferences on the Neolithization of Europe and Later Migratory Events in the Mediterranean Area” http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=15069642

    (3) A recent sampling of the Greek population comprised 36 Peloponnesian samples, 5 of which were J-M172(xM12) and 17 of which were E-M78 (R.K., unpublished data). In spite of the small Peloponnesian sample size, the high E-M78 frequency (47%) observed here is consistent with that (44%) independently found in the same region (Di Giacomo et al. 2003) for the YAP chromosomes harboring microsatellite haplotypes (A. Novelletto, personal communication) typical of Hg E-M78 (Cruciani et al. 2004).

  4. Lies and more selective CUT & PASTING pseudo messages from Jahdey .

    David posts the WHOLE paragraph, which contradict’s Jahdey’s views on the subject matter once again:

    “Although E-M78β and E-M78γ show only modest levels of gene flow (from northern Africa to Europe and from eastern to northern Africa, respectively), the clinal frequency distribution of E-M78α within Europe testifies to important dispersal(s), most likely Neolithic or post-Neolithic. These took place from the Balkans, where the highest frequencies are observed, in all directions, as far as Iberia to the west and, most likely, also to Turkey to the southeast. Thus, it appears that, in Europe, the overall frequency pattern of the haplogroup E-M78a, the most frequent E3b haplogroup in this region, is mostly contributed by a new molecular type that distinguishes it from the aboriginal E3b chromosomes from the Near East”. – Am J Hum Genet. 2004 May; 74(5): 1014–1022. Published online 2004 March 24.

    Let me put it in simple terms for you since you are having a hard time understanding what is written:

    “Thus, it appears that, in Europe, the overall frequency pattern of the haplogroup E-M78a, the most frequent E3b haplogroup in this region, is mostly contributed by a new molecular type that distinguishes it from the aboriginal E3b chromosomes from the Near East.” = What this means is the E-M78a that arose in Europe IS A NEW MOLECULAR TYPE(NEW as in A DIFFERENT ONE) THAT DISTINGUISHES(definition: being different or distinct) from the aboriginal(definition:relating to the indigenous/origin) in this case being aboriginal REGION that the E3B arose from. As stated before the E-M78α is not FOUND at all in the Horn of Africa and it is connection to East African is as distant as that of E-M81.

    Davids response regarding the fallacies of the Arniaz study, the “Horse’s mouth” who is full of Horse Manure:

    Arnazia research was funded by such biased mongrels as Soros and the nation of FYROMia, hardly credible or unbiased by anyone’s standards.
    Arnzia’s genetical study of the Greek genes is not valid at all and has been disproved by credible geneticists from around the world.

    “Three respected geneticists, Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Alberto Piazza and Neil Risch, argued that the scientific limitations of Villena’s methodology.[16] They stated that “Using results from the analysis of a single marker, particularly one likely to have undergone selection, for the purpose of reconstructing genealogies is unreliable and unacceptable practice in population genetics.”, making specific allusion to the findings on Greeks (among others) as “anomalous results, which contradict history, geography, anthropology and all prior population-genetic studies of these groups.” No multiple-marker analysis has ever duplicated Arnaiz-Villena’s results. In The History and Geography of Human Genes (Princeton, 1994), Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi and Piazza grouped Greeks with other European populations based on 120 loci (view MDS plot[17]). Then, Ayub et al. 2003[18] did the same thing using 182 loci (view dendrogram[19]).” Nature; MDS plot; Ayub et al. 2003

  5. David Replied Feb 21, 2008 at 9:57 am:

    …E-M78β and E-M78γ show only modest levels of gene flow (from northern Africa to Europe and from eastern to northern Africa, respectively)…

    Jahdey Speaks:

    Modest or not, ancient African E-M78β and E-M78γ are present in Greece.

    This position is radically different from your over-hyped exuberance on Feb. 19, 2008 when you were so sure there were no ancient African genes in Greece. Now you are learning!

    Your quotations support me, your own typewriter agrees with me. Or maybe you cannot read what you are posting.

    Case done!

    Now I move on to Haplogorup DE.

    Dave whines:

    “The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in Arabia and subsequently split into haplogroup E that spread to Europe and Africa and haplogroup D represents a great coastal migration along southern Asia, from Arabia to Southeast Asia.”

    Real Scientists REspond:

    …DE molecular ancestors first evolved inside Africa and subsequently contributed as Y chromosome founders to pioneering migrations….” See Peter A. Underhill , Toomas Kivisild, “Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations,” Annual Review of Genetics, Vol. 41: 539-564 (Volume publication date December 2007).

    You need to be shown pictures of the aboriginals of Arabia and Southeast Asia. They are known as the Negritos and Veddoids of Southern Arab and India, and the Andamanese of South Asia. Think the Australian aboriginals, think the New Guineans.

