From ‘The Song of Roland’
(Anonymous Old French epic
middle of the 11th century)
Their martyrdom, his men’s, Marsile has seen,
So he bids sound his horns and his buccines;
Then canters forth with all his great army.
Canters before a Sarrazin, Abisme,
More felon none was in that company;
Cankered with guile and every felony,
He fears not God, the Son of Saint Mary;
Black is that man as molten pitch that seethes;
Better he loves murder and treachery
Than to have all the gold of Galicie;
Never has man beheld him sport for glee;
Yet vassalage he’s shown, and great folly,
So is he dear to th’ felon king Marsile;
Dragon he bears, to which his tribe rally.
That Archbishop could never love him, he;
Seeing him there, to strike he’s very keen,
Within himself he says all quietly:
“This Sarrazin great heretick meseems,
Rather I’ld die, than not slay him clean,
Neer did I love coward nor cowardice.”
King James IV of Scotland came to the throne in 1488. He was an able and visionary monarch whose administration united and maintained order in the Scottish highlands and lowlands. He encouraged manufacturing and shipbuilding, and created a navy. James IV also renewed Scotland’s alliance with France, although in 1503 he took an English wife, Margaret Tudor, daughter of Henry VII of England.
This is an exercept of a speech Mummar Ghadafi made in the Nigeria city of Kano:
Your forefathers were Arabs from Yemen who settled here over five thousand years ago. The Arabs arrived in Africa, settled in Africa and gave the name of jana to what today is called Ghana. Jana, an arabic word, means a small paradise. The Arabs gave all the names you hear when they reached the atlantic Ocean. Your origins are Arab and so are your kith and kin.