Igbo Hebrews of Africa – News Report

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Igbo Jews of Africa as detailed in Forward – The Jewish Daily

LAGOS, Nigeria – Efraim Uba was born and raised Catholic in southeastern Nigeria, the homeland of the Ibo ethnic group. He spent 17 years as a Pentecostal preacher before joining a messianic congregation where members wore yarmulkes and tallits but praised Jesus. In 1999, one congregant traveled to Israel and came back claiming that the Ibos were Jews. He convinced the whole congregation to embrace Judaism.

“We believe we are from Israel, and we only recently discovered that so many old Ibo traditions were in fact Jewish ones,” said Uba, 60, who was wearing a large silver Jewish star around his neck. In 1999, he founded the Association of Jewish Faith in Nigeria, an organization with some 20 congregations, most of them in his native region. He is one of an estimated 30,000 Nigerians – a fraction of the nation’s 135 million people – who claim to be Jewish. In recent years, they have abandoned the Christian faith of most southern Nigerians and are longing for official recognition by rabbis and by Israel. Just this summer, four members of the community were the first to formally convert to Judaism.

Following the examples of Ethiopia’s Falashas, the Lembas of South Africa and Uganda’s Abuyudaya, the Nigerian Jews are part of a growing number of sub-Saharan Africans who have embraced Judaism. Nigeria’s Jews, like the Falashas, claim to be descendants of some of Israel’s lost tribes who settled in what is now southeast Nigeria. By comparison, the Abuyudayas do not claim to have blood ties to the ancient Israelites and converted by following a local leader.

“There is a real phenomenon of construction of a Jewish identity in sub-Saharan Africa over the last few decades,” said Edith Bruder, a French researcher who recently published “The Black Jews of Africa: History, Religion, Identity” (Oxford University Press). “You have a belief among some local communities that they are descendants of Jewish communities who settled there since ancient times. This phenomenon has accelerated recently with the Falasha precedent and the globalization of information.”

The Nigerian Jewish claim was bolstered several years ago with the discovery in the area of an onyx stone reportedly bearing the name “Gad” in ancient Hebrew. In addition, the Ibo Benei-Yisrael, as they sometimes call themselves, have traditions bearing some resemblance to Judaism. Among them are the circumcisions of newborn males on the eighth day, the separation of women during the menstrual cycles, the mourning period resembling a shiva and the prohibition of eating the meat of an animal that was not blessed. There is also the blowing of a ram’s horn, akin to blowing of the shofar.

Reluctant to convert

But to be officially recognized as Jewish is a tedious process. Israel granted that recognition to the Falashas only after careful vetting. The Abuyudayas underwent a conservative conversion six years ago, a path the Ibos are reluctant to embrace. Their reasoning is simple: To convert would undercut their claim to be Jewish by ancestry. “We are Israelites. This is our identity, and our religion is Judaism, so being denied inclusion into the Jewish family makes us feel lost,” said Michael Ginika, a 53-year-old accounting teacher. ……………………………..
By Marc Perelman October 2, 2008.

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57 thoughts on “Igbo Hebrews of Africa – News Report”

  1. This should not be a surprise as Hebrews obtained much of their knowledge in Ancient Khemit.After one of those captivies in Babylon or Persia many returned to Khemet “even though they supposedly labored in bondage ” while living their earlier.

  2. its quite ironical that Africans with plausible claims to hebrew ancestry are being asked to convert by the state is composed of an overwhelming majority od descendants of converts to judaism!

    This fixation with Israel among many Africans is due to the chosen people myth pronounced in the bible/torah.

    Its just another form of mental slavery.

    Africans must realize quickly that WE ARE THE CHOSEN PEOPLE. The first. Of a BLACK GOD. Period.

    1. That’s not “ironic” that’s standard white supremacy and act of dominance. The Ibo probably do not know that if one is an Israelite by blood and becomes Anusim or forced to convert to other religions like Christianity or Islam, he or she does not need to CONVERT to being a Jew, but already is and simply needs to make Teshuvah ( repentance) and RETURN to the Torah observance. But the White Supremacists who claim to be “Jews” aren’t going to tell them this, because as in all things they seek to DOMINATE, subjugate and mistreat. They need us to believe that THEY are the “tribe of Judah” hence the Moshiach can only come through “them” and that we are either Gentiles or one of the OTHER “ten lost tribes”.

