The Migration Period, also called Barbarian Invasions or Völkerwanderung (German for “wandering of peoples”), is a name given by historians to a human migration which occurred within the period of roughly AD 300–700 in Europe, marking the transition from Late Antiquity to the Early Middle Ages. The German language (de ”Deutsch”) is a West Germanic language and one of the world’s major languages. Human migration denotes any movement by Humans from one locality to another sometimes over long distances or Events By place Roman Empire The Franks penetrate into what is now northern Belgium (approximate date Events By Place North America The Mount Edziza volcanic complex erupts in northern British Columbia, Canada. Late Antiquity (c 300-600 is a Periodization used by historians to describe the transitional centuries from Classical Antiquity to the Middle Ages, in The Early Middle Ages is a period in the History of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500
The migration included the Goths, Vandals, Alans, Suebi and Franks, among other Germanic, Iranian and Slavic tribes. The Goths ( Gothic: Gothic usvg|14px|u]]Gothic asvg|14px|a]]Gothic s The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The Suebi or Suevi (from Proto-Germanic * sw?baz based on the Proto-Germanic root * sw?- meaning “one’s own” The Franks or Frankish people (Franci or gens Francorum) were West Germanic tribes first identified in the 3rd century as an Ethnic group The Germanic peoples are a historical group of Indo-European -speaking peoples originating in Northern Europe and identified by their use of the Germanic The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The migration may have been triggered by the incursions of the Huns, in turn connected to the Turkic migration in Central Asia, population pressures, or climate changes. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The Turkic migration as defined in this article was the expansion of the Turkic peoples across most of Central Asia into Europe and the Middle Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism ‘s numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat. Climate change is any long-term significant change in the “average weather” that a given region experiences
Migrations would continue well beyond AD 1000, successive waves of Slavs, Avars, Bulgars, Hungarians, the Turkic expansion and finally the Mongol invasions, radically changing the ethnic makeup of Eastern Europe. The Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan. The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. The Turkic migration as defined in this article was the expansion of the Turkic peoples across most of Central Asia into Europe and the Middle The Mongol Empire emerged in the course of the 13th century by a series of conquests and invasions throughout Central and Western Asia, reaching Eastern Europe Western European historians, however, tend to emphasize the migrations most relevant to Western Europe.
2nd to 5th century simplified migrations. See also map of the world in AD 820. The migration movement may be divided into two phases; the first phase, between AD 300 and 500, largely seen from the Mediterranean perspective of Greek and Latin historians, with the aid of some archaeology, put Germanic peoples in control of most areas of the former Western Roman Empire. The Western Roman Empire refers to the western half of the Roman Empire, from its division by Diocletian in 285 the other half of the Roman Empire was the Eastern (See also: Ostrogoths, Visigoths, Burgundians, Alans, Langobards, Angles, Saxons, Jutes, Suebi, Alamanni, Vandals). The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East The Burgundians or Burgundes were an East Germanic tribe which may have emigrated from mainland Scandinavia to the island of Bornholm, whose The Alans or Alani (occasionally but more rarely termed Alauni or Halani) were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestral region of Angeln, a modern district located in The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes. The Jutes, Iuti, or Iutae were a Germanic people who according to Bede were one of the three most powerful Germanic peoples of the time The Suebi or Suevi (from Proto-Germanic * sw?baz based on the Proto-Germanic root * sw?- meaning “one’s own” The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were originally an alliance of Germanic tribes located around the upper Main river ( Germany The first to formally enter Roman territory — as refugees from the Huns — were the Visigoths in 376. The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads with a Turkic core of aristocracy The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Events By Place Roman Empire Many Goths appear on the Danube and request entry into the Roman Empire in their flight from the Tolerated by the Romans on condition that they defend the Danube frontier, they rebelled, eventually invading Italy and sacking Rome itself (410) before settling in Iberia and founding a kingdom there that endured 300 years. The Sack of Rome occurred on August 24, 410. The city was attacked by the Visigoths, led by Alaric I. Events By place Western Roman Empire Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Emperor. The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra They were followed into Roman territory by the Ostrogoths led by Theodoric the Great, who settled in Italy itself. The Ostrogoths (Ostrogothi or Austrogothi were a branch of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Theodoric the Great (454 – August 30, 526) known to the Romans as Flavius Theodoricus, was king of the Ostrogoths (471-526 ruler of
In Gaul, the Franks, a fusion of western Germanic tribes whose leaders had been strongly aligned with Rome, entered Roman lands more gradually and peacefully during the 5th century, and were generally accepted as rulers by the Roman-Gaulish population. Gaul (Gallia was the Roman name for the region of Western Europe comprising present day northern Italy, France, Belgium, western The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. Fending off challenges from the Allemanni, Burgundians and Visigoths, the Frankish kingdom became the nucleus of the future states of France and Germany. Meanwhile Roman Britain was more slowly conquered by Angles and Saxons. The Angles is a modern English word for a Germanic-speaking people who took their name from the cultural ancestral region of Angeln, a modern district located in The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes.