  6. Once again one has to spell out everything since Jahdey can’t understand what he is reading. As before I will prove once more how wrong you are:

    E3b1 M78-alpha clade, which originated in the Balkans and is the most common e3b in all Europe, is one of the more distantly related as far as splitting from the African lineages. The divergence time (TD) (Zhivotovsky 2001) between the African and Near East lineages; and between the Near East and European lineages thousands of a Millennium, making any lineage between Africa and Europe even further part given the new moluclar types that arose in very different evolutionary histories, which is WHY the study clearly states that the E-M78a that arose in Europe IS A NEW MOLECULAR TYPE(NEW as in A DIFFERENT ONE) THAT DISTINGUISHES(definition: being different or distinct) from the aboriginal(definition:relating to the indigenous/origin i.e. Africa) in this case being different from aboriginal REGION(i.e. African) that the E3B arose in. If you believe there is any close lineages after over thousand millennium between the markers that arose in Africa and those that evolved through out the world, i.e. the Near East / Europe / Asia / etc., then I have a bridge to sell you in Brookline. The African connection to European, Asia, Middle East, etc. is a very distant and different genetic ones from their place of origin. To try and claim that none black African people around the world are “black Africans” NOW because Hg markers came out of Africa, is a slippery slope of genetic evolution and goes against all scientific logic. Everybody came out of Africa. There are significant and distinct stages in phenotype and genotype that lead to the different founding populations of the world since people left Africa. Ancient and modern Greeks and other none black African people around the world are genetically apart from black Africans. Period.

    Misguided Jahdey once more can’t comprehand:
    “Your quotations support me, your own typewriter agrees with me. Or maybe you cannot read what you are posting.”

    David’s response:
    No, my quotations debunk your views and prove you and them wrong. But I can see that you need a dictionary to understand what words like “NEW MOLECULAR TYPE”, “DISTINGUISHES”, “from the aboriginal region” mean.

    More misinformation by Jahdey
    “See Peter A. Underhill , Toomas Kivisild, “Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations,” Annual Review of Genetics, Vol. 41: 539-564 (Volume publication date December 2007). You need to be shown pictures of the aboriginals of Arabia and Southeast Asia. They are known as the Negritos and Veddoids of Southern Arab and India, and the Andamanese of South Asia. Think the Australian aboriginals, think the New Guineans.”

    As usual if Jahdey read the actual paper he would have realised the swiss cheese holes the research work has such as the fact that the authors totally ignore evidence from Australia, i.e. Mongo Man and Woman(common ancestors of all people alive today) , who’s genes don’t fit the one common “out-of-Africa ancestor” model. Given Mongo Man, a physically modern man living in Australia over 40,000 years ago does not share any of the African genetic markers that the ‘single common ancestor from one geographical location’ theory speaks of. Puts modern humans in that region of the world long before they’d left Africa.

    “What conclusive genetic evidence remains for the “southern route” hypothesis? If the Indian subcontinent had received migrants from this putative migration from Africa to the Sahul, it would be reasonable to expect at least some remote affinities between African, Indian, Australian, and/or Papua-New-Guinean (PNG) gene pools. Unfortunately, to date, most studies aimed at detecting traces of an ancient peopling of South Asia through the southern route have not compared the Indian data in a wider context, in particular with people (except Africans) from regions believed to have been involved in the “southern route” migration. Alu insertions data are interpreted as supporting an ancient African-PNG relationship, but India is not a part of this relationship (Stoneking et al. 1997). Y-chromosome and mtDNA data suggest a connection between the Indian subcontinent and Australia, which is, however, dated to <5,000 years (Redd and Stoneking 1999; Redd et al. 2002; Cordaux et al. 2003). Thangaraj et al. (2003) suggest a possible common origin for the inhabitants of the Andaman Islands and PNG, on the basis of high frequencies of mtDNA 16357C in these two areas only. However, we note that 16357C in Andamanese mtDNAs occurs on the background of 16223T and 16319A, corresponding to haplogroup M (Endicott et al. 2003; Thangaraj et al. 2003). In contrast, 16357C in PNG is associated with 16223C and 16319G (Hagelberg et al. 1999; Redd and Stoneking 1999), corresponding to haplogroup N. Consequently, the presence of 16357C in the Andaman Islands and PNG is most likely the result of parallel mutations and not a signature of shared ancestry. In addition, the putative original paternal lineage of Andaman islanders (i.e., Y haplogroup D) (Thangaraj et al. 2003) is not found in Melanesia or Australia (Kayser et al. 2003). Otherwise, mtDNA haplotypes in South Asian ethnic groups are most closely related to east Eurasians and do not show any particular ties to African or PNG populations (Kivisild et al. 2003; Cordaux et al. 2003). In addition, an mtDNA control region motif proposed by Forster et al. (2001) to represent a signature of an early migration from Africa to Sahul through the southern route is not found in South Asia (Cordaux et al. 2003). In summary, there is no convincing support to date for a Middle Paleolithic genetic contribution to South Asia by migrants from Africa to Sahul along the southern route. If so, and in light of the genetic and archeological evidence, the most reasonable scenario for the peopling of South Asia is an Upper Paleolithic event (i.e., the major expansion of modern humans out of Africa through the Levant [Lahr and Foley 1994]), from which the current Indian gene pool is derived. Proto-Eurasians subsequently evolved to their present distinct South Asian, East Asian, and European gene pools and expanded ~30,000 years ago (Forster et al. 2001). ” – Copyright © 2003 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved.
    South Asia, the Andamanese, and the Genetic Evidence for an “Early” Human Dispersal out of Africa
    Richard Cordaux and Mark Stoneking. “

  7. Now I move on to Haplogorup DE.

    Dave whines:
    “The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in Arabia and subsequently split into haplogroup E that spread to Europe and Africa and haplogroup D represents a great coastal migration along southern Asia, from Arabia to Southeast Asia.”