      Identifying with our HEBREW ANCESTORS is not a form of mental slavery. It is natural for the child to return to her roots when she finds them. Believing the IMPOSTERS are the originals is mental slavery. There are Israelite Descendants ALL OVER AFRICA because they have always migrated across and through the continent.

  3. On what is the comment that the Jews living in Israel are descendants of converts based on? The DNA evidence shows the opposite. Also the claims of the Igbos are not necessarily that plausible being that they don’t practice any form of Judaism. It is possible though that there is Jewish ancestry but that has to be examined. When descendants of Marranos, whom we know for a fact come from Jewish ancestry want to return, they too must undergo conversion and they are white so skin color is not the issue here. The issue is that when a group has been estranged from the practice of Judaism and being identifiable as Jews and from other Jews then of course their ancestry becomes questionable. Judaism is passed through the matriarchal line, through the mother. In Spain and Portugal today about 20% of the males have Y chromosomes reflecting patrilineal descent from Sephardim (Spanish Jews). But if the mother’s line is not all Jewish they are not Jewish though they do indeed have Jewish ancestry. Also, what is the scriptural source for saying that the blacks are the chosen people? The Bible the Koran or some other source?

    1. A quote from Abdel Gamel Yasser: “You will never have peace in israel, because you left here(Canaan) Black and returned white and we cannot accept you this way”… We know who the true Yahudim are and a point of fact they are not white..Thats why israel which is really canaan for there is no such thing as israel the state only israel the people.The word of torah is true Japheth now truly dwells in the tents of shem, but where is shem?

      Show me the biblical proof they are white and what dna are they using by the way? We know the edomites and japhet intermingled(married) also the jewish encyclopedia admits that modern jewry are edom… So your point. Where did they aquire the dna sample from? A fake jew rabbi with a cohen or either a levi after his name interesting that makes it true?????We know who you are myriam your edomites your fakes and guess what your going to die in shame with that lie.

      I love when people rattle of at the mouth about nothing especially when the debaters are not fluent in hebrew history or have never touched a talmud nor have read the book of yasher..

    2. Judaism is not matriarchal idiot its is and has always been patriarchal…Why don’t you try reading the torah, tanak or anything besides your own flawed and worthless opinion?


    3. DNA evidence does not support the
      claim that the Jewish people living
      in Israel are descendants of the
      ancient Israelites. On the contrary
      DNA evidence proves that the vast
      majority of Jewish people around the
      world are not Israelite by patrilineal
      descent meaning of the seed of
      Abraham,Isaac and Jacob.

      Judaism is a religion comprised
      of numerous and various peoples
      of all races and ethnicities. Israelites
      are the descendants of Abraham,Isaac
      and Jacob. Israelites are scattered
      around the world and can be found
      practicing every religion. DNA testing
      has proven that Judaism is a religion
      as the Jewish people have tested
      positive for at least 8 distinct and
      unrelated lineages.

      J1 is the only Semitic Haplogroup
      recognized by geneticists. It appears
      heavily in Ethiopia,Yemen and Arabia.
      It is also common amongst Bedouins.
      STR markers are used to specify
      lineages within a specific haplogroup.
      The Kohenim which are found within
      the Buba clan of the Lemba tribe of South
      Africa, the descendants of Muhammad
      (Ishmael) and the Solomonic Amhara
      of Ethiopia are all defined by specific
      STR Markers within the J1 Haplogroup.

      Only 4% of Jewish people around the
      world claim to be Kohen. DNA testing
      eliminated more than half of those
      claims. Meaning that less than 2%
      of Jewish people are actually of
      authentic Kohen descent.

      Approximately 13% of
      the Jewish people have the
      J1 haplogroup. This means
      that almost 90% of the Jewish
      people are not Semitic or
      Israelite for that matter.
      The Israelite Amhara of
      Ethiopia have 10 times the
      amount of J1 than all of
      the Jewish people combined.
      The Buba clan has a higher
      ratio of Kohenim in comparison
      to any Jewish community.
      Only the ancient Kurdish Jews
      have a ratio of Kohenim comparable
      to that of the Buba(Lemba).

