Syllabus on Race and Hispanic Caribbean People.

Race and Hispanic Caribbean People (Graduate Course)
Prof. Gladys M. Jiménez-Muñoz

DEPARTMENT OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Fall 2006
Binghamton University

Course Description:

The purpose of this course is to examine the past and present context of how race has been experienced among peoples in and from the Hispanic Caribbean. Particular emphasis will be placed on the various ways in which racial identities are complicated by questions of gender, class, and sexuality both in the Caribbean and in the United States. The course material will not be reduced to the human-services context in which the course originates, but instead will explore the broader historical setting and socio-cultural circumstances of the question of race among Hispanic Caribbean peoples.

Populations from the Hispanic sectors of the Caribbean Basin constitute the majority of Latinas/Latinos in the U.S. Northeast and are one of the fastest growing collection of peoples in the United States today. Most Hispanic-Caribbean Latinos still live below the poverty level and make up a disproportionately large portion of the clients of human service agencies in this region.

Given the fundamental importance of race and racism within U.S. culture--both institutionally and in everyday life--one of the persistent difficulties facing such agencies is that, historically, race and racism among populations in and from the Hispanic Caribbean are phenomena that are understood and lived in very different ways from those that predominate within traditional U.S. culture. Although (since the 1930s) U.S. social-science studies have begun to acknowledge such differences, not a lot of time has been devoted within the curriculum to address the historical background, current challenges, and social implications of what race and racism means among peoples in and from the Hispanic Caribbean.

This course is intended to make accessible to graduate students some of the new perspectives and controversies concerning the cultural complexity and effects of Latino interactions emerging from creative intersections between the humanities and social sciences. Last, but not least, this course is aimed at stimulating creative dialogue among students working on these social problems, students who often have no knowledge of one another and their greater social environment.

Format: Seminar/Discussion

Speakers and videos will be used to complement our discussions.

Objectives:

The principal objective of this course is to help students acquire different educational and practical skills in the field of Human Development.

    1. To provide a socio-historic context enabling students to begin understanding the lives of Hispanic Caribbean peoples and their experience, thoughts and visions as they pertain to questions of race and racism in the Caribbean and/or in the United States. This will be done through the prism of, not only gender, but also in terms of class and sexuality.

    2. To engage in critical analysis about research, bibliography, and theoretical frameworks in relation to Human Services. This will help students engage in research on a vital topic in the field by having them conceptualize a research question, develop it, and refine it for formal presentation.

    3. To engage in critical dialogues about issues of race and racism as it pertains to the Hispanic Caribbean, as compared to the United States and of how to struggle against these different but overlapping forms of oppression.

This course is a step forward for the department in its efforts to attend to the multiplicity of voices, perspectives, and meanings generated in intercultural contexts framed by racism. The course contributes to the department's exploration of the variety of interactions, tensions, negotiations, and accommodations that have occurred and continue to take place within the context of Latino lives and how they are affected by the experience of race and racism in the United States and the Caribbean.

Course Requirements:

Notice - All students wishing to receive full credit for her or his work this semester must fulfill all of the following conditions:

1. Class participation: this amounts to 50% of total grade.  Students will be expected to read all required articles and demonstrated their preparedness by active participation in class.  This includes any or all of the following: sharing insights into the reading material, raising critical questions, responding to questions raised, and advancing the discussion to higher levels.

Each student will be expected to lead one group discussion based on the day's readings. This will require that each "group leader" (for that session):

    A. Construct a series of thoughtful questions to orient the group's discussion;
    B. Guide the group in addressing all of these questions during the specific amount of time allotted for group discussions;
    C. Make sure that the group covers all of the readings assigned for that day;
    
2. Final Project. A 20-25 page paper due December 14 . This will amount to 50% of your total grade. PLEASE NOTE: The topic should be approved by your instructor.