    Real Scientists Respond:
    …DE molecular ancestors first evolved inside Africa and subsequently contributed as Y chromosome founders to pioneering migrations….” See Peter A. Underhill , Toomas Kivisild, “Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations,” Annual Review of Genetics, Vol. 41: 539-564 (Volume publication date December 2007).

    Jahdey Speaks: Lets talk about haplogroup E a little more to clear your befuddlement.

    David bitches:
    “WHY the study clearly states that the E-M78a that arose in Europe IS A NEW MOLECULAR TYPE(NEW as in A DIFFERENT ONE) THAT DISTINGUISHES(definition: being different or distinct) from the aboriginal(definition:relating to the indigenous/origin i.e. Africa) in this case being different from aboriginal REGION(i.e. African) that the E3B arose in.”

    Dave contradicts himself again:
    Dave whines:
    “The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in Arabia and subsequently split into HAPLOGROUP E that SPREAD to EUROPE and AFRICA……..”

    JAHDEY SPEAKS:
    Again from the horse’s mouth, another inadvertent admission. Dave admits that Haplogroup E spread to Africa and Europe. Where in Europe???

    Is this Haplogroup E of yours that migrated to Europe and Africa evidence of blood connection or not???

    Goggle again for Origin of Haplogroup E to see where it comes from.

    Origin of E-M78? See: http://www.google.ca/search?hl=en&q=E-M78+origin&meta=

    Jahdey Speaks:

    Now you are learning more things just that your mind is too dull. Are you a drinker or something?

    E-M78 from BLACK Africa is the father of E-M78 alpha.

    E-M78 migrated into Europe, Greece to be certain. He gave birth to E-M78 alpha.

    Nordics like yourself are R1B or R1a. Nordics are not E-M78.

    E-M78 and his child E-M78 alpha represent Africa’s footprint in Greece.

    E-M78 probably came into Greece during the Neolithic (roughly 7,000 KYA) or possibly Post Neolithic which denotes a time line anywhere from 3 – 2 thousand years ago.

    You do not even understand the garbage you spew out Dave.

    Keep trying you will learn more good things on this site.

    Goggle for the relationship between E-M78 and E-M78 alpha.

    Case Done!!!

    Now we proceed to Haplogroup A:

    Real Scientists Speak:

    A study by Di Giacomo et al. in 2003 found the following African haplogroups in Greeks: Haplogroup A … is highly specific to West Africa….

  8. More lies and wishful thinking by Jahdey:
    “A study by Di Giacomo et al. in 2003 found the following African haplogroups in Greeks: Haplogroup A … is highly specific to West Africa….”

    David once more corrects the garbage that Jahdey falsely believes gives him the right to claim Greeks, a Caucasian white people, as “black Africans”. Pathetic:
    Liar, I read Di Giacomo et al. in 2003 study on genetic markers in European populations, including the Greek ones, and only a SINGLE aka ONE haplogroup A (in other words ONE SUBJECT out of THREE HUNDRED AND NINTY-NINE GREEKS TESTED) was located out of over 400 Greek subjects tested; that doesn’t even equal to 1%. The remainder 399 Greek subjects ALL belonged to haplogroups found in Caucasoid populations, not black Africans.

    I’ve never met anyone who spread lies like you do when scientific evidence and historical facts proves you wrong. Not one study of Greeks by credible scientific researchers has ever shown that Greeks carry the West African Hg A marker. You are also wrong of when the clade first appeared in the European region, it wasn’t through some ‘direct black Africans’ connection, ignorant one, but Near Eastern populations who left and lived outside of African, i.e. climate changes etc., for thousands of Millennium; this is where we see one of the many clade mutantations from the one in Africa because it arose separate in the Near East; from the Near East the clade further mutant and arose separate once again from the already mutant clade which is why scientist claim the E-M78a that arose in Europe IS A NEW MOLECULAR TYPE that is different from the one found in its place of origin and why the E3b1 M78-alpha is NOT found in black Africans.