The second phase, between AD 500 and 700, saw Slavic tribes settling in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly in eastern Magna Germania, and gradually making it predominantly Slavic. Germania was the Latin Exonym for The Bulgars, who had been present in far eastern Europe since the second century, conquered the eastern Balkan territory of the Byzantine Empire in the seventh century. The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, The 2nd century is the period from 101 to 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era. The Lombards, a Germanic people, settled northern Italy in the region now known as Lombardy. The Lombards ( Latin Langobardi, whence the alternative names Langobards and Longobards) were a Germanic people originally from Lombardy (Lombardia Latin: Langobardia, Western Lombard: Lumbardìa, Eastern Lombard: Lombardia) is one of the
The Arabs tried to invade Europe via Asia Minor in the second half of the seventh century and the early eighth century, but were eventually defeated at the siege of Constantinople by the joint forces of Byzantium and Bulgars in 717-18. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Anatolia (Anadolu ???????? Anatolía) or Asia minor, comprising most of modern Turkey, is the geographic region bounded by the Black The Second Arab Siege of Constantinople (717-718 was a combined land and sea effort by the Arabs to take the capital city of the Byzantine Empire, Constantinople This article is about the city See also Byzantine Empire. Byzantium ( Greek: ????????? Latin: la BYZANTIVM The Bulgars (also Bolgars or proto-Bulgarians) were a seminomadic people probably of Turkic descent originally from Central Asia, Events By Place Europe March 21 — The Battle of Vincy is fought between Charles Martel and Ragenfrid. For the area code see Area code 718 Events By Place Europe Tervel ‘s reign as monarch of Khazars stopped the Arab expansion into Eastern Europe across the Caucasus. “Kazar” redirects here for the Marvel Comics character see Ka-Zar; for the village in Azerbaijan see X?z?r.
The initial Arab Muslim conquests (632–732 (??? Fatah, literally opening, also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. The Caucasus ( also referred to as North Caucasus) is a geopolitical region located between Europe Asia & Middle East At the same time, Arabs invaded Europe via Gibraltar, conquering Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) from the Visigoths in 711 before finally being halted by the Franks at the Battle of Tours in 732. Gibraltar (d???br?lt?r is a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula overlooking the Strait of Gibraltar Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra Events By Place Europe April 30 — Ummayad troops led by Tariq ibn Ziyad land at Gibraltar, and begin The Battle of Tours (October 10 732 also called the Battle of Poitiers and in ????? ???? ??????? (ma‘arakat Balâ? ash-Shuhadâ’ Battle of Court These battles largely fixed the frontier between Christendom and Islam for the next three centuries.