Suggested textbooks for this course:

Betances, Emelio, State and Society in the Dominican Republic (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995)

Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996) [entire journal]

De la Fuente, Alejandro, A Nation for All: Race, Inequality, and Politics in Twentieth-Century Cuba (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001)

Figueroa, Luis, Sugar, Slavery, and Freedom in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico (Chapel Hill, NC and Río Piedras, PR: University of North Carolina Press/ University of Puerto Rico Press, 2006)

Findlay, Aileen Suárez, Imposing Decency: The Politics of Sexuality and Race in Puerto Rico, 1870-1920 (Durham: Duke U. Press, 1999)
                            
Helg, Aline, Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912 (Chapel Hill: U. of North Carolina Press, 1995)

Kutzinski, Vera M., Sugar Secrets: Race and the Erotics of Cuban Nationalism (Charlottesville, VA: U. Press of Virginia, 1993)

Martínez-Alier, Verena, Marriage, Class, and Colour in Nineteenth-Century Cuba: A Study of Racial Attitudes and Sexual Values in a Slave Society (Ann Arbor: U. of Michigan Press, 1989).
    
Sagás,  Ernesto, Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic (Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, 2000).

Santiago-Valles, Kelvin, “Subject People” and Colonial Discourses: Economic Transformation and Social Disorder in Puerto Rico, 1898-1947 (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994).

Williams, Claudette M., Charcoal and Cinnamon: The Politics of Color in Spanish Caribbean Literature (Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, 2000).

 
WEEK 1: 8/31 Introduction


WEEK 2: 9/7 The Early-Modern to late-19th-Century Background to Historicizing “Race”—particularly within “Hispanic” Context:


Required:
Blakely, Allison, “European Dimensions of the African Diaspora: The Definition of Black Racial Identity,” in Darlene Clark Hine and Jacqueline McLeod, eds., Crossing Boundaries: Comparative History of Black People in the Diaspora (Bloomington, IN: Indiana U. Press, 1999), pp. 87-104.

Santiago-Valles, Kelvin, “‘Race,’ Labor, ‘Women’s Proper Place,’ and the Birth of Nations: Notes on Historicizing the Coloniality of Power,” The New Centennial Review, vol.3, no.3 (Fall, 2003): 47-71.

Piedra, José, “Literary Whiteness and the Afro-Hispanic Difference,” in Dominick LaCapra, ed., The Bounds of Race: Perspectives on Hegemony and Resistance (Ithaca, NY: Cornell U. Press, 1991), pp. 278-310.
    
Muñiz-Varela, Miriam, “The Caribbean: Archeology and Poetics,” Social Text, no.38 (Spring, 1994): 105-110.

Mirabal, Nancy, “‘No Country But the One We Fight For’: The Emergence of an Antillean Nation and Community in New York City, 1860-1901,” in Agustín Laó-Montes and Arlene Dávila, eds., Mambo Montage (NYC: Columbia U. Press, 2001), pp. 57-72.    

Recommended:
Buscaglia, José, “Undoing the Ideal: The Life and Passion of the Mulatto,” in Buscaglia, Undoing Empire: Race and Nation in the Mulatto Caribbean (Minneapolis: U. of Minnesota Press, 2003), pp. 183-244, [endnotes:] 304-318.

Fernández-Retamar, Roberto, “Caliban: Notes Toward a Discussion of Culture in Our America,” in Fernández-Retamar, Caliban and Other Essays (Minneapolis: U. of Minnesota Press, 1989), pp. 3-45, [endnotes:] 113-118.


WEEK 3: 9/14 19th Century:

Puerto Rico/ Puerto Ricans:

Required:
Figueroa, Luis, Sugar, Slavery, and Freedom in Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico (Chapel Hill, NC and Río Piedras, PR: University of North Carolina Press/ University of Puerto Rico Press, 2006), pp. 15-104.

Rodríguez-Silva, Ileana, “Libertos y libertas in the Construction of the Free Worker in Postemancipation Puerto Rico,” in Pamela Scully and Diana Paton, eds., Gender and Slave Emancipation in the Atlantic World (Durham: Duke U. Press, 2005), pp.199-222.

Findlay, Aileen Suárez, Imposing Decency: The Politics of Sexuality and Race in Puerto Rico, 1870-1920 (Durham: Duke U. Press, 1999), ONLY pp.18-109.
    