    The divergence time (TD) (Zhivotovsky 2001) between the African and Near East lineages and then between the Near East and European lineages expanded at least ~30,000 years ago which makes the E3b1 M78-alpha clade, which originated in the Balkans and is the most common e3b in all Europe and not found in black Africans, one of the more far distantly related as far as splitting from the African lineages goes, given the new clade types that arose were in different evolutionary histories, which is WHY the study clearly states that the E-M78a that arose in Europe IS A NEW MOLECULAR TYPE(NEW as in A DIFFERENT ONE) THAT DISTINGUISHES(definition: being different or distinct) from the aboriginal(definition:relating to the indigenous/origin i.e. Africa) in this case being different from aboriginal REGION(i.e. African) that the E3B arose in.

    The “African” connection to European, Asian, Middle Eastern, etc. is a very distant/different genetic one from its place of origin. To try and claim that none black African people around the world are “black Africans” NOW because clades came out of Africa, is a slippery slope of genetic evolution and goes against all scientific logic. Everybody came out of Africa. There are significant and distinct stages in phenotype and genotype that lead to the different founding populations of the world since people left Africa. BUT ancient/modern Greeks and other none black African people around the world are not ‘black Africans’. They are genetically apart from black Africans. Greeks are closer related genetically to other Caucasian people including Nordics then they ever were to black Africans, delusional one.

    “Proto-Eurasians subsequently evolved to their present distinct South Asian, East Asian, and European gene pools and expanded ~30,000 years ago (Forster et al. 2001). ” – Copyright © 2003 by The American Society of Human Genetics. All rights reserved. South Asia, the Andamanese, and the Genetic Evidence for an “Early” Human Dispersal out of Africa Richard Cordaux and Mark Stoneking.

  9. Now we proceed to Haplogroup A:

    Real Scientists Speak:
    A study by Di Giacomo et al. in 2003 found the following African haplogroups in Greeks: Haplogroup A … is highly specific to West Africa….

    Dave babbles:
    I read Di Giacomo et al. in 2003 study on genetic markers in European populations, including the Greek ones, and … haplogroup A ….. was located out of over 400 Greek subjects tested

    Jahdey Speaks: Thanks Dave. That is my point. Haplogroup A from Africa has been detected in Greeks. You as much admited that. Your only problem is ascertaining the percentage. But it is there in Greece..and contradicts your point that Greeks have no Genetic profiles from West Africa.

    Haplogroup DE.

    Dave whines:
    “The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in Arabia and subsequently split into haplogroup E that spread to Europe and Africa and haplogroup D represents a great coastal migration along southern Asia, from Arabia to Southeast Asia.”

    Real Scientists Respond:
    …DE molecular ancestors first evolved inside Africa and subsequently contributed as Y chromosome founders to pioneering migrations….” See Peter A. Underhill , Toomas Kivisild, “Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations,” Annual Review of Genetics, Vol. 41: 539-564 (Volume publication date December 2007).

    Jahdey Speaks: No answer or rebuttal from Dave. Are you stumped or something??? Common say something foolish and stupid to entertain me.

    Haplogroup E

    Dave contradicts himself again:

    Dave whines:
    “The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in Arabia and subsequently split into HAPLOGROUP E that SPREAD to EUROPE and AFRICA……..”

    JAHDEY SPEAKS:
    Again from the horse’s mouth, another inadvertent admission. Dave admits that Haplogroup E spread to Africa and Europe. Where in Europe???

    Is this Haplogroup E of yours that migrated to Europe and Africa evidence of blood connection or not???
    Origin of E-M78? See: http://www.google.ca/search?hl…..#038;meta=

    Jahdey Speaks: Where is your arrogance and hubris now Sucker…I thought Greeks and Africans shared no blood relationship as you so arrogantly declared on Feb 19, 2008.

    We now proceed to Haplogroup K2. This gene again is found in Black Africans and amongst southern Europeans like Greeks, Spaniards, and Portugese.
    Jahdey Speaks: Any comment Dave???

  10. The Misinformation by Jahdey continues:
    “A study by Di Giacomo et al. in 2003 found the following African haplogroups in Greeks: Haplogroup A … is highly specific to West Africa…. Thanks Dave. That is my point. Haplogroup A from Africa has been detected in Greeks. You as much admited that. Your only problem is ascertaining the percentage. But it is there in Greece..and contradicts your point that Greeks have no Genetic profiles from West Africa.”

    David’s reply:
    You are still wrong, Jahdey , as is your point of view. On the contrary Di Giacomo et al study proves your opinion on this matter to be dubious. The mere fact that the study is inconsistent with your fallacy that Greeks carry the Haplogroup A is very telling on what your agenda on this issue is. The Hg A maker was found in ONLY ONE test subject, hardly any evidence of much of anything never mind your dubious claim of “West African markers” in Greeks. In other words the study goes against your fallacies that Greeks carry the Haplogroup A. The Di Giacomo et al. study clearly shows Greeks don’t carry this maker and the study even goes on to show that finding just ONE among hundreds of Greek test subjects is an anomaly(that means its not part of the Greek gene pool at all) and can also be the result of a false positive.