      Note(J2 is not Semitic but
      Phoenician, which was a
      mixture of Semitic and Hamitic.
      Some Israelite STR markers
      were identified in J2 such as
      a limited amount of Kohenim.
      However J2 is not Semitic
      and should not be confused
      or combined with J1. J2
      is non-existent in Ethiopia.

      Matrilineal Judaism which
      considers paternity irrelevant
      to Jewish status could not
      possibly inherit that which was
      promised to the seed of Abraham,
      Isaac and Jacob.

      Below is a DNA Site presented
      by an educated Jewish woman
      which clearly demonstrates
      the fact that the vast majority
      of Jewish people are not J1.

      Page 4- J1 constitutes 14.6%
      of Ashkenazi results and 11.9%
      of Sephardic results

      A Reassessment of the Jewish DNA Evidence
      Ellen Levy-Coffman . The Jewish community has
      been the focus of extensive genetic study over the past …
      * http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm
      * · Cached page

    4. to be quite frank with you… unless they have the DNA of the Biblical Moses or Aaron on tap… there is no possible way to tell who has the “Kohen gene”.

      1. I still do not understand why Moses, Jacob, or David DNA are not tested by different researchers of different part of the world. This would put to rest who are the real Isrealites.

      2. Exactly!! They don’t have the remains of the priests to test so the whole Kohen gene thing is actually irrelevant at this point. With no ancient Israelite DNA to compare anything to, the whole Kohen gene has no relevance to finding the descendants of the ancient Israelites.


    6. The Dna shows NOTHING.. When did they get the “Ancient Israelite” Dna sample to compare all of these Europeans to? THEY DIDN’T.. they just keep comparing the dna of converts to other converts and using THEM as the standard for “Jewish DNA” it’s a bunch of garbage. JudaISM is a religion and you don’t pass RELIGION through the blood. Jewish STATUS in inherited from the MOTHER according to Talmudic law, not Torah. Nationality/ tribal assignment is through the father.

      Practicing religion has NOTHING to do with DNA . Miryam you sound like an ignorant Ashkenazi who has done no research on the history and cultural anthropology of the Igbo people. You have given no logical reasons why it is “not plausible’ that they are Jews. You should apply that doubt to all the homosexual and atheist Ashkenazim running around the world who DON’T PRACTICE JUDAISM.

      We do NOT know “for a fact” that the so called “Marranos” or Europeans who were claiming to be Israel from Spain and Portugal but may have well been Ashkenazi converts who later mixed with Turks were of “Jewish ancestry”.. not by BLOOD anyway. Their ancestors may have been converts but that doesn’t make them the SEED of Israel.

      According to Halacha, the Anusim DO NOT HAVE TO CONVERT and neither do their children , they make Teshuvah and return to Torah. you don’t CONVERT to what you are. The “Morrano” Anusim you speak of have been alienated from Judiasm as well while they were in the Church houses worshiping “Jesus”. Halacha does not require ANY Anusim to “convert” and the mistreatment of ALL black people in Judaism by Whites has EVERYTHING to do with color and or ‘race”. The same “morranos” you speak of were involved in the slave commerce along with their “Christian” “enemies” or truthfully COLLABORATORS.

      You will find references to the Holy one of Israel referring to Israel and the Egyptians as his “sons” ALL of these people were Africans. Israel was made a nation in Africa. And remember, Yosef’s wife was HAMITIC and Egyptian woman. SO if that negated the “Jewish” identity , then both of his sons would have no inheritance among Israel, but what do we see of Manessah and Ephraim his sons by a HAMITIC woman? Yaakov gave them a DOUBLE portion and included them with HIS SONS. It is a Halchic ruling that “Jewishness” is through the mother, it is most certainly not a Torah declaration.

    7. There is no such THING as “Jewish ” DNA and we do NOT know “for a fact” that the so-called descendants of “Marranos” come from “Jewish ancestry” we only know that they CLAIM to and they would fall under the halacha for anusim which ALSO includes anyone whose ancestors were forced to convert to Islam, Christianity or whose ancestors turned to idolatry. Juda-ism IS NOT passed through blood, Jewish STATUS is according to Halacha. You don’t pass RELIGION through blood. The ancestry of ALL “Jews” is questionable as NO ONE can prove that they have a line going all the way back to the 2nd temple period or the first century bonafide Jews. The Y chromosome claims are GARBAGE. They can come from people who Claim to be “Sephardim” but the problem is you can’t prove that any of their ancestors were Israelites and not converts. We know that there were many Khazarian CONVERTS in Spain and Portugual after the 10th century and we also know that the ORIGINAL Jews of those areas were black! And were exiled and chased into Africa and Jamaica and even enslaved by the Whites of their countries and that the so-called Jews who ended up running slave ships and plantations and trafficking black people across the sea as slaves were WHITE! I think we have a case of the White CONVERTS to Judaism picking the White side and usurping the identity of the real Jews during the establishing period of Global Racism/White Supremacy.