Arroyo, Josianna, “Technologies: Transculturations of Race, Gender, and Ethnicity in Arturo A. Schomburg’s Masonic Writings,” Centro, vol. XVII, no.1 (Spring, 2005): 4-25.

Recommended:
Scarano, Francisco, “The Jíbaro Masquerade and the Subaltern Politics of Creole Identity Formation in Puerto Rico, 1745-1823,” American Historical Review, vo.101, no.5 (December, 1996): 1398-1431.

Dungy, Kathryn R., “Live and Let Live: Native and Immigrant Free People of Color in Early Nineteenth-Century Puerto Rico,” Caribbean Studies, vol.33, no.1 (January-June, 2005): 79-112.

Matos-Rodríguez, Félix, “Street Vendors, Pedlars, Shop-Owners, and Domestics: Some Aspects of Women’s Economic Roles in Nineteenth-Century San Juan, Puerto Rico (1820-1870),” in Verene Sheperd, Bridget Brereton, and Barbara Bailey, eds., Engendering History: Caribbean Women in Historical Perspective (NY: St. Martin’s Press, 1995), pp. 176-192.
    

WEEK 4: 9/21 Cuba/ Cubans:

Required:
López Segrera, Francisco, “Cuba: Dependence, Plantation Economy, and Social Classes, 1762-1902,”  in Manuel Moreno Fraginals, Frank Moya Pons, and Stanley Engerman, eds., Between Slavery and Free Labor: The Spanish-Speaking Caribbean in the Nineteenth Century (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1985), pp.77-93.

Martínez-Alier, Verena, Marriage, Class, and Colour in Nineteenth-Century Cuba: A Study of Racial Attitudes and Sexual Values in a Slave Society (Ann Arbor: U. of Michigan Press, 1989), pp. 11-41; 71-81.

Kutzinski, Vera M., Sugar Secrets: Race and the Erotics of Cuban Nationalism (Charlottesville, VA: U. Press of Virginia, 1993), pp. 43-100.

Rushing, Fannie Theresa, “Afro-Cuban Social Organization and Identity in a Colonial Slave Society, 1800-1888,” Colonial Latin American Historical Review, vol.11, no.2 (Spring, 2002): 177-201.

Helg, Aline, Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912 (Chapel Hill: U. of North Carolina Press, 1995), ONLY pp. 23-90.

Recommended:
Turner, Mary, “Chinese Contract Labor in Cuba, 1847-1874,” Caribbean Studies, vol.14, no.2 (1974): 66-81.

Paquette, Robert, Sugar Is Made with Blood: The Conspiracy of La Escalera and the Conflict between Empires over Slavery in Cuba (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan U. Press, 1988), [“Sugar and Society in 1840,” chapters 1-4] pp. 29-128, [endnotes:] 283-304.

Howard, Philip, “Creolization and Integration: The Development of a Political Culture among Pan-Afro-Cuban Benevolent Societies, 1878-1895,” in Darlene Clark Hine and Jacqueline McLeod, eds., Crossing Boundaries: Comparative History of Black People in the Diaspora (Bloomington, IN: Indiana U. Press, 1999), pp. 134-158. (Professor’s PDF)
James, Winston, “From Class for Itself to a Race or its Own: The Strange Case of Afro-Cuban Radicalism and Afro-Cubans in Florida, 1870-1940,” in James, “Holding Aloft the Banner of Ethiopia”: Caribbean Radicalism in Twentieth-Century America (London: Verso Publishers, 1998), pp. 232-261.


WEEK 5: 9/28 Dominican Republic/ Dominicans:

Required:
Betances, Emelio, State and Society in the Dominican Republic (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), ONLY pp. 9-40.

Hoetink, Harry, “The Dominican Republic in the Nineteenth Century: Some Notes on Stratification, Immigration, and Race,” in Magnus Mörner, ed., Race and Class in Latin America (NY: Columbia U. Press, 1970), pp. 96-121.

San Miguel, Pedro L., “Racial Discourse and National Identity: Haiti in the Dominican Imaginary,” in San Miguel, The Imagined Island: History, Identity, and Utopia in Hispaniola (Chapel Hill: U. of North Carolina Press, 2005), pp. 35-66.