    More Misinformation by Jahdey:
    “:…DE molecular ancestors first evolved inside Africa and subsequently contributed as Y chromosome founders to pioneering migrations….” See Peter A. Underhill , Toomas Kivisild, “Use of Y Chromosome and Mitochondrial DNA Population Structure in Tracing Human Migrations,” Annual Review of Genetics, Vol. 41: 539-564 (Volume publication date December 2007).”

    David’s reply:
    Its funny that you keep using Underhill as your source but don’t mention the fact that he clearly believes clades originating in African and spread throughout the world over thousands of millenniums, like the DE, are not evidence for black ancestry of none black African people though out the world. But then again no surprise there, spreading half truths and misinformation is your MO.

    Psuedo postings by Jahdey:
    “Again from the horse’s mouth, another inadvertent admission. Dave admits that Haplogroup E spread to Africa and Europe. Where in Europe???
    Where is your arrogance and hubris now Sucker…I thought Greeks and Africans shared no blood relationship as you so arrogantly declared on Feb 19, 2008.”

    David’s reply to the BS spread by Jahdey:
    Nowhere did I or any of the scientists who research this topic ever make the claim that Greeks share any ‘black African blood’; that’s only in Afrocentric misguided fantasies. Clearly in the research work of genetics world wide it shows that the E3b1 is not an index for black ancestry. I know its hard for someone like you to understand but the E3b1-M78Alpha is not a black African clade; the M78 is not a single E3b1 lineage, they are just simply downstream markers.

    More horse manure from Jahdey:
    “We now proceed to Haplogroup K2. This gene again is found in Black Africans and amongst southern Europeans like Greeks, Spaniards, and Portugese.
    Jahdey Speaks: Any comment Dave???”

    Corrections by David once more:
    Haplogroup K2 first appeared approximately 40,000 years ago in Iran or southern Central Asia. Your illogic reasoning regarding human evolution is beyond reasoning. All none black Africans might have a common ancestry originating from Africa BUT that does not mean they have black African genetic lineage, Southern Europeans included.

  11. Dave crows:
    Feb 19 6:33 pm

    “For one the Y Haplogroups found in Greeks are that of Caucasian genes, not of Sub-Saharan black Africans, as you so falsely stated…”

    3 days later, David throws in the towel and admits Greek’s African ancestry:
    Feb 21, 2008 at 3:41 pm:
    “The “African” connection to European, Asian, Middle Eastern, etc. is a very distant/different genetic one from its place of origin.”

    JAHDEY SPEAKS: Now we are admitting that there are some connections though “very distant” (what ever you are trying to babble)…

    But from the David’s own mouth we also heard that:

    1)”The DE haplogroup appeared approximately 50,000 years bp in Arabia and subsequently split into HAPLOGROUP E that SPREAD to EUROPE and AFRICA……..”

    2) “The “African” connection to European, Asian, Middle Eastern, etc. is a very distant/different genetic one from its place of origin.”

    Thanks David. Case Closed.

    David continues to retreat in fear and jabber incomprehensibly:
    “To try and claim that none black African people around the world are “black Africans” NOW because clades came out of Africa, is a slippery slope of genetic evolution and goes against all scientific logic.”

    JAHDEY SPEAKS: Noone made such a claim anywhere but you. Straw man’s fallacy. The claim was that genetic studies identified African blood connections with Greece which must have occurred in historical and pre-historical times. Re-read the main article again, David.

    Besides David, I thought Greeks had no genetic relationship with Africans. See your comment on Feb 19, 2008.

    Why are you changing your position now? What ever made you see light???

    David surrenders:
    Feb 21, 2008 at 3:41 pm:
    “Everybody came out of Africa.”

    JAHDEY SPEAKS: No David, people like yourself do not have any African ancestry. You did not come from Africa. You said so so on Feb. 19, 2008 at 6:33 pm. See your own comment.

    Today, you shift the goal post. You want to claim African ancestry too. You are not from Africa.

    There were many ancient Greeks who had African origin as proven by DNA and skeletal evidence. But you are neither Greek nor African. Don’t let me ever catch you try to sneak in a spurious claim of African origin. You too David?? LOL!!!

    Go look for your origin in the caves of Europe.

    Jahdey

  12. Jahdey, you are a bubbling ignorant individual. No one admitted anything about your phantom “black African connection” other then to state the Greeks have the same amount of “connection” to Africa as every other none black African population does: not much and hardly anything to write home about. Nowhere did I or any of the scientists who research this topic ever make the claim that Greeks share any ‘black African blood’; that’s only in Afrocentric misguided fantasies. Clearly in the research work of genetics world wide it shows that the E3b1 is not an index for black ancestry, so your fallacy that it shows Greeks having some phantom “black African ancestry” connection is ludicrous given the the E3b1 M78-alpha is a Balkan origin clade, not black African.