      All black people are not “Israel” but certainly the Israelites were black. Ask your rabbi, it’s in Talmud and other rabbinic commentary that both Shem AND Ham were BLACK AND LOVELY AND BLESSED.

    1. Boma you be Igbo abi you be Ijaw, Boma na Ibani name. Igbos are IGBOS same for Ijaws and Yorubas but that does not mean they can not be black Isrealites. I used to say the same thing, but history shows that there were Israelite or at least Canaanite and Phonecian groups on the coasts of West Africa. Not only Igbo but Kalabari, Efik, Yoruba as well as Katsina Hausa. If you do your research you might change yor mind these groups were black this has nothing to do with associating with white people. ps are you from Opobo.

    1. My ex husband is Igbo. He was taught that “Igbo” was a form of the word “Hebrew”. Is the Hebrew word for Hebrew, “Hebrew.”? —

  4. Since the only common denominator of everyone’s comments/questions/reply is based on the biblical Israelites. God of the bible placed curses on the biblical Israelites for not obeying His commandments. Find the curses in the bible and find the race/group of people these curses are prevelant upon and you have found the biblical Israelites. Hint Read Deut. 28…who was sold as bond men and bond women throughout all nations. Who had their children snatched from them and sold into slavery and was powerless to defend them. Who served their enemies in nakedness, and want of all things. Who are the prison houses full of even in this modern day in age? Sickness and diseases…which racial group has the most AIDS cases, Diabeties and other chronic life threatening diseases. God doesn’t have to use DNA. Follow the curses and see who you find at the end of that curses.

    1. You should also follow the roots of the people sold into slavery.. there are records by those who enslaved them of where they got them from and which people they were.

  5. DNA can be used to verify common
    claims found in various parts of the world
    amongst people who appear to be of
    different racial,ethnic or cultural backgrounds
    These varying peoples may have been further
    separated by linguistic and geographic barriers,
    but yet hold to the same tradition or claim.

    For example if I was to arrive in the United States
    and ask African-Americans where they originate
    according to tradition or history,I most likely would
    hear accounts of a Slave trade that took place hundreds
    of years ago that brought their ancestors in ships from
    Africa. I could then travel to French speaking Haiti and
    hear of the same story. This process would continue
    with identical accounts from Jamaica and Portuguese
    speaking Brazil. Although there are no original captives
    to test I could carry out DNA testing from all the present
    day communities who are making this common claim
    When the results come back positive linking all of the
    tested communities the common tradition is now verified
    through common ancestry. In order to reinforce these
    results I could now do further DNA TESTING in the areas
    from which the peoples commonly claim to have originated.
    In this particular case it would be West Africa. When the
    West African tested results likewise comeback as positive
    the entire tradition as mentioned above is reinforced through

  6. I like to make this categorically clear . though i have been making statement on this issue most often but we seem to ignore the facts. Igbos are not jews, rather all jews are igbos. it is wrong and insulting for you to call an Ephraimite, or a Gadite a jew. Ephraimite are people from ephraim, Manasheite are from Manasseh, Zebulunite are from Zebulun, Gadite are from Gad , Jews are from Judah. there is definitly gonns be similarity in culture between igbos and present day Israel who i can call judah. but yet all cultures will not be same cos we are not from Judah , but from the house of israel. Igbos are HEBREWS as a genealogy and Israelite as a nationality. not jews.

    1. Wrong, after the Babylonian exile the people were collectively called “Yahudim” regardless of what tribe they were from. you will find such references to Israelites all over Africa by the Arabs. They were called Yahudim or “Jews” then. Not Judaites or Yahudites but Yahudim as a people.