Torres-Saillant, Silvio, “The Tribulations of Blackness: Stages in Dominican Racial Identity,”  Latin American Perspectives, vol.25, no.3, issue #100 (May, 1998): ONLY 125-136.

Recommended:
Moya-Pons, Frank, “The Land Question in Haiti and Santo Domingo: The Sociopolitical Context of the Transition from Slavery to Free Labor, 1801-1843,” in Manuel Moreno Fraginals, Frank Moya Pons, and Stanley Engerman, eds., Between Slavery and Free Labor: The Spanish-Speaking Caribbean in the Nineteenth Century (Baltimore, MD: The Johns Hopkins U. Press, 1985), pp. 181-214.(Professor’s PDF)

Nicholls, David, From Dessalines to Duvalier: Race, Colour, and National Independence in Haiti (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers U. Press, 1996), pp. 67-107, [endnotes:] 273-284.
    
   
WEEK 6: October 5 – No Class:

Professor is the Conference Committee Chair for the  Puerto Rican Studies Association  Conference (PRSA) at Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y.: See link: If you want to participate in this conference: PRSA have extended the pre-registration deadline for the 7th Biennial Conference to FRIDAY, 15 SEPTEMBER 2006. Download the pre-registration form and the preliminary conference program at  http://www.puertorican-studies.org/


WEEK 7: October 12: Early- to Mid-20th Century:

General Overview of These Populations/ Countries:

Required:
Santiago-Valles, Kelvin, “‘Still Longing for the Old Plantation’: The Visual Parodies and Racial National Imaginary of U.S. Overseas Expansionism, 1898-1903,” American Studies International, vol. 37, no. 3 (October, 1999): 18-43.

Stepan, Nancy Leys, “The Hour of Eugenics”: Race, Gender, and Nation in Latin America (Ithaca: Cornell U. Press, 1991), pp.21-34, 63-101, 174-195.

Williams, Claudette M., Charcoal and Cinnamon: The Politics of Color in Spanish Caribbean Literature (Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, 2000), 16-46; 95-138.

Recommended:
Miller, Marilyn Grace,  Rise and Fall of the Cosmic Race: The Cult of Mestizaje in Latin America (Austin: U. of Texas Press, 2004), ONLY pp. 1-22, 27-36, 40-52.


WEEKS 8 and 9:  October 19 and 26: Puerto Rico/ Puerto Ricans:    

Required:        
Santiago-Valles, Kelvin, “Subject People” and Colonial Discourses: Economic Transformation and Social Disorder in Puerto Rico, 1898-1947 (Albany: SUNY Press, 1994), pp. 19-48; 77-109.

Crespo, Elizabeth, “Domestic Work and Racial Divisions in Women’s Employment in Puerto Rico, 1899-1930,” Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996): 30-41.

Findlay, Aileen Suárez, Imposing Decency: The Politics of Sexuality and Race in Puerto Rico, 1870-1920 (Durham: Duke U. Press, 1999), ONLY pp. 110-210.        

Román, Reinaldo, “Scandalous Race: Garveyism, the Bomba, and the Discourse of Blackness in 1920s Puerto Rico,”  Caribbean Studies, vol.31, no.1 (January-June, 2003): 213-259.

Santiago-Valles, Kelvin, “‘Our Race Today [Is] the Only Hope for the World’: An African Spaniard as Chieftain of the Struggle Against ‘Sugar Slavery’ in Puerto Rico, 1926-1934,” Paper presented at the 37th Annual Conference of the Association of Caribbean Historians in Cartagena, Colombia, May 8-12, 2005. (Blackboard)

Jiménez-Muñoz, Gladys M. “ ‘The Daughter of the Caribbean’ versus ‘A Body at Risk’: ‘Race’ and Class Among Nacionalista Women in Inter-War Puerto Rico,” paper presented at the 37th Annual Conference of the Association of Caribbean Historians,  Cartagena, Colombia, May 9-13, 2005. (Blackboard)

Roy-Féquière, Magali, “Negar lo negro sería gazmoñería: Luis Palés Matos, Margot Arce, and the Black Poetry Debate,” Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996): 82-91.