    More Horse Manure coming out of Jahdey’s mouth:
    “But David, I thought Greeks had no genetic relationship with Africans. See your comment on Feb 19, 2008. Why are you changing your position now? No David, people like yourself do not have any African ancestry. You did not come from Africa. You said so so on Feb. 19, 2008 at 6:33 pm. See your own comment. Today, you shift the goal post. You are not from Africa”

    Davids reply:
    You thought right, they don’t have any genetic relationship with Africans. There ‘genetic relation’ is the same as any other none African people: in regards to the “Out of Africa” theory, after thousand of millenniums mutations and different historical variation consists of African and non-African elements and the separate mutations that arose in different geographical and phenotype there is hardly much of a “genetic relationship”. Nothing has changed my mind because I never stated Greeks have black African ancestry.That’s in Afrocentric misguided fantasies like yourself. Its not my fault you can’t comprehand human evolution.

    More fallacies by Jahdey:
    “There were many Greeks who had African origin as proven by DNA and skeletal evidence. But you are neither Greek nor African. Don’t let me ever catch you try to sneak in a spurious claim of African origin. You too David?? LOL!!! Go look for your origin in the caves of Europe”

    David’s reply:
    No there weren’t. There were hardly any Greeks who had African origins in the way you are dubiously claiming because the mutation that defines the E3b1 M78-alpha clade in Southern Europeans like the Greeks is absent in ‘black Africans’. Greeks and other Europeans do have an ancestral connection to people from the Near East but not ‘black Africans’. This has been proven to be true by DNA, skeletal remains, historical and scientific evidence that shows zero proof of your dubious claim.

  13. Dave crows:
    Feb 19 6:33 pm
    “For one the Y Haplogroups found in Greeks are that of Caucasian genes, not of Sub-Saharan black Africans, as you so falsely stated…”

    After much discipling by Jahdey, Dave eats his own vomit!!

    David rolls over:
    “All none black Africans might have a common ancestry originating from Africa … Southern Europeans included.” February 21st, 2008 at 6:51 pm

    Jahdey Speaks: Smart boy, smart boy. Good, you are learning fast!

    Although you must remember, you David do not come from Africa. Your origin lies in some cave in Eurolandia! LOL!

    Jahdey Speaks:
    Now, more DNA classes for Dave:

    1) . See A. Hajjej et al., “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians

    (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European

    Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56, “This present

    study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. This

    suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans

    probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred

    in Sahara.”

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7RKV-4FFN9D5-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a328c136bfba074b8a6ca730c0833a25

    mtDNA Evidence:

    2) An examination by a geneticist acquaintance reveals haplogroup M (East African

    M1) in Greeks. Also found are one sub-Saharan L3e and one sub-Saharan M1 in

    a sample of 90 Sicilians from Troina (n.=42) and Trapani (n.=48 ). In 69

    Sardinians, there are one L1a and one L2a. In 48 Romans there are one L2a and

    one L3b sequences. http://backintyme.com/admixture/richards01.pdf

    http://onedroprule.org/viewtopic.php?t=1071

  14. More Horse Manure from Jahdey:
    “Smart boy, smart boy. Good, you are learning fast!”

    Davids reply:
    Obviously you don’t, given you have still to under the simple fact of human evolution.

    More nonsense from Jahdey:
    “Although you must remember, you David do not come from Africa. Your origin lies in some cave in Eurolandia! LOL!”

    Davids reply:
    Your illogical thinking is very comical; it show the agenda you have in turning none African black people like the Greeks who have no genetic connection to black Africans, into ‘black’. You are ridiculous. By that logic, neither did Greeks. LOL!!

    More Horse Manure by Jahdey from a pseudo paper:
    “1) Regarding Greece, another study has found sub-Saharan DNA in the modern Greek population. According to A. Hajjej et al., “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56, “This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. This suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.””

    David corrects ignorant Jahdey again:
    This is not new, nor did you provide anything credible, its the same useless study copied from the Arnaiz study. They didn’t even do their own tests or research. This Tunisian fallacy that you posted did not analyze any Greek genetic material, nor did any unbiased laboratory contribute to their research. Their results were taken straight from that dubious Arnaiz-Villena paper. They only compare their results with the fallacies found in Arnaiz-Villena and thus repeated the same dubious conclusion.

    And yet still more Horse Manure from Jahdey:
    “mtDNA Evidence:
    2) An examination by a geneticist acquaintance reveals haplogroup M (East African M1) in Greeks. Also found are one sub-Saharan L3e and one sub-Saharan M1 in a sample of 90 Sicilians from Troina (n.=42) and Trapani (n.=48 ). In 69 Sardinians, there are one L1a and one L2a. In 48 Romans there are one L2a and one L3b sequences. http://backintyme.com/admixture/richards01.pdf
    http://onedroprule.org/viewtopic.php?t=1071

    Davids reply:
    Greeks don’t carry ‘black African’ mtDNA, Mr. Nimwit, if you read that paper instead of just posting certain segments from useless and misleading sites you would have realized the paper speaks about NEAR EASTERNERS being the distributors of mtDNA in most of Europe/Asia etc., including to Greeks, the “M” lineage the paper sites is due to EURASIAN lineage from CENTRAL and EASTERN Asian, NOT Africa. That is why the study is calls “Tracing European Founder Lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA Pool (2000)”, not sub-Sahara Africa. I suggest you actually read the research papers you keep posting because unlike what you falsely believe they don’t support your arguments.