  7. Judaism is simply a religion and like Christianity and Islam
    its members are from many different races and ethnic backgrounds.
    In fact the word Jew as in Judaism does not even come from Judah
    but is rather derived from the Hebrew word Yodea which means to
    KNOW. This referred to the followers of the KNOWLEDGE of the RABBIS
    or the WISEMEN. Rabbinical Judaism was founded by Rabbi Hillel in what
    was called the era of the Tanaim. Rabbi Hillel was born in Babylon and was
    taught by Sh’maya and Abtalion who were both descendants of the Assyrian
    King Senechrib. As Israelites the Igbo have nothing to do with the followers of

  8. Igbos are original Hebrews meaning they are the children of Ebere/ Eber “The Merciful” who preceeded Abiaraham ” A Just Man”. Abiaraham / Abraham though recorded as ” a Semite” is of the Igbo Race. Igbos who can trace their ancestry to Jacob whose name was changed to Israel (Gen.35. vs 10) ARE ISRAELITES INDEED. All Israelites are not JEWS .Jews are from the fellowship/ Tribe of Judah. All labelled as Jews today are not of the Hebrew/ Igbo Race meaning that they are not all descendant of Abaraham / Abiahaham neither are they descendants of Eber.

  9. igbos are of jewish descent realy i believe it our culture portrays it our language our name what of our traditional religion which clearly defines it , the ancient igbos worshipped CHUKWU ABIAMAH as their national GOD before the POTOKIRI{PORTUGUES] explorers came to NIGERIA ? the IGBOS of antiquity worshipped the GOD OF ABRAHAM [CHUKWU ABIAMAH} CHUKWU meaning the great GOD,and ABIAMAH AS ABRAHAM circumcises their SONS on the eight days ETC WHAT OF THE antiquity findings in AGULERI…….

    1. Igbos are not JEWS- they are Israelites.. you would do well to just throw the word JEWS away, unless you are speaking of the mostly white people who follow Judaism- the religion or culture. NO Israelite ever called themselves Jews.. not even the Yahudim. It is a rather new word. J is not even in the Hebrew language.

  10. The “Jewry” is an Igbo way of life .Which Igbo ?,THE ISRAELITES.. JEWRY ,literally means “the fullness”. Fullness of what? Fullness of the Laws as prescribed in The Torah( Old Testament kjv ) A Jew would be ‘One Living in The Fullness’. It was most definately applied to The Fellowship of The Tribe of JUDAH and ‘The House of Judah’ which had included The Tribe of Benjamin and men of the tribe of Simeon .

  11. ENC

    You say that J is not even in hebrew.

    Check this- In Ganda the name Jacob is pronounced as yakobo. James is said to be yakobo in Ganda.

    Gya is is pronounced as Ja in Ganda. e.g. the name Gyageenda is pronounced Jagenda

    The J has has been creeping into Ganda slowly over time.

    Also K followed by an i (Ki) is pronounced as “CHi” not as Key

  12. In ancient times “J” was never part of the Hebrew language and it is not part of the mordern Hebrew language. “J” is only about 500 years old or so.

  13. Hi my shawn sfancil my haplogroup e m96 and subclade is e3a7a and from the reseaarch that I did my matches are annobonese igbos which are black jews of the portuguese inquisition my family line go back to the tribe of benjamin. Annobonese are iberian jewish slaves and the igbo are known to be jews from portugal also.

  14. From the dream of wolves that i had and my wife said she had a dream i change into and my youngest daughter is lefthanded that why believ we are benjamites and also we are jews because the males have christian and biblical names in my family so we have a string connection to israel and last not least jews come in all colors because we have mixed with the gentiles for thousands of years so God bless am a jew who believe that Jesus christ is the Messiah

  15. Shalom All,
    Actually it’s not true that Ashkenazi jews have not been found to be descended from ancient Israelites.The great majority have. See DNA research.
    It is perfectly valid to convert to Israel by observing it’s laws. It is totally 100% acceptable to become an Israelite because you want to as the Bible says you get circumcised and keep Moses law then you belong to the tribe you engaged with to be circumcised and follow Torah.
    So don’t be rude to each other and try and steal others identity. Do it God’s way. Keep the Biblical commandments and have faith in Yahshua the Messiah