Jiménez-Muñoz, Gladys, “Carmen María Colón Pellot: On ‘Womanhood’ and ‘Race’ in Puerto Rico during the Interwar Period,” The New Centennial Review, vol.3, no.3 (Fall, 2003): 71-92.

Recommended:
Briggs, Laura, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico (Berkeley: U. of California Press, 2002), ONLY pp. 74-108.

James, Winston, “Afro-Puerto Rican Radicalism in the United States: Reflections on the Political Trajectories of Arturo Schomburg and Jesús Colón,” Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996): 92-127.

Jiménez Román, Miriam, “Un hombre (negro) del pueblo: José Celso Barbosa and the Puerto Rican ‘Race’ Toward Whiteness,” Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996): 8-29.


WEEK 10: November 2: Cuba/ Cubans:

Required:
Helg, Aline, Our Rightful Share: The Afro-Cuban Struggle for Equality, 1886-1912 (Chapel Hill: U. of North Carolina Press, 1995), pp. 91-226.

De la Fuente, Alejandro, A Nation for All: Race, Inequality, and Politics in Twentieth-Century Cuba (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), ONLY pp. 23-210.

Kutzinski, Vera M., Sugar Secrets: Race and the Erotics of Cuban Nationalism (Charlottesville, VA: U. Press of Virginia, 1993), pp. 134-162.

Recommended:
Guridy, Frank, “From Solidarity to Cross-Fertilization: Afro-Cuban/ African American Interaction during the 1930s and 1940s,” Radical History Review, issue 87 (Fall, 2003): 19-48.

McLeod Marc, “‘Sin dejar de ser cubanos’: Cuban Blacks and the Challenges of Garveyism in Cuba,” Caribbean Studies, vol.31, no.1 (January-June, 2003): 75-106.

Smart, Ian Isidore, “Discovering Nicolás Guillén through Afrocentric literary analysis,” in Conrad James and John Perivolaris, eds., The Cultures of the Hispanic Caribbean (London: Macmillan/ Warwick University Caribbean Studies, 2000), pp. 104-114.


WEEK 11: November 9: Dominican Republic/ Dominicans:

equired:
Betances, Emelio, State and Society in the Dominican Republic (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), pp. 41-112.

Sagás Ernesto, Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic (Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, 2000), ONLY pp. 1-68.

Derby, Lauren, “Haitians, Magic, and Money: Raza and Society in the Dominican-Haitian Borderlands, 1900 to 1937,” Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol.36, no.3 (July, 1994): 488-526.

Torres-Saillant, Silvio, “The Tribulations of Blackness: Stages in Dominican Racial Identity,”  Latin American Perspectives, vol.25, no.3, issue #100 (May, 1998): ONLY 136-140..

Recommended:
Den Tandt, Catherine, “‘El [sic] Masacre se pasa a pie’: Haitian and Dominican border talk,” in Shalini Puri, ed., Marginal Migrations: The Circulation of Cultures within the Caribbean (Oxford: Macmillan, 2003), pp. 165-189.
        
Howard, David, Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001), ONLY pp. 120-132.

 
WEEK 12: November 16: Mid- to Late- 20th Century:

Puerto Rico/ Puerto Ricans:

Required:
Santiago-Valles, Kelvin and Gladys Jiménez-Muñoz, “Social Polarization and Colonized Labor: Puerto Ricans in the United States, 1945-2000,” in David Gutiérrez, ed., The Columbia History of Latinos in the United States Since 1960 (NY: Columbia U. Press, 2004), ONLY pp. 87-124.

Briggs, Laura, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and U.S. Imperialism in Puerto Rico (Berkeley: U. of California Press, 2002), ONLY, pp. 109-161. (Professor’s PDF)

Flores, Juan, “Pan-Latino/ Trans-Latino: Puerto Ricans in the ‘New Nueva York,’” Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996): 170-186.

Rodríguez-Morazzani, Roberto, “Beyond the Rainbow: Mapping the Discourse on Puerto Ricans and ‘Race,’” Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996): 128-149.