  15. “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56, “This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. This suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.””

    David corrects ignorant Jahdey again:
    This is not new, nor did you provide anything credible, its the same useless study copied from the Arnaiz study. They didn’t even do their own tests or research. This Tunisian fallacy that you posted did not analyze any Greek genetic material, nor did any unbiased laboratory contribute to their research. Their results were taken straight from that dubious Arnaiz-Villena paper. They only compare their results with the fallacies found in Arnaiz-Villena and thus repeated the same dubious conclusion.

    JAHDEY SPEAKS: Cite a source for this statement. Post me a link to confirm your claims.

  16. If you read the research paper you would have known they did not conduct their own study but just copied the fallacies found in the Arnaiz-Villena paper since he is their source.

  17. Dave cite a source that challenges the paper, the name of the scientist who rebutted it …you know scholars.

    No generalizations. Specifics, facts. Give me a source. I gave you a sourced reference, rebut it with sources.

  18. They didn’t do their own research work in regards to the Greek genetic material, they used the findings provided by the dubious Arniez-Villena paper. The original source they used is the Arniez-Villena et study, meaning its fruit from the poisonous tree given Arniez-Villena’s work has already been heavily criticized by many of the world’s leading experts in this field. This article published as the original contributor for their Greeks “findings” being Arniez-Villena et , in other words their findings are not only heavily influenced by the Arniez-Villena study but they took them straight from the Arniez-Villena study. They did not even conduct their own tests on tis issue nor did they do independent research, they did not analyze any Greek genetic material, nor did any unbiased laboratory contribute to their research. If you read their paper you would have seen the paper credits with a numerical footnote next to said “Greek findings” the Arniez-Villena et study for their “results”.

  19. # Jahdey replied:
    Dave cite a source that challenges the paper, the name of the scientist who rebutted it …you know scholars.
    February 21st, 2008 at 10:20 pm.

    And David began to jabber:
    # Dave replied:

    They didn’t do their own research work in regards to the Greek genetic material… and blah blah blah…etc etc.

    Jahdey SPEAKS:

    David that is not a peer reviewed reference source I asked for.

    My authority was published in a peer reviewed article: European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006.

    If you cannot produce one scholarly authority challenging or debunking the finding, then you will have to accept its authority.

    I am waiting…

    “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56, “This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. This suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.””

  20. This is not a peer review and your ‘authority’ is pseudo on this matter. Ok let me put it for you in more simpler terms so you can understand: the Tunisian study did not analyze any Greek genetic material on their own. So if they didn’t test any Greek subjects independently on their own, where do you think their “Greek results” came from? The answer is in the paper itself. If you read the whole study you would have seen they credit the dubious Arniez-Villena paper for the Greek results, hence its fruit from the poisonous tree given Arniez-Villena’s work has already been heavily criticized by many of the world’s leading experts in this field. End result, they didn’t confirm nor produce anything new regarding the Greek genetic material since they just took the old dubious material found in the Arniez-Villena study.

    ‘Regarding the Arniez-Villena study, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza-probably the world’s leading expert on studies of this sort-and his colleagues stated, “Using results from the analysis of a single marker, particularly one likely to have undergone selection, for the purpose of reconstructing genealogies is unreliable and unacceptable practice in population genetics.”37 Greeks clustered with other European populations on genetic maps, far from the aggregation of North African and sub-Saharan groups.’- The Gene Wars: Diana Muir Appelbaum ; Paul S. Appelbaum

  21. Dave is running out of arguments:
    ‘Regarding the Arniez-Villena study, Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza-probably the world’s leading expert .. stated,…blah blah blah…jabber jabber…

    JAHDEY SPEAKS:
    I gave you this article by: A. Hajjej et al., “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians(Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European

    Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56.
    Yet you are jabbering about Arniaz’s article which has been validated over and again except by racist wishful thinkers like you.

    But this one is a different article. The writer of this article is Prof. Hajjej.

    It says Greeks have genes from sub-saharan Africa.
    It was published by European Experts in a Renowned Peer Reviewed European Journal on Genetics.

    Yet you are still jabbering about Arniaz. Address Hajjej’s paper.

    Find me one authority that rebuts its premise or Hajjej’s conclusion.

    Come boy, I am waiting…your time is running out.