    It is unfortunate that so many today don’t understand what the word or name Jew meant or stood for but i will like to refer people to the words of god in the book of Genesis “Bereshit” Judah is a lawgiver, you shall be at the neck of your enemies and unto you shall your brothers praise, unto you shall be the gathering of My people (your brothers) and you shall rule over them.
    I know that my quotes aren’t in accordance as arranged in Genesis 49:9-10 but my logic is to convince those who are trying to make a sepeartion between Isreal and Jews, in the book of either Isaiah or Jeremiah says that some will name themselves Judah, jacob and some surnamed themselves Israel but God will unite them and bring that Israel as the name of everyone of the entire people of Israel
    But I ‘m grateful that God has fulfilled his words because it is truth by making all of the Israel people on earth today to be known as Jews since it was the southern kingdom that remains remnant in the land of Israel today whoever of the lost tribes of ISRAEL TODAY SHOULD IDENTIFY HIMSELF JEW because anybody who is sure that is a decendant of Jacob as Israel should know that the available place called or known as the present Israel today is mainly the southern kingdom’s territory, ethically the other tribes that have lost their own inherited territories should bear the name of the existing territoies’ owner. If you are envying Judah you should go into war and claim you territories from the Arabs and plant your ancestral tribe’s name because the land was divinely and judiciously shared and alotted the entire twelve tribes of Isreal.

  18. Good morning I can call my surname an Israelite From the tribe of Benjamin because I took a Dna test and my bloodline go back to the sephardim from the portguese inquistion who migrated to Annobon West Africa who come over here on cargo slaveships like Deu28;68 said to North America so please dont go there. I didnt hath to take a dna test because being an Israelite is spiritual even though the original ones were brown skin like myself to a blond hair blue eye because we mixed with gentiles. Like the book of amos said God will sift the house of Israel from all nations.

  19. The word “JEW’ Or ” HEBREW ” Has more to do with TRIBALISM and RELIGION than anything else.We all started out in the NILE VALLEY region KMET or EGYPT as it is called by the greeks. Descendants of YISRAEL [ JACOB ] are not the only chosen people that AMEN-RA has [ the first named GOD of the NILE VALLEY ] If you remember,GOD gave the children of YISRAEL, CAANAN LAND;Why because it was the best and most fertile land on the face of the earth. It was inhabited by the CAANITES , How did they get such valuable land , GOD gave it to them when they were law abiding and righteous people.If you read about the building of the TEMPLE OF GOD by SOLOMON [ 1st kings the 5th and 6th chapter ] you will see that the [ SIDONIANS ] were very instrumental in building ” YAH’S ‘ temple. so all NILE VALLEY people are [ GOD’S CHOSEN PEOPLE !!! ]

  20. Well,whether jews or not I am an igbo and I believe igbos are distinct people from the rest black africans I don’t know igbo origin but historian and archiologist should help us out with a concrete proof for us all to to know the fact from the fiction and all I know is that if we are not israelite we are great and incredible.

  21. Yes I greetings Brethren and Sistren,
    A couple of captivating truths:
    check the teachings of the Torah Amos 8:9 verse 7:

    “Are not you Israelites the same to Me as the Cushites?” declares the Lord.
    “Did I not bring Israel up from Egypt, The Philistines from Caphtor, and the Arameans from Kir?”

    So much imperative wisdom is held within these words. Jah Adonai clearly displays that Israel is alike to Ithiopia, the origin of creation. DNA results confirms this. Blooming from Ithiopia, Jah guided and protected ALL of those who upheld HIS righteousness, just as he does today. David’s fallen tent was restored By HIM Selassie I of Ithiopia, direct descendant of King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba. Follow His principle ways and trod as in the Ancient of Days, and Babylon scholars give up the scrutinization! Concrete proof is consecrated within each one of us, all Sons of Ithiopia regardless of our skin color, genetics, religion, or any other categorical dysfunction modern society alludes to.

    Nevertheless, I have encountered a few references to the Jewish roots/rituals of the Eboe Africans, one being a fairly questionable (possibility of being unreliable) source known as the “The Interesting Narrative of the Life of Olaudah Equiano.” In this book published in 1789, Equiano tells his life as a slave taken from Africa and the experiences he encountered. While it may not be entirely accurate in some respects, Equiano mentions that members of his culture practiced circumcision the same as Jews, had similar rituals on the same occasions as the Jews, and so on.

    Besides this and other complexities, no one is excluded from Jah’s love, for we have all been given the blessing of life, and for each there is sound place and reason. Peace Love And Respect to every living cell.

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