Santos, Mayra, “Puerto Rican Underground,” Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996): 218-231.

Recommended:
Santiago-Valles, Kelvin, “Policing the Crisis in the Whitest of All the Antilles,” Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996): 42-55.

Martínez, Samuel, “Identities at the Dominican and Puerto Rican international migrant crossroads,” in Shalini Puri, ed., Marginal Migrations: The Circulation of Cultures within the Caribbean (Oxford: Macmillan, 2003), pp. 141-164.

Rivera, Raquel, “Boricuas in the Hip Hop Zone: Notes on Race and Ethnic Relations in New York City,” Centro, vol.VIII, no.1-2 (1996): 202-217.


WEEK 13: November 30: Cuba/ Cubans:

Required:
De la Fuente, Alejandro, A Nation for All: Race, Inequality, and Politics in Twentieth-Century Cuba (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001), ONLY pp. 210-334.

Lamrani, Salim, “U.S. Economic Sanctions Against Cuba: Objectives of U.S. Imperialist Policy,” available on-line at: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Caribbean/USEconomicSanctions_Cuba.html

Franklin, Jane, “From Neocolony to State of Siege: The History of U.S. Policy Toward Cuba,” Resist Newsletter (August/ November, 2001), available on-line at: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Caribbean/Neocolony_StateSiege.html
    
Ripton, John, “Revolution vs. Globalization—Cuba,” New Internationalist Magazine (March, 2003), available on-line at: http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Caribbean/Revol_Global_Cuba.html
                    
Barradas, Efraín, “Nancy Morejón: Nation, negritude, and marginality,” in Conrad James and John Perivolaris, eds., The Cultures of the Hispanic Caribbean (London: Macmillan/ Warwick University Caribbean Studies, 2000), pp.115-126.

Bengelsdorf, Carolle, “[Re]Considering Cuban Women in a Time of Troubles,” in Consuelo López Springfield, ed., Daughters of Caliban: Caribbean Women in the Twentieth Century (Bloomington, IN: Indiana U. Press, 1997), pp.229-255.

Recommended:
Boorstein, Edward, “Sugar Policy and the Long-run Orientation of the Economy,” in Boorstein, The Economic Transformation of Cuba (Monthly Review Press, 1968), pp. 181-225.

Hagelberg, G.B., “Cuba’s Sugar Policy,” in Martin Weinstein, ed., Revolutionary Cuba in the World Arena (Philadelphia: Institute for the Study of Human Issues, 1979), pp. 31-50.


WEEK 14: December 7: Dominican Republic/ Dominicans:

Required:
Betances, Emelio, State and Society in the Dominican Republic (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995), pp. 113-140.

Sagás Ernesto, Race and Politics in the Dominican Republic (Gainesville, FL: U. Press of Florida, 2000), ONLY pp. 69-128.

Howard, David, Coloring the Nation: Race and Ethnicity in the Dominican Republic (Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001), ONLY pp. [U.S. migration] 95-119, [literary representations] 132-152.

Hernández-Angueira, Luisa, “Across the Mona Strait: Dominican Boat Women in Puerto Rico,” in Consuelo López Springfield, ed., Daughters of Caliban: Caribbean Women in the Twentieth Century (Bloomington, IN: Indiana U. Press, 1997), pp. 68-95. (Prof’s PDF)

Recommended:
Torres-Saillant, Silvio, “The Tribulations of Blackness: Stages in Dominican Racial Identity,”  Latin American Perspectives, vol.25, no.3, issue #100 (May, 1998): ONLY 140-144.

Itzigshoh, José and Carlos Dore-Cabral, “The Manifold Character of Panethnicity: Latino Identities and Practices among Dominicans in New York City,” in Agustín Laó-Montes and Arlene Dávila, eds., Mambo Montage (NYC: Columbia U. Press, 2001), pp.319-336. (Prof’s PDF)

Duany, Jorge, “Reconstructing Racial Identity: Ethnicity, Color, and Class among Dominicans in the United States and Puerto Rico,” Latin American Perspectives, vol.25, no.3, issue #100 (May, 1998): 147-172.


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