  22. The only one jabbering nonsense around here is you, who can’t comprehend the simple fact that Arniez-Villena is being mentioned because that is from where your pseudo Tunisian study takes its information regarding the Greek genetic. Haven’t you ever read or written an actual research paper before? You know where you site your sources with numerical foot notes? Well that is what Prof. Hajjej does in this paper, he sites the dubious work of the Arniez-Villena study in regards to the Greek genetic because that is from where he got it from. The Tunisians did not conduct any studies on Greek subjects. Which brings me to another point: it figures you would totally ignored a major factor in the study that I pointed out which contradicts you on this issue, that being:

    THAT THE TUNISIAN STUDY BY PROF. HAJJEJ DID NOT ANALYZE ANY GREEK GENETIC MATERIAL ON THEIR OWN. SO WHERE DO YOU THINK THEY GOT THEIR CONCLUSIONS FROM, HUH, THE SKY? ARNIEZ-VILLENA IS BEING BROUGHT UP BECAUSE THAT IS FROM WHERE THE TUNISIAN STUDY GOT THEIR DUBIOUS RESULTS REGARDING THE GREEK GENETIC.

  23. JAHDEY demanded:
    Find me one authority that rebuts its premise or Hajjej’s conclusion.
    Come boy, I am waiting…your time is running out.

    Dave is caught, confused and desperate he loses it;
    THAT THE TUNISIAN STUDY BY PROF. HAJJEJ DID NOT ANALYZE ANY GREEK GENETIC MATERIAL ON THEIR OWN.

    JAHDEY SPEAKS: Dave we asked you to provide a referenced source to back up your claim.
    You are too unqualified, too fresh to counter peer reviewed from “Journal of Medical Genetics” on your own.

    This journal is produced by educated European specialists in genetic science. You need sourced peer reviewed authoritative articles to rebut it. PLEASE CITE AN ARTICLE THAT REBUTS THE FOLLOWING CLAIM:

    “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56, “This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. This suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.””

    Your time is almost up. If you have nothing substantive to cite then say so.

    Jahdey

  24. Jahdey, its sad that you can’t comprehend the simple fact that Arniez-Villena is being mentioned because that is from where your pseudo Tunisian study takes its information regarding the Greek genetic.

    For example: as opposed to how Arniez-Villena conducted his dubious study, Ayub 2003 used 182 loci to group several of the world populations, including Greeks, based on genetic distances. Their results reveal Greeks are far distance from black Africans, and share a closeness to other Europeans & Caucasian people. This is what is known as INDEPENDENTLY studying the subject; conducting the tests which leads to coming to the conclusions ON YOUR OWN that either supports or does not support other findings conducted. The Ayub 2003 study confirmed the results of most other studies done on Greeks: they are far distance from black Africans and share a common ancestry with Europeans and other Caucasian people. On the other hand the Tunisian study did not study Greek subjects INDEPENDENTLY, as Ayub 2003, Cavalli-Sforza, Menozzi, Piazza, Petlichkovski and others did who all concluded no black African admixture was detected in the Greek subjects they conducted test upon. Instead what the Tunisians just do is sources the dubious paper of Arniez-Villena, in other words their paper just underwent specific selections for the purpose of reconstructing genealogies to shape their findings bases upon the Tunisians subjects they were conducting their studies upon; given they conducted NO studies on Greeks and sited a pseudo paper as their source, their findings are dubious and as such an unacceptable practice in population genetics.

  25. JAHDEY demanded:
    Find me one authority that rebuts its premise or Hajjej’s conclusion.
    Come boy, I am waiting…your time is running out.

    Dave continues to jabber and dogde:
    “For example: as opposed to how Arniez-Villena conducted his dubious study, Ayub 2003 used jabber jabber jabber…etc….”

    JAHDEY SPEAKS
    It is clear now that you cannot produce anything. You rely on rumours, inconsistent logic, lies, and sundry hog-wash; as well as logical fallacies of poisoning the well and goal post shifting.

    I gave you more than 24 hours to produce one paper that contradicts Hajjej’s paper and all you have to give me is your uneducated opinion.

    That being so, the opinion of Prof. Hajjej expressed and accepted by the experts at the European Medical Journal of Genetics in 2006 must then prevail.

    “HLA genes in Southern Tunisians (Ghannouch area) and their Relationship with other Mediterraneans.” ”European Journal of Medical Genetics” 2006 January – February 49(1):43-56, “This present study confirms the relatedness of Greeks to Sub-Saharan populations. This suggests that there was an admixture between the Greeks and Sub-Saharans probably during Pharaonic period or after natural catastrophes (dryness) occurred in Sahara.””

    http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B7RKV-4FFN9D5-2&_user=10&_rdoc=1&_fmt=&_orig=search&_sort=d&view=c&_acct=C000050221&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=10&md5=a328c136bfba074b8a6ca730c0833a25

    CASE CLOSED!!!

    Next Citation:
    “Haplotype analysis has demonstrated that the sickle cell trait in Sicily, northern Greece and western Arabia is in linkage disequilibrum with the Benin (Nigeria) haplotype in western central Africa. This constitues direct evidence for gene flow linked to human migration from central Africa to Mediterranean Europe in historical times…”

    See “Robert Sallares, M.A. Ph.D; Abigail Bouwman, MSc, PHD and Cecilia Anderung, MSc, “The Spread of Malaria to Southern Europe in Antiquity: New Approaches to Old Problems” Med. Hist. 2004 July 1; 48(3): 311-328.
    http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=547919

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