During the eighth to tenth centuries, not usually counted as part of the Migration Period but still within the Early Middle Ages, new waves of migration, first of the Magyars and later of the Turkic peoples, as well as Viking expansion from Scandinavia, threatened the newly established order of the Frankish Empire in Central Europe. The Early Middle Ages is a period in the History of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 Hungarians (or Magyars, magyarok are an Ethnic group primarily associated with Hungary. The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family A Viking is one of the Norse ( Scandinavian Explorers Warriors Merchants, and pirates who raided and colonized wide areas Francia or Frankia, later also called the Frankish Empire (imperium Francorum Frankish Kingdom (Latin regnum Francorum, “Kingdom of the
The German term Völkerwanderung [?fœlk??vand????] (“migration of peoples”), is still used as an alternative label for the Migration Period in English-language historiography. The German language (de ”Deutsch”) is a West Germanic language and one of the world’s major languages. .
However, the term Völkerwanderung is also strongly associated with a certain romantic historical style which has strong roots in the German-speaking world of the 19th century, perhaps associated with the same cultural process which included the music of Wagner and the writings of Nietzsche and Goethe. Romanticism is a complex artistic literary and intellectual movement that originated in the second half of the 18th century in Western Europe, and gained strength during the The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15 1844 August 25 1900 ( was a nineteenth-century German philosopher and classical philologist ?jo?han ?v?lfga? f?n ?gø?t? (in English generally ?g??t? 28 August 1749 22 March 1832 was a German writer
The Völkerwanderung, the forceful expansion of the Germanic tribes into France, England, Northern Italy and Iberia, is seen an indication of cultural energy and dynamism. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Related categories Central Italy Southern Italy Insular Italy Northeast Italy The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra This analysis became associated with nineteenth century German Romantic nationalism. Romantic nationalism (also National Romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of Nationalism in which the state derives
Even the term “barbarian invasion” is still in use in some English works; It has its roots in the Latin point of view about the migration period: if Germans and Slavic peoples use the term “migration” (Völkerwanderung in German, St?hování národ? in Czech, etc. ), in cultures that are heirs to Latin language (French, Italians, Spanish, etc. ), these migrations are called “barbarian invasions” (e. g. the Italian term Invasioni barbariche). Barbarian historically has the neutral meaning of “foreigner” but it also has a pejorative meaning of “uncivilized” and “cruel”, making it problematic as a neutral historical descriptor. “Barbarian” is a pejorative term for an uncivilized person either in a general reference to a member of a nation or Ethnos perceived
Even the old romantic vision of the Migration age differs between differing cultures: on one side the Völkerwanderung: the myth of young and vigorous people who succeeded the old and decadent Roman society; on the other side there is the stereotype of uncivilized and savage ‘barbarians’, who destroyed the highly developed Roman Civilization, starting a Dark Age of disorder and violence. Decadence can refer to a personal trait or to the state of a society (or segment of it
Today, the notion of the “invasions” of pre-Romantic-generation historians has also fallen out of favour: many scholars today hold that a great deal of the migration did not represent hostile invasion so much as tribes taking the opportunity to enter and settle lands already thinly populated, in part by the recurring pandemic of the Plague of Justinian, which made its first appearance in 541-42; territories were weakly held by a divided Roman state whose economy was shrinking at a time when the climate was cooling (see Migration Period Pessimum). The Plague of Justinian was a Pandemic that afflicted the Byzantine Empire, including its capital Constantinople, in the years 541 – 542 The Migration Period Pessimum (also referred to as Dark Ages Cold Period) was a period of unusually cold climate in the North Atlantic region lasting from about
While there were certainly battles, and sieges of cities, and death of innocent civilians fought between the tribes and the Roman peoples, the migration period did not see the kind of wholesale destruction carried out in later centuries by the Mongols or by industrial-era armies. The Mongol Empire ( Mongolyn Ezent Güren or mn ?? M????? ??? Ikh Mongol Uls; 1206–1368 was the largest contiguous Empire
Some twentieth-century English-language historiography largely abandoned the German and Latin terms, replacing them with the term “Migration Period” arguing that it is more neutral, as in the series Studies in Historical Archaeoethnology or Gyula László’s The Art of the Migration